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Aactictti Art, Remariu on, by H. GmxnrovoH 
— ^— Ardutectore, by do. 


AMtbCT LMt Word about Tylerisffl 
AttroBoiiier, Tbe, and the Star, by Mrs. Lesue 
Baltimore Conyention, The .... 

Betnycdy The, by 6. H. Colton, Author of ''Teeamseh" 
BWimeon's Recent Articles in Democratic ReTiew, Reply to 
CnidiQaCy the Jeweller, from the German, by Mrs. Ellet 
Gtiitkm to LoTers, by W. £. CBAMimro • 
CfaiBse for Biekens's American Notes 
Gkaaaing's Poems .... 
GoMlitatioBal Reform 

Bie Gednaken Siad Frey— a Leaf ftom a TraTelkr's 
Dying Sycamores, The, by Miss Anke C. Ltnca 
aVadiigo .... 

Bigiish Pariiamentary Bribery 

Steiaer, a Tale, by Mrs. J. L. Swift 

r,The . • • • 

Fatherland, The, by J. R. Lowell 
FIre-Wonhip, by N. HAWTBomirB . 
and the Last, The 
Forts • • 

I's Chronicles 
GIsace behind the Cartain, A, by J. R. Lowell 
Gnade Bretftehe, La, a Tale 
Hampton Beach, by J. O. Wbimsn 

a Story of Proceedings in Bankruptey 

Iicil,The .... 

Indian Sammer, The, by Hsnet T. Tvckxucam 

Icudi Repeal Question 

Issaett Stake, The 

JaeCaestAlea .... 

King of Men, The .... 

Lady Hester Slanhope 

Landkud, The, by Henet D. Tkoeeau 

Last Days of Simon Konarski, from the Polish 












484 % 




107, 219, 


Lanrette ; or, the Red Seal 


Lines on the Death of an Infant 

Literary Physicians, hy W. A. Jones 

Loose Leaves of a Literary Lounger, No. 2, About Beautifnl Books 

Lade of Edenhall, The, from the German of Uhland 

Man, The, that killed a Spirit, an Irish I^egend 

Mathews's Poems on Man . . • • 

Medical Philosophy of TraTelling, The 

Mental Hygiene ..... 

Monthly Financial and Commercial Articles, . 101, 2J3, 335, 436, 

Literary BnUetin . . . 111,223,324,446, 

Mr. Brownson's Recent Articles in Democratic Review 

Napoleon, a Sonnet 

New Books of the Month .... 

New England Supernataralism, hy J. G. WHimsa 

Wife and the Old, by J. G. Whittier 

York HistoriciU Society 

Ode, by Miss Anne C. Lynch 

Orohestra, The, by C. P. Ceanch 

Origin and Source of Government, by 0. A. Brownbon 

Original Anecdotes of Washington 

Paradise (to be) Regained .... 

Passages from a Politician's Note Book 

Pennings and Pencillings in and aboat Town, No. 1 

^No. 2 

— ^i No. 3 

Poetry for the People 

Present State of Society, by 0. A. Brownson 
Prometheus, by J. R. Lowell 
Roger Malvin's Burial, by N. Hawthorne 
Ruin, The, by the Author of ** Atalantis " . 
Sandwich Islands, The 
Shelley's, Percy Bysche, Writings . 
Sonnets, by Henrt T. Tuckerman 
— — The Mountains . 
by R. H. Bacon . 
SUazas for Music .... 

inscribed to W. C, Bryant 

Tales of the Prairie, by L. Lesi^ie . 
The Two Widows, by N. Hawthorne 

■ Fausts .... 
Thoughts in a Library, by Miss Anne C. Lynch 
■ at Sunset, by L. Leslie . 

Twilight Musings, by H. T. Tuckerkan . 
Victor Hugo's Orientales 
Warning, The, by Rh. S. S. Anpros 
Washington Allston 
Widower, The .... 















330, 441 

389, 515 










128, 352 







Toi. Xm. JULY, 1843. No. LXI. 


In tbe ^17 heart of the Pacific, nearly Japan, China, and the Philippine Isl- 
eqnidtftant from the Old and the New ands. They are designated, l^ the 
Wrrld, lies a group of islands, unsur- natives, the Hawaii-nei ; a term syno- 
pissed for salubrity of climate, and nymous with Hawaiian Islands. 
eqittUed br few in fertility of soil. Of this group, we have now for the 
Uaitiog in their bosom the health-giving first tinfe an authentic history. The 
kreexes of a temperate clime, with the author of the volmne referred to at the 
gorgeous splendors of tropical verdure, foot <^ this page, is already fiiToniyiy 
Nature seems to have marked and kna^m to us as the late editor and 
isolated them for the purpose of working publisher of the Polynesian, a weekly 
oat there some great end, some won- journal of character and respectability, 
droQs experiment, requiring a peculiar and an authority upon the conunercei 
sphere, and combining antagonistic religion, and general history of the 
elements; in short, a fitting battle- Pacific! From a i«sidence at the 
gxmmd for barbarism and civilisation. Sandwich Islands during some of the 
Any one who has paid attention to the most eventful periods of their history, 
history of the Pacific Ocean, for the and from the independent position oc- 
last fifty years, will readily understfftd cupied by him there between the parties 
that we mean the Sandwich IsliJids ; a by whose intrigues and rivalries they 
group of volcanic formation, extending have been for many years agitated, Mr, 
irom 18^ 5<K to d^^ 20' N. latitude, Jarves is unquestionably entitled tp 
mi from 154^53' to 160^ 15' longitude reroect for his statements of opinion, 
west irom Greenwich, 'Embracing an and to confidence for his statements of 
area of 6100 square miles, nearly equi- facts positively within his own know- 
distent from Central America, Mexico, ledge. Unconnected with the govern- 
California, and the North- West Coast, ment or with the American Missiona- 
snd also from the Russian dominions, ries,he is as reliable a witness and histo- 

*Hiitory of the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands ; embracing tbev Antiquities, My- 

^^f><>iogy, Legends^ Discovery by Europeans in the Sixteenth Centaryy Re-discoveiy 

tj CM, with their Civil, Religious, and Political History, from the earliest Tradi- 

tkmMTj Period to the Present Time. By James Jackson Jarves, JBllember of the 

Aatfrif^^ OrieBtnl Society. Boston: Tappan & Dennett. 1843. 1 vol. 8vo. 

jm, 407* 

fTbe PoIyneslAfly Vols. I. and H. Honolulu. 1840-*41. 

4 The Sandwich Islands. [Juljy 

rian, as, in a dispute between American Kahoolawe, are still designated as *' the 

Protestantism on the one side, and, on foreign roads/' 

the other, French Catholicism, in partial The profession of the bards, though 

aUiance withEnglish anti- Americanism, highly honorable, does not seem to have 

we could under any circumstances added much to the store of knowledge, 

expect to find in a zealous American and was rather confined to the excite- 

and Tehement Protestant. If by an ment of religious enthusiasm, by wild 

expression thus guarded, we imply and imaginative songs and odes. Their 

some want of entire reliance on the historical labors w^ere limited to lyrical 

impartial fidelity of the whole of our narrations of miraculous interpositions, 

author's narrative, we neither make to the battles of shadowy though blood- 

nor mean any other insinuation than he thirsty heroes, and to stirring relations 

is a man. For though personally our- of more than uncertain events. Their 

selves both American and Protestant, men become gods, and their gods as 

we cannot claim for even the combin^fe- suddenly relapse into men, each seem- 

tion of those two attributes, that un- likg^rplexed, 
prejudiced, unerring infallibility, which 

both Mr. Jarves, the American Mis- ^Mncert^^amnum, faceretne Prlapum." 
sionaries, and ourselves,would doubtless 

unite in denying to that Pope, whose re- There is littl^oubt — ^indeed, none — 
presentatives are alleged by him to have that the group weN visited by Europe- 
brought so much trouble and confusion, ans, probably by the S)^niards, previou»- 
religiousand political, into the before ly to the voyage of Capfeixi Cook. That 
peaceful order and uniformity of doc- great navigator found the ^lue of iron, 
trine prevailing in the Islands, of which there existed no native speci- 
Who were the ancient Hawaiians, mens, well known. On the jetum of 
the date of the first settlement of the tlie first visitors sent to examine Cook's 
group, the succession of kings, and the ships, the report of the great quantity 
increase of civilisation up to the time of iron seen on board the ships excit^^d 
when they first became known to Eu- the cupidity of the chiefii, and one of 
TOpeans — are questions to which we the warriors volunteered to seize it, 
look in vain for solution to the records saying, " I will go and take it, aa it u 
or traditions of the Hawaiian Islands, my business to plunder." He went. 
For an imaginative people, their tradi- and in the attempt was fired upon and 
tions are singularly barren and uninte- killed. Some fragments of iron hoop 
resting. It is, however, worthy of at- and of a sword-blade, in possession of 
tention, that, like most savage nations, the chiefs, were said to have been left 
they possena an account of a flood, said there by white men. Various traditions 
to have taken place at a remote period, remain of the visits of parties of white 
in which some of the inhabitants were men, either in vessels stopping at the 
saved by taking refuge in a canoMvliich Islands, or thrown on them by ship- 
rested on the summit of Mauna-Kezs wreck. These were doubtless some 
the highest mountain in the Islands. «f the earlier Spanish navigators of the 
Their origin, too, is accounted for by Pac^c. As Mr. Jarves remarks, the 
the statement of an emigration from singulatW " graceful form of the hel- 
Tahiti, rendered probable by various mets, and th« elegance of the feathered 
points of evidence, on which we need mantles, so unlike the usual rude arts 
not dwell. So vague and dim, how- of the islanders, bearing as they did a 
ever, had become even the memory of striking resemblance in form to those 
this tradition, that though the name formerly worn among the Spaniards,** 
Tahiti is still preserved in the Hawaiian together with other similar evidences 
langaage, it was applied to any foreign of a better taste and knowledge, proba- 
country, and to this day its actual sig- bly derived their origin from visitors of 
nifieation answers to the English term that nation. A number of Hawaiian 
" abroad." A communication once ex- words also exhibit a strong analogy 
isted with the other various Polynesian with the Spanish. One white indivU 
gioups, by means ofmuch larger vessels dual who thus landed alone on one of 
than the canoes, alone in existence the islands — either the sole survivor 
when first visited by Captain Cook; jfrom a shipwreck, or perhaps some 
and certain points of departure, as the zealous priest landing from a pasainff 
flOttthem extremities -of Hawaii and ship, in a solitary sublimity of 8e£ 

1843.] ne Saniuneh Islands. 6 

deTOtkm, as a miamonary — is thus re- nature, was the nearest approach to it. 
membered in tradition bj the name of Snperstitionthe most blind and besotted, 
Paao, as baring brouffht with him a kept in continual and fearful operation 
large and a small idcu, which by his by a wicked priesthood, knew no bounds 
persuasions were enrolled in the Ha- to its credality. A multitude of cruel, 
waiitn calendar of gods, and as having Uood-loving, and licentious gods, and 
become a powerfiil and influential man ; the univerMil terrors of witchcraft, en- 
that he was a humane one, too, would forced and retained a horrible power in 
appear from the tradition of his having the human sacrifices and obscene rites 
induced the king to spare the life of which they enjoined. Home had no 
one of his sons who had been ordered pleasant associations, and the natural 
to execution. The last of these visits love of kin had no existence. Cruelty 
can be referred to a period nearly a to the aged and infirm, and the more 
century and a half prior to Cook*s arri- unnatural crime of in&nticide, were so 
val (m 1778) ; a tmie quite sufficient, common as to pass unnoticed as the 
when coupled with their many bloody change of the seasons. Such friend- 
wars and changes, to have dimmed the ship and hospitality as are practicable 
recollection of events, and thrown a without kindness, were not wanting, 
veil over the whole. ** Enough has The social virtues, which flow from the 
been preserved,'* says our author, relations of the sexes, found their only 

acceptation in a frightful licentiousness 
^ to citabli^ the fact that centuries since, and a promiscuous concubinage. Wo- 
venets visited these islands, and that man had no influence, as she was more 
several parties landed on them, and left degraded than her master. Thievish- 
progeny, whose descendanto are distin- ness and drunkenness pervaded all 
gaished even to this day, by their lights ^^^^^ xhe arbitrary tahuy issued by 
Am, and brown or red curly hair> caUed j^g^ ^r chief, threw a fatal chain over 
Asj^and who highly esteem their origin. {^^ ; , ^^ ^ ^ 
Kaikoewa, a celebrated warrior and late *^j *^ i j ^ r-^*-j 
foremor of Kauai, traced his ancestry to ?Pp?u'*'*'{L """"^ 'trV.\^T''c^ 
one of these strangers. A party of white ^^^ ^^""T ^^^ the fit tools of their 
men, called Hta, are said to have roamed masters, who ruled with an unsparing 
wild in the mountains, occasionally mak- "^^- Their wars were cruel, and 
ine inroads upon the more fertile districts, cannibalism was not the most revolting 
araeh to the terror of the inhabitants, feature. In short, a brutal fear was 
particularly the females." the holiest sentiment of their religion, 

and an abuse of all the bountiful gifts 

But this fact is, after all, of na great of the Creator afforded the only proof 

importance, nor does it detract one leaf of their existence as free agents. 

frcRtt the hard-earned laurels of Captain It is needless to recapitulate the 

Cook. If others made the discovery, events of Cook^s visit to the Hawaiian 

and chose for s^fish purposes to conceal Islands. They are familiar to all 

their knowledge, it is obvious that the of us from childhood. His tragical 

real merit and honor will accrue to him fate furnished the natural termi* 

who first disclosed his information to nation of the interesting tide. Mr. 

the world. Captain Cook, if not the Jarves gives a spirited description of 

first at the islands, is nevertheless the that unfortunate mariner's death, from 

first who made known their existence which we should be pleased to quote, 

to civilized nations, and as such, must did our limits permit. He attributes 

be aeeonnted their discoverer. that untoward event to want of jud^- 

The situation of the Hawaiian Isl- ment, — added to a line of conduct, m 

aads, in 1778, at the time of the arrival relation to the savages by whom he 

of this celebrated navigator, must be was received as a lon^ expected di- 

ualerstood before we can comprehend vinity, but little creditable to him, 

the almost miraculous changes which either as a man of humanity, or of 

have taken }^ace from their intercourse good faith and just dealing. As Cook 

with the more civilized white man, was treated as a God by the natives. 

Imagination can hardly present a more and hesitated not to take advantage of 

degiaded picture of imbruted heathen- their superstition for his own selfish 

ism than was there exhibited. Virtue, ends, when they discovered their mis- 

as soch, was not known ; indolence, take, revenge, the first impulse of a 

whiefa was supposed to be akin to good savage, as weU for many other wrongs 

6 The Sandufieh Island$. [Jidj, 

u for this deception, sought its natural imaginatiTe language of the Hawaiians, 

aatisfaction, on an occasion on which it " the lonely one,'^ although not bom to 

was stimulated by a particular prove- the sovereignty of the group, eventually 

cation of the most exasperating char- made himself, by his own superiority of 

acter. character and tesoaroes, from the niler 

The incorrect accounts of the cause of one island, the king oS the whole, 
of Cook's death restricted the inter- This master-mind at once comprehend- 
course of the natives of the islands ed the deffradation of his race, and he 
with foreigners for some years. But put from him, by one effort, the whole 
in 1786, trade was opened by the ves- incubus of drunkenness, licentiousness, 
sels, King George and Queen Char- cruelty and avarice, which had become 
lotte, which has continued to increase the nature of the island chieftains^ He 
steadily up to the present time. Oc^ felt his own superiority to those around 
casional outrages, for which foreign^ers him, and made himself the first in power 
were too often themselves to blame, as he was the first in acuteness, fore- 
were sufficient to keep up for many sight and general intelligence. What 
years the reputation of the Hawaiians management failed to accomplish was 
for cruelty and treachery. obtained by force, until he had rendered 

The arrival of Vancouver in 1793 himself the undisputed master. Brave 

and the subsequent publication of his to rashness, and conquering his ene- 

narrative, had the effect of producing a mies as much by policy as by strength, 

more just opinion of the character and he first gained victories which were not 

capabilities of the Hawaiians. His sullied by indiscriminate slaughter and 

treatment of the natives and of King outrage. The chiefs subdued by his 

Kamehameha, was benevolent, honest, arms were won over to the strongest 

and impartial, though firm and polite, adherence by his combined mercy and 

and it enaUed him to prove that de- skilful policy, and the magnanimous use 

graded as were the people, in their state which he made of his victories. This 

of heathen brutality, they were yet sua- extraordinary character, although he 

ceptible of more moral and religious im- had heard of Christianity, died (18 19) in 

frovement than Cook had represented, the faith of his ancestors. His active 
ndeed, his whole deportment at the mind impelled him to make the inquiry 
islands, afforded a most marked and for- of such Europeans as were attached to 
citde contrast to that of the last-named his pers(m, what was the nature and 
navigator, whose errors Yanoouver, as a importance of the new religion; but 
junior officer with him, had personally unfortunately, not one of them posaess- 
^^bserved and deemed necessary to ed suffieiem knowledge or belief in the 
avoid. The visit produced a most truth of Christianity^ to satisfy his 
agreeable effiect upon the islanders, who yearnings for a more spiritual and 
fijnt learned, from his example, the rational faith. We regret that the re- 
power of morality and religion, and the striction of our limiu forbid our dwell- 
true policy of justice. ing more at length on the character and 
It was unfortunate for their civilisa- history of tlds great and good old 
tion that the death of this estimable savage, who, on his scale and in his 
man prevented the fulfilment of his sphere, was undoubtedly one of the 
promise to return to the Islands. No most r^narkable men the age has pro- 
one had as yet exercised upon them an duced. 

influence so thoroughly beneficial, and He was succeeded by his son, Liho- 

no one of the numerous foreigners who liho, or, as he styled himself, Kameha- 

visited the Islands before 1810, is re- meha II., whose qualities were insnffi- 

membered with so much affection and cient to retain the influence possessed 

gratitude. Intercourse with foreigners by his father. Surrounded by base and 

had alone taught them their wants and designing whites, their wicked counsels 

their inferiority to civilized nations ; kept down for a season the progress of 

and among the more intelligent of the civilisation, and at one time Uireatened 

natives who first endeavored to possess a permanent return to heathenism, 

thems^ves of the various qualities Eventually his better nature and better 

which were recognised as necessary to counsels prevailed, and the missionaries 

put them on a par with the straiifers, (who came to the island shortly after his 

was Kamehameha I., the king of the accession), were enabled to continue 

Islands. This great savage, in the their benevolent labors. The aubse- 

aS41] The Stmdwkh Xtkmds. 7 

tqitent history of this king and his con- taught him at least the folly of Pagan- 

.soit, Kamamala, iheix voyage to Eng- ism. Although some of those whites 

land, and the fatal termination of their who were about his train were outcasts 

itour in the death of both of them in from other lands, were not only debased 

1824, are familiar to the public, and it and licentious, but eren endeavored tol 

is onnecessazy to record the closing impede rather than to aid any improve- 

scenes of the reign here. His brother, ment in the character and habits of the 

.the fresent king of the islands, Kani- king, which would have rebuked their 

keaaiili,orKamefaBBiefaa III., succeeded own more criminal viciousness, and 

him. The policy of this ruler has en- withdrawn him from their infiuence, 

eounged intereourae with civilised na> they could not entirely suppress the 

rCkms, has protected the Mission, and evidence of their superiority to the 

bids fair to place his eqmitry in some natives, as exhibited in the greater 

jespecis on a level which many Euro- amount of knowledge which they pos- 

pean nations misht in vain attempt to sessed. Commerce, even with an in- 

tattain. By his direction, a constitution ferior class of whites, had smoothed the 

has been framed and a code of laws, path for the Mission, and the Hawaiians 

suited to the nature of the islands, had already a suspicion that there ex- 

€staUished. Order and decorum now isted better civilized people than resided 

prevail among a people accustomed to among them. It is a fact not generally 

every scene of outrage and violence, known or believed in the religious 

Commerce has received an impulse world, that the success of missions has 

hosa his fostering hand, and the native always been in direct proportion to the 

resoorees of the islands have been made contemporaneous intercourse with white 

productive. Security of life and pro* men engaged in trade. The testimony 

peity have attracted a more intelligent of the whole Pacific proves this to be 

eiass oi foreigners, and the prosperity true. The intercourse of the Society 

of the islands, if secured from external and Sandwich groups with the whites, 

interference, wiU continue steadily to and the traffic carried on previous to 

advance as their great advantages and since the establishment of missions 

become more fully recognized. Of their in these groups, has elevated them 

political importance we shall speak above the Samoa and Friendly isles, 

more fully, as it is a subject compara- where communication with other whites 

tively misunderstood in the United than missionaries is limited, and where 

States. those bene v olent individuals themselves 

Thearrivaloftbe American Mission- admit, that though the appearance of 

• aries shortly after the accession of the people is flattering to their efforts, 

iJhoKho or iCamehameha II., has been the result is still douUful. 

already alluded to. They hnded on The few Methodists who were settled 

the 3d of March, 18S0 — an event the upon the Fejees, have hitherto entirely 

iBost important, in the consequences of fitiled of success, as the barbarous 

which it was to be the seed, that has character of the natives has driven 

_yet oeenrred in the history of the Ha- foreign commerce to less treacherous 

waiian azchi|)dago. The increased shores. The Kingsmill group, though 

intereonrse with foreigners, and the im- little known, is yet unprepared for 

.poBity with which they had broken missionary enterprise ; while Ascension 

through the Mu, in defiance of a sup- and Rotuma are predisposed by foreign 

posed offended divinity, had already residents for proper religious impres- 

shaken the faith of the more intelligent, sions. It may be gratifying to sectarian 

in the truth of the system in wliich zeal to magnify the results attained by 

they had been educated. Before the missionary labors, and attribute to their 

^smvai o£ the Missionaries, the king efforts results little short of miraculous ; 

lihohho had given the death-blow to truly, the main bulk of the worthy men 

the old superstition, by the destruction composing the glorious little army of 

'Of the idols and by his open neglect of Christian missionaries, have labored 

the cei^monies which it enjoined, for their holy cause with a devotion 

His observation had shown him the unsurpassed in the annals of religious 

miperiority of tbe whites on the islands and moral enterprise ; but it is no 

orer tbeii native population ; and if the reflection on their motives, and no de- 

ejomple and induenee of the Europeans traction from the value of their zeaJ, to 

MaStlead bim to Christianity, they tell the whcde truth in an examination 

8 The Sandwich Islands. [Jttl]r». 

of the cauaea which are making the efforts of civilized individoalfl, the diabo* 

ifdea of the Pacific cast away their lical attempts of others to undermine their 

idols, and turn to the worship of the successful labors. But the fnU value of 

true God ^^ ^^^ cannot be accurately appreciated 

t The tiiie has now passed when the ^i^^^^^J * knoxvledge of the depravity of 

W of derision canLp^^^^^^^ -^ion"«-^^^^^^^^^ 

Sandwich Islands, as a signal instance Christianity began to have a perceptible 

of the failure of missions. The narm- influence upon the acu of the irovemment 

tives of missionary perseverance, self- ^^ j^c character of the nation, in like 

denial, and final success, are no longer manner did the opposition of evilJoving 

held to be exaggerated or too highly individuals increase. Such persons, it is 

colored. To the shame of civilized to be hoped, were few; but no artifice 

man be the melancholy fact told, that was too low for them to commit, or false- 

the principal obstacles to the success hood too gross to be circulated. In most 

of the Mission in the islands, until very cases, the vileness of the one, and the 

recently, have been found among the shallowness of the other, defeated theic 

foreign residents, who have opposed own intentions. As the narrative pro- 

the increase of inteUigence and morali- cw^s* the nature and design of the enmity 

ty, because thereby their gains were ^o the spread of Christianity vvJl be 

Wned. They could no longer de- »»»«^ .^"J?!'*'"^. w a few worthless 

ceive the native in the value of the IZ^?^^!^' riHTof ^^^^^^^ 

, ,. 1*1 ^1 /r> jri.* spread to persons, 11 not oi oetter pnnci- 

merchandise which they offered for his pies, of mi« knowledge; and the falsiUes 

purchase. To their misrepresentotions ^ auigently uttered by the former, found 

and falsehoods may be traced most of their way into journals and reviews, whos*- 

the erroneous impressions received by editors would have shrunk from contact 

various intelligent shipmasters, which with their authors, as fnMu plagne-spoU^ 

were circulated so extensively at had they but known them. In no place 

home, to the discredit of the Mission, has the triumph of the cross been more 

We wish that the list of ill-doers only signal than at the Hawaiian islands; in 

comprised private citizens, and we none other has enmity been more bitterly 

blush to record the fact that the efforts manifested. Instead of adducing argu- 

of the government of the Islands to meats against supposed faults of the sys- 

suppress vice and preserve decorum J«°»> ^^ affording any Ungible ground to 

have been violenUy set at naught by an ^ *« »^^^^' .^.^J characters of its advo- 

/c r ^ XT„ . . w^ ir«.w» cates were assailed by the grossest calum- 

officer of our own Navy. We hope . „. ^„j ^^ f,.^^ ^^ r«loIutioD8 of ite 

never to be compeUed to record a senes eoavert., by the most artftl derigns," &c. 
of outrages 80 disgraceful as were con- 
sequent, in January, 1826, upon the If t^^ jg,^jg, ^ „„ b^tt^j fyi^^i 

arrival of Uie U S. schooner Dolphin, ^^^^„ ^^^ American missionary, in too 
commanded by Lieut. John Perciva^ ,^, ,^ ^ „„ wome enemy 

whose personal interference obliged j,,^' ^^^ American resident It & 

the chiefs to suspend the laws made to ^ffi„ie„t fo, „, j^ ^n^dg ^^ t^c fact 

lestram the licenUousness formerly „f ^^ ^^ importance of religious 

practised by the ciews of the foreign ^^^^ j„ the griimd civiUeation of the 

shippmK at the Islands. The parUcu- j^^jg ^he subject is one of the 

lars of this sluimeful afl&u: may be found „^ j , intererting which has yet 

on p«e 264 of Mr. Jarves's work. ^^ „gj,^ f„ ^^^^ Consideration of 

Happily the interference of American i,„n^ity. n }, i„ ^ur power to view 

Mval comnmnden has been since ^^ ^ Jj^ ^f^ y^^J^^ Paganism 

ftwwn on the side of morahty and ^^ Christianity upon a narrow field; 

*'*^". . , .. , ■ and, to our great joy, it has been de- 

This 18 not the place, nor have we ^^^ triumphantly for the cause of 

Imirts, to relate the various misrepre- civilisation md the Cross. Nowhere 

scntouons, the open and secret opposi- ^ ^^ ^^^j^ ^^^0 of heathenism and 

tion, the cnnmngly-devised temptaUona, ^^^^^^ ^^^ demolished so effectually 

and the flagrant unmorality for which ^ ^^^ ^^ ^ „f ^^^^ jj^ 

foreigners M«d fome of our own ciUzens ^^^^ ^^, ^^ ^^^ Plural pori- 

are accountable. The foUowing are ^j^ ^„j j^^j^g g^„^j ^^^ madeSem 

Mr. Carves s remarks : ^ f^j^^jg ^f ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ wantonly- 

" It is an nngratefal task to be obliged and wickedly interfered to oppose the 

to reeoid, side by side with the benevolent progress of Giaistianity, and nowhere 

1843.] The Sandwich Isimids. f 

fanre their malignant efforts been ao of the hostflity and alarm of them aH. 
nghteously fhietraled. We bare no doubt that Mr. Janres 
In addition to these aourcea of trou- means to be true and just, and hon- 
ble, and hindrance to the improyement estly belieTes himself as disinterested 
of the Islands, has been another, within and as free from bias as he thus pro- 1 
the ranks of those who ooght rather to, fesses to be. But alas for that worst 
hare been united in a fraternal har« form of prejudice which is always 
mony, in the sacred mission to which loudest in asserting its own impartiality 
both were devoted, than thus arrayed *— V^s, and sineerest in believing it ! 
in an attitude of mutual hostility, and a The leading outlines of the case are 
spirit of embittered sectarian animosity, simply these, so far as we have been 
We allude to the Catholic controversy, able to derive any jnst conclusions from 
On this question we had at first looked the perusal of the conflicting state- 
to Mr. Jarres^s book with a hope to ments of the antagonist parties. The 
Imd an impartial statement of its merits, Protestant Missionaries sent out by the 
in that ^irit of candor and Just liber- American Board of Commissioners for 
ality befitting the responsibility as- Foreign Missions, got the first posses- 
sumed by him as its historian. In this sion of the ground, having arrived at 
expectation we have to confess our- the Islands in May, 18S0, at the corn- 
selves somewhat disappointed. No one, mencement of the reign of Kame- 
an entire stranger to the whole subject, hameha II. They at first obtained 
can go through his narrative of it, permission to remain for a single year, 
without experiencing, as it seems to us, within which time they so far suc- 
a strong reaction of distrust against ceeded in gaining the &vor of the 
the truth of a history so manifestly one- king and the chiefs, by their excellence 
sided,— of a pictnre so exclusively com- of character and life, and by the pro- 
posed of daasaling lights on the one side gress which they made in the propaga- 
and the darkest of shades on the other, tion of the divine truths they came to 
None bat a mind as deeply imbued teach, that their root was already struck 
as is evidently that of the author, with too deep into the soil of this new and 
that spirit of violent anti-Catholic feel- interesting field of missionary labor, to 
ing — (nay, bigotry is scarce too strong be ever again overthrown. Theyspeed- 
a term)--«o prevalent amongst most of ily acquired a controlling ascendency 
the sects of Protestantism, can fiiil, as of influence in the counsels of the 
it seems to us, to feel the force of his government, of which they did not 
testimony as a witness to be greatly §ul to make the use befitting their 
impaired b^ the undisguised strength of character as ministers of the Gospel, 
his prejudice against the one of the and in harmony w^ith the great objects- 
parties, and the one of the sides to the of their presence there. The Mission 
controvennr. Mr. Jarves puts forward became the principle of a new order— ^ 
in his Premce a special claim to confix the animating force of a new and strong 
dence, on the score of disinterested- movement. It took possession of the 
ness in the premises, because, forsooth, nascent civilisation just beginning to 
he did not happen to belong to '^ the appear, under the influence of various 
same sect *' as the missionary body in causes antecedent to its arrival as well 
the Islands, — as if it would make much as connected with its immediate labors ; 
diSerence in the degree of justice which and while it exerted itself with a sue- 
the Catholies would be likely to re- cessful zeal to stimulate its develop- 
ceive at his hands, in relation to a con- ment, it strove to impress upon it a 
troversy vehemently sectarian and strong and pervading religious charac- 
partly national, whether he found his ter. Properly to understand the part 
place within one particular shade or it played, it should be borne in mind 
aaotber, of the various denominations that the religion and government of the 
of I^otestantism. Whatever com- Islands have always been closely uni- 
paiatively trifling variations of doc- ted ; nor in the change in both of them 
triot or discipline may erect their — ^the one from the gross brutality of 
eaottdeaa imagiiutry barriers of sep- heathenism before prevalent to Chris- 
tuiuoa in the midst of them, yet, in tianity, and the other from the savage- 
geaenlf these dififerences amongst despotism of the petty kings and chiefs 
liiemseives ^tb bot an emulation of to a form of government not far re- 
msDOKtJ agai"**^ ^^ common object moved now from one of constitutional 

10 The Sandwich Islands, [July, 

fipeedom)— oonld it be otlierwiae than the pefvading spirit of their sect and 

that the same union should continue, body, it is yet abundantly erident that 

Christianized by the influence of the they have fulfilled the duties of their 

Mission, the leading members of the Tocation well and worthily, as faithful 

I gOTemment naturally sought to apply servants of their Master and friends of 

to practice, and to enforce with the their fellow-men; and their labors 

usual zeal of recent conversion, the have certainly been the means, under 

ideas of religious and moral duty which God, of producing fruits of moral and 

they derived both from the doctrines social regeneration, on a larger scale, 

they thus learned, and from the lives of and of a m<Mre signal excellence and 

their good and pious teachers. Hence value, than seem ever to have reward* 

doubtless many severe regulations for ed a similar enterprise and devotion, in 

the observance of the Sabbath, the any case of missionary history within 

suppression of intemperance and licen- our remembrance, 

tiousness, &c., against which the habits It "was not likely that the Roman 

of moral laxity of many of the foreign Catholic Church should witness the 

residents, and most of the seafaring rapid progress thus making by a Pro- 

classes of men who frequented the testant Mission in gaining possession of 

islands, would naturally dispose them such a ground, without at least an 

to rebel, with an angry and resentful efibrtto dispute so desirable a conquest, 

feeling against those to whose influence by a fair rivalry and competition of 

they very justly attributed them. missionary enterprise. Accordingly 

To the reports in various ways two priests made their appearance at 

spread abroad through the agency of the Islands, on the 7th of July, 1827, 

these influences, may be ascribed the from the college of Picpus in France, 

general prevalence of the belief in the the one M. Bachelot, a Frenchman, 

puritanical and priest-ridden character and the other Mr. Short, a British 

of the native government, under the citizen by birth. This event had its 

controlling though subtle sway of an immediateorigininan ajmlicationinade 

ambitious missionary priesthood, repro* to the College by a Mr. Rives, a 

ducing here on a small scale all the Frenchman, of whose chaiacter no 

symptoms that have everywhere at* very creditable account is given by Mr. 

tended the domination of siinilar classes Jarves, who accompanied Liholilio on 

of men in the political affairs of gov- his visit to England, and from thence 

emments. That the American Mis* proceeded to France. This applica- 

nion did possess the power thus ascribed tion was stated to be at the request of 

to its members, is indisputable ; in the Boki, a chief of rank in attendance on 

very nature of things it was insepara* Liholiho. The regency of the king* 

ble from their position, and their rela* dom remained in Uie hands of the old 

tion to the government and people of queen Kaahumanu, widow of the first 

whose growing civilisation tney were king, Kamehameha I., and an able and 

the nucleus. It is not impossible, too, distinguished chief named Kalaimoku, 

that they may have on some occasi<ms with whom it had been left by Lihc^iho 

made a use of it, more consistent with (Kamehameha II.) on his departure 

their own peculiarly strict notions of for England. Kalaimoku, in the figu* 

religious duty, than judicious or con* rative language of the people termed 

oiliatory;-— for we find even Mr. Jarves, the ** iron cable ^' of Hawaii, died on 

their warm friend and indiscriminate the 2d of March, 1627 ; the old queen, 

eulogist, admitting respecting Mr. a woman of great energy and impe* 

Bingham, (who appears to have been riousness of character, remaining sole 

the most active and influential individ- regent. Boki, who was a bretlMBr of 

ual of the Mission), that ^ it must be Kalaimoku, was vested with the guar- 

acknowledged he possessed a tenacity dianship of the young king. It a]q)ear8 

of opinion, and a sectarian zeal, which that the priests never obtained formal 

at times separated him in some degree permission to establish themselves per- 

from his friends, and marred his use- manently on the islands ; though they 

fulness." But with all allowance for were favored by Boki, and allowed to 

this, and for that peculiar severity of erect a house and a chapel. It was 

conscientious hostility to everything not likely that they could long remain 

tinged with a character of Roman Ca- at peace with the American Mission, or ^ 

thdicism, which is less individual than with the native government which was ' 

1843. J The Sandwich Idmids. 11 

80 entirely under their indirect control, nsages of the Roman Catholic Church 
It would aecm that there was a con- aa " idolatry," is too well known to 
cideraUe opposition party or faction in need renmrk ; and there ia no doubt 
the Islands, which united all the ele- that this node of attack against the 
ments of discontent generated by the progress of the obnoxious intruders 
ligidsystemaf government established was plied to the utmost. "As the 
under the Missionary influence. The prosclytism of natives slowly progress- 
sectarian antagonism between the Pro- ed and the Romish mission gave indi- 
tesCants and Catholics, thus gradually cations of permanency," writes Mr. 
assumed also a political tinge ; and Jarves'— 
Boki, who became the chief reliance 

of the priests and their friends, aspir- ** the Protestant missionaries, by force of 
ing to the regency, at one period as- argnment, teaching, aad all the iafiaenee 
smned an attitude which threatened on ^^^ could lawfully employ, endeavored to 
armed revolution. The old queen, the •"«!« '^^ ^'^^T^' J^"" J^u?^lJ^ !?* 
head of the other party and of the ^^'^» ^T ^'^ffip^^^ly «»i»Wished j the 
«.«.i«, »»««^,»«n« C- ♦!.« 4iwrr> «„<i ▼ansblc disposition of the mass was 
zegalar goyerament, was the firm and ^^^^ Sermons, defending the theology 
»«lou8fnend of the Missionaries, of of Proleslanlism, and attacking the dog- 
whom she IS represented bv the Catho- mas of the hostile church, were uttered 
hc» as the mere tool. In 1829, the f^m every pulpit ; tracts gave farther 
pnests lost their main support, in the circolation to their opinions, and a war 
person of Boki, who perished on an of discussion was commenced and active- 
expedition which he undertook in quest ly pursaed. Government lent its aid, and 
of an island supposed to contain a rich unfortunately for the principle, though 
quantity of sandal-wood, of which the necessarily for iu support, church and 
Sandwich Islands themselves were by state were united more ckisely than ever.** 
&is time nearly exhausted. At about 

the same period, the young king began The English consul, Mr. Charlton, 
to interpose personidly in the public who is represented as a man of proili* 
affiura, being now in his seventeenth gate character, sided against the Mis- 
year. He hauB ever since been warm sion throughout all this period, and 
and firm in the support of the Mission- contributed greatly by his influence to 
anes aad what may be termed their strengthen the ^ opposition." It was 
policy. The influence of the old at last resolved by the government to 
({Been Kaahumanu continued unabated, expel the Catholic priests from the 
til her death in June, 1832. It was Islands, and an order was given to 
exerted in a strenuous opposition to the Messrs. Bachelot and Short, on the 
Catholics. Severe charges have been 3d of April, to depart in three months. 
nxfged against the Mission of having This oxtler, several times repeated, 
stimnlatpd this spirit, and of having they continued to evade, on the pretext 
been the indirect authors of the really of inability to procure a vessel ; till on 
cmd and abominable persecutions to 34th of I)ecember they were placed on 
which the Catholics were subjected, board a small vessel belonging to the 
Ihese are as earnestly denied on the government, and landed on the shores 
other side ; and the anxiety manifested of California. Kaahumanu died in the 
to repel the imputation is an acknow- fdlowing June, 1833, from which time 
kdgment of the gravity of the offence, the young kin^, now on the throne, 
if true. We do not think that a sue- Kamehameha IIL, assumed all the re- 
cess perfectly satis&ctory attends these sponsibilities of government. On the 
efibrtsat exculpation. The influence 17th of April, 1837, the two banished 
of the Mission could undoubtedly have priests reappeared at Honolulu, as pas- 
freveated these persecutions, had its sengers on board of a vessel named 
nanbers seen proper adequately to the Clementine, the property of a Mr. 
not iL The ground on which the Dudoit, a Frenchman, though wearing 
iofenoas old queen justified the pun* English colors. A few months before 
iakaeni of the Catholic converts was there had been two vessels of war at 
t&e Inr against "tV/o/a/ry," a law having the Islands, the one English and the 
Teiereace to the gross and pagan idola* other Freilch ; the commander of the 
try of the old saperstition of the peo- former of which. Lord Edward Russel, 
pie. The habit of many of the Pro- had forced upon the king, under the 
^iesfant sects of denouncing some of the threat of his gtms, a tiea^ of whieh 

13 The Sandwich Islands. [July, 

one dause pennitted the reeidence of meant to include Catholic priests. The 
Bnglish subjects confonning to the French consul, M. Dadoit, claimed the 
laws. The king in reply to uie expos- right for M. Maigret, under this stipu- 
talations of Captain V aillant, the com- lation, to land, declaring that he came 
mander of the French vessel of war, to the Islands only transitorily, intend- 
against the banishment of the priests, ing shortly to proceed on his way to 
had stated that it had been the act of another destination, and offering to 
the old queen, under the control of the guarantee that he should not give any 
Missionaries, and that he was willing religious instruction, nor violate any 
they should return — an allegation on law of the country, during his stay, 
the Catholic side of the controversy, The government were, however, inex- 
which is denied on the other. On orable ; they placed no confidence in 
their landing from the Clementine, the the sincerity of these declarations ; aad 
priests were immediately ordered to re- M. Maigret was forced to purchase a 
embark, which they refused to do, the small schooner, from which, on the 
destination of her voyage not being 17th of November, he took his de- 
one to which they were willing to be parture w^ithout landing for the Island 
carried. ' The owner, Dudoit, refused of Ascension, — together with M. Ba^ 
^ also to receive them onboard, Uireaten- chelot, who was in an extremely re- 
in^ to abandon his vessel, as piratically dnced state of health ; under which he 
seized by the government, if they soon sank, dying on board the small 
were placed on board by force. The vessel in which he found himself thus 
latter measure was, however, resorted compelled 'to embark. A truly pious, 
to by the government, and the flag zealous, and devoted minister of Christ, 
accordingly hauled down and the ves- his memory is justly regarded with 
sel abandoned, under protest and heavy love and veneration, by all able to do 
claim of damages. This occurrence justice to those qualities in a Catholic 
having taken place on the 28th of May, priest, as having fallen a martyr to his 
1837, they remained on board, priso- faith and his mission, in the service 
ners, till, on the 8th of July, the British to which he felt himself summoned by 
ship of war Sulphur, Captain Belcher, his duty, as well as commanded by his 
arrived, followed on the 10th by a Church. 

French one, the Venus, Captain Du Shortly after this, December 18tfa, 

Petit Thouars. These officers were 1837, an ordinance by the king was 

immediately appealed to, by the two proclaimed, emphatically prohibiting 

prisoners of their respective nations ; the Catholic religion ; forbidding the 

and in concert they demanded their re- performance of any of its services, the 

lease—^ claim which was earnestly teaching of any of its ^* pecultaritiea,'^ 

contested in the assembly of chiefs, by or the landing or residence in the 

Mr. Bingham, of the Mission, acting as islands of any one teaching *'the 

interpreter. Unable to obtain their Piope's religion or anything similar.'' 

demand, the two commanders proceed- This was placed on the ground of its 

ed to liberate and land them by force, tendency to excite disturbance, and of 

Consent for their stay till a fiivorable the impropriety " that two religions be 

opportunity to depart, was obtained found in this small kingdom. This 

with extreme difficulty, with the con- edict of course issued, indirectly if not 

dition that they should not in the mean directly, from the American Mission ; 

time preach. Mr. Short took his de- to which in sooth it does but little 

parture for Valparaiso, on the 30th of credit, though its members undoubtedly 

October following ; a few days after acted in accordance with their consei- 

which, arrived another French priest, entious convictions of duty in the 

M. Maigret, who was peremptorily for- service of God. There were within the 

bidden to land. Captain Du Petit following years numerous instances c^ 

Thouars had during his stay negotiated cruel persecution of the Catholics, 

a treaty, in which it was stipulated that under the old statute against ^ idola- 

*' the French shall come and go freely try ; " though we see no reason to im- 

in all the states which compose the pute to the same quarter the responsi- 

government of the Sandwich Islands." bility of such measures as these. 

This was construed by the government On the contrary, their counsels seem 

to refer only to French citizens of or- to have been positive against them- 

dinary pursuits, and not to have been At length on the 8th of July, 1839, 

1843.] The Sandwich Islands, U 

vniied a Frenek frigate, VArtemise^ the allegationa involved in it, respecting 

Captain Laplace, armed with power to their conduct and position. Thus 

coerce the native government into a without investigation, without trial, to 

more liberal and tolerant treatment of include in the horrors of the threat- 

the subjects and the religion of France, ened war a body of men, of exemplary 

He made short work of the task he Christian character and life, resident 

came to do. He treated as an insult on the Islands as missionaries, and de- 

to France the stigma of ** idolatry " nying the justice of the charges against 

attached to what was her national re* them, was an act of most unjustifiable 

ligion, and insisted that if the Sand- violence and wrong ; and had it been 

vich Islands claimed the rights of a carried into eficct might have led to 

ciTiUzed community within the pale of very serious national consequences, 

the law of nations, they should conform We regret to perceive that our consul, 

to that principle of toleration in re- Mr. Brinsmade, was strangely wanting 

ligion now at least universal among to the duty of a representative of his 

civilised nations. Cs4>tain Laplace country on such an occasion. We 

earned matters with a high-handed look in vain for the enereetic remon- 

energy and resolution, against which strance which he should have made 

no resistance w^as of any avail ; and against such an outlawry of a portion 

the government was at last forced to of his fellow-citizens. We know of 

consent to a treaty allowing full and no act nor sign by which he exhibited 

ferfect freedom of religion to the Ca- to the French commander that he M'as 

thdics, — depositing the sum of twenty even dissatisfied with his arrangements, 

thoosand doUars in bis hands in guar- and did not quietly submit to them, 

antee for their adherence to it. Our natural surprise at so unworthy a 

There was one particular on this course on the part of the representa* 
occasion in which the French comman- tive entrusted with the safety and honor 
der was led into a measure of gross of the American fiag, is equalled only 
injustice and outrage, which would by that which cannot but be felt, that 
merit a severer reprobation, were it that sacred trust should have been con- 
not apparent that he acted honestly on tinued in such incompetent hands, a 
an erroneous understanding of the case, day afler the reception of the intelli- 
Having announced his intention of gence of these events by his govem- 
eommencing hostilities by a certain ap- ment. Since the afifair of the Arte- 
pointed time, if his demands were not mise, an active rivalry has stimulated 
complied with, he ofifered an asylum on the efforts of the two competing Mis- 
hoard his frigate to the other foreign* sions. The Catholics number upwards 
ers whose lives would be exposed to of five thousand converts, the rrotes* 
danger in the midst of such scenes, tants about eighteen thousand. The 
with the following exception, stated in reader need not be told that we look up- 
bis note to the American consul : on the former fact with a very difierent 

eye from that vrith which it seems to 

<'Idonot,however,inc]udeia this class be regarded by our author; against 

the individuals who, although bom, it is whose otherwise highly valuable and 

said, in Ihc United States, make a part interesting work the only objection we 

of the Protestant clergy of the chief of y^^^ ^^ ^ring is the strong spirit of 

Am Ajchipclago, direct his counsels, m- sectarian prejudice by which so many 

taen<:e his condnct, and are the true an- ^ • J^ ^ disfigured. 

thou of the wsnlts given by him to xVw^d be an interesting task were 

^Praaee. For me they compose a part . " would Dean micrestmgiasK, were 

•f the native population, andmnst an- i* penmtted by our space, to describe 

deig, the unhappy consequences of a at length the vast unprovement, moral, 

"•ar which they shall have brought on social, and poliUcal, of which these 

^bk Qramtry.'' Islands have been the scene, under the 

influences of Christianity and com- 

This waa nodoubtedly meant for the merce, within the period of scarcely 

American Mission, collectively. It half a century. Many impressive de- 

"Vi^as so nnderstood by them, even tails on this subject will be found in the 

thoo^ itM terms might not properly recent annual reports of the American 

fflc/mfe them all, nor perhaps any of Board of Commissioners for Foreign 

ttein, baanueh as they deny, and sac- Missions, as also spread through the 

'cenMy diprove, the gieaier part of numbers of the ftCssionary Herald. 

14 The Sandwich Islands. V^^Jf 

Mr. Jarves's work contains a copy of the freqneney of slight earthquakes, 

the constitution which has been adopted and the gradual increase of coast, 

for their governnient, a political instru- Although no mention is made of a Ha- 

ment reflecting high credit on those to waiian St. Patrick, there are no ser- 

whose instructions and advice the na- pents, frogs or toads upon the islands, 

lives owe its possession. Guarantee- The climate is remarkably even, rang* 

ing the protection of the leading great ing only from 37 degrees to 77 degrees 

personal rights of person and property, Fahrenheit in the winter months, and 

and basing its system of government from 7C degrees to 83 degrees in the 

on the law of God and general spirit oi summer. The fertility of the soil and 

His word, it organizes an executive, the nutritious powers of the Kalo plant 

with two legislative bodies, and a judi- are so great, that the group is capable 

ciary, and provides for a popular ad- of supporting an immense population, 

ministration of equitable hiws.- Under (Hawaiian Spectator, vol. 1, pp. 75.) 

its operation, supported by a continua- Notwithstandiing this &ct there is no 

tion of such favoring influences as have doubt of a large decrease of population 

thus far shed their blessings on the since they have become known to the 

population of the Islands, there is every whites. This fact is, however, dis- 

reason to expect, before the passage <n tinctly assignable to special causes, 

many generations, to behold the Hawai- which are very satisfactorily explain- 

ians as a nation elevated into a con- ed in Mr. Jarves's work (page 397 et 

dition not unworthy of an honorable seq.) which have now ceased to ope- 

place within the great community of rate. The present population is about 

civilized Christendom. The efforts of 100,000. 

the American missionaries have not Brief space only remains to us for a 

merely been limited to the religious topic on which we had de«gned to 

culture of the Hawaiians. They have speak at greater length, and with aa 

justly considered that no nation in the emphasis that should give expression 

E resent age, can really appreciate the to the unanimous feeling strongly per* 
enefits to be derived from Christianity, vading the United States. We refer 
unless at the same time it attains a to the recent violent, and even brutal 
certain degree of intellectual cultiva- seizure of this lovely archipelago by 
tion. In this view, having reduced the an English naval commander. Lord 
language to a written form, they have Paulet, on grounds not rising to the 
establidied schools, which are now sup- level of even a pretext — an act of sheer, 
ported by the native government ; so simple, downright and outright spolia- 
that few ofthe younger people of either tion, on '^the good old plan.'^ The 
sex are unable to read. Numerous his- French had recently possessed them* 
torical, scientific and religious works selves of the Marquesas, and again of 
of an elementary nature, have been Tahiti, though with rather more man- 
printed. The constitution which ha« agement, rather more decency in the 
been adopted has been already men- nMxie. With a worthy rivalry in rob- 
tioned; it is one ofthe most renuurkable bery, the English naval force in the 
documents in the history of the world. Pacific makes all sail for the Sand- 
as containing a voluntary cession of wich Islands ; and in disregard of the 
power by superiors to inferiors ; a code fact that commissioners were at the 
of laws civil and criminal, fitted to very time in England for the settle- 
the nature of the islanders, has been ment of a treaty, he coolly commands 
formed ; and trial by jury, so equi- and compels the helplessness of the 
table as to be resorted to by foreign* native government to cede the islands 
ers in questions involving large amounts to the British crown, — ^to give up *' the 
of money, have secured the judg- life of the land," in the words of the 
ment of his peers to any subject ; and touching address by the king, Kameha- 
to crown the whole, the Hawaiian mela III., to his people. In all its cir- 
legislatnre has annual sessions — ^verily cumstances this was o^ of the most 
this has the resemblance if not the re- outrageous outrages that have ever dis- 
ality of a civilized country. graced even the foreign domination of 
The physical phenomena of the ial* that great nuuritime and mercantile ty- 
ands, are well worthy of our inspee- ranny — so insatiate in its aims, so un- 
tion. Among them we may mention principled in its means. It was not 
volcanic changes which have occmxed, only an abomination of injustice in th(^ 

1843] The Sandwich Idands. 15 

aetil8elf,lHit in the manner, also, 80 bold, a matter of consequence, Trhen our 

80 bnital, it wb« in bad taste — shock- Oregon territory shall be more thickly 

ingly bad. But we reserve further re- settled, and when the communication 

mark on this point tiU the reception of across the isthmus of Panama is opened 

intelligence from England, as to the — an event now not much longer to be 

action of her government. Their offi- delayed. The number of American 

cer has been the Thief — ^will they be citizens now residing at the Islands, in 

the Receiver 1 various capacities, already exceeds in 

Others may indulge a more liberal number 500 souls, and the amount of 

hope, respecting the course that will be American property at stake, upon the 

porsoed by England, based on the for* Islands, had increased from $400,000 

tonate &et that the terms of a treaty in 1836, to $1,000,000 in 1842. The 

had been already arranged at London mercantile interests, which till within 

by the commissioners from the Islands, two ^ears, have been opposed to the 

involving a full recognition of their na- Missionary efforts, are now found to 

tionality and their independence. For coincide with them, and united, keep 

ouiaelves, we have read the foreign his- up a strong American feeling. Five- 

tory of England in vain, if the great eighths of all the vessels visiting the 

lion should give up the poor little mouse Islands are American. The reeogni- 

on which it has thus set its huge paw. tion of the independent existence of 

The emphatic and indignant protest these Islands thus becomes a question of 

of onr government will nave already vital importance to American com- 

cn»8ed the ocean before this Number merce, and particularly to that portion 

of this Review. To us it is a matter of capital which is invested in the whale 

of seareely less grave conoem than to fishery. We were gratified to leam 

the plundered people themselves. With- that our government had given assur- 

IB the last five years, the Sandwich ance to the Hawaiian commissioners, 

lalante hare assumed a high political recently in this country, of the continu- 

importance in the Pacific. Their fa- ance of our amicable relations, and 

TOtaUe ecHnmercial position, the seen- virtually recognized the established 

rity of their harbors, and the necessary government of the Islands. The words 

visits of whaling ships, have attracted of the Secretary of State were, that 

thither the best ^rt of the commerce '* the President is quite willing to de- 

of that ocean. The vital consequence elare as the sense of the government of 

of their independence to the interests the United States, that the government 

of the United States, in the Pacific, of the Sandwich Islands ought to be 

cannot be over-estimated. Mr. Jarves respected : that no power ought either 

says : to take possession of the Islands, as a 

conquest, or for the purpose of coloni- 

" If the ports of this group were closed zation, and that no power ought to seek 

to neutral eommerce, many thousand miles for any undue control over the existing 

of oeean would have to be traversed before government, or for any exclusive privi- 

havens possessing the requisite eonvcni- jeges or preferences in matters of com- 

ences ior recruiting or repamag shipping, merce " 

eo«Jd be reached^ This fact illustrates And'the language of the Message of 

^ great ^'"P^rtance ma naval pom ^^^ President to Songress, of De?em- 

^ookt any one of the great nations seize k«, oi io^a • * c u • ^5. ^'^^*'"* 

upon them, it might be considered as ^^ 31, 1848, is yet fresh m the memo- 

hoUuurthckeyof the North Pacific— for ^ ^^ the public, but may here be 

Bo trade oouU prosper in their vicinity, or appropriately recalled : 

evea exist, while a hostile power, possess- «< just emerging from a state of harba- 

isg an active and powerful marine, should rfsm, the government of the islands is as 

•end forth its cruisers to prey upon the yet feeble ; but its dispositions appear to 

Belaboring commerce. Their isolated be just and pacific, and it seems anxious 

poikkm, in connection with their reef or to improve the condition of its people by 

pr«eipke boond shores, would add greatly the introduction of knowledge, of reli- 

tofltterlocal advantages of defence, and gious and moral institutions, means of 

s mihUej eoZooy once fauly established, education, and the arts of civilized life. 

migbtauetj pat at defiance any means of « it cannot but be in conformity with 

itUick wbieh cotOd be brought agamst the interest and the wishes of the govem- 

ihesL^ >Aent and the people of the United States, 

that this community, thns existing in the 

Their sitoatioOy too, becomes doubly midst of a vast expanse of ocean, should 

IQ The Warning. [Julji 

be respected, and all its rights strictly and nofit to make the declaration, that their 
consf^entiously regarded. And this most government seeks, nevertheless, no pecu- 
also be the true interest of all other com- liar advantages, no exclusive control over 
mercial States. Far remote from the do- the Hawaiian government, but is content 
minions of European powers, its growth with its independent existence, and anx- 
and prosperity, as an independent State, ioosly wishes for iU security and pros- 
may yet be in a high deeree useftil to all, perity. Its forbearance, in this respect, 
whose trade is extended^o those regions j under the circumstances of the very large 
while its nearer approach to this continent, intercourse of their citizens with the 
and the intercourse which American ves- Islands, would justify this government, 
sels have with it— such vessels constitul- should events hereafter arise to require it, 
inff five-sixihs of all which annually visit in making a decided remonstrance against 
it— -could not but create dissatisfaction on the adoption of an opposite policy by any 
the part of the United States at any at- other power," 
tempt, by aaother power, should such 

attempt be threatened or f«*f <^> J^. ^^* A brief period will suffice to determine 

possession of the Islands, coloniie them, ^ ^^ion-if indeed any appeal re- 

stergn^ere^^^^^^^^^^ rnain^ to the con^ience of«^^^^ 

J^e^ so very large a share of the inter- people from the black muzzles of Lord 

course with those islands, it is deemed not Paulet s guns. 



It shall not always be ! 
The air breathes where it will ; the wmd 

Is chainless, and the storm is free ; 
Shall chains enthral the mind 1 

Creation owns no slave ; and man, 

Shall Man bend low to scourge and ban, 
And quake and suffer, and be still ? 

It shall not always be — 
Arise he must — and will ! 

It shall not always be ! 
Awhile he yet may wear the chain 

In sUence, like the northern sea 
Mid winter's sunless reign ; 

Awhile he yet may bow him dovm 

To Power's red scourge and Pride's dark frown, 
And toil and weep, and be a slave ; 

It shall not always be — 
The storm unchains the wave. 

It shall not always be ! 
The lightning smoulders in its mine, 

The thunder sleeps as yet— but see ! 
Is there no tempest-sign f ^ , , 

Ha ! tyrant, see ! and sheathe thy brand ; 

Strike fetter off, from heart and hand ! 
Nor crush God's image in thy path, 

It shall not always be— 
Bk IV9T — or brave his wrath ! 

New Bedford^ June^ 1843. 

1843.] The Present State of Society. 17 



Whatbver the book he writes, Mr. jseize the profoondest and most fkr- 
Carlyle may ivell adopt from Schiller reaching truth, by turning over a very 
for his motto, Ernst ist das Lehen ; for familiar word, and looking at it in the 
although he plays many pranks, and light of the primitive fact it was used 
cuts many literary capers, which are to designate. One sees this in the 
not much to his credit, life with him is half-senous, half-sportive remarks of 
a senoos alTair, and he writes always Plato on the Origin of Names in the 
with sm earnest spirit, for a high, noble, Cratylus, and especially in Yico^s 
and praiseworthy end. He may often Tract on the Wisdom of the Ancient 
oSend our fiiatidiousness, he may often Italians, as collected from the Latin 
vex or disappoint us by the vague* language. There is scarcely a page, 
neas or defectiveness of his views, scarcely a sentence even, in Carlyle, 
. Wt we can never read him without in which he does not throw a new and 
f having our better feelings quickened, surprising light on some intricate sub- 
and getting a olearer insight into ject, by a dexterous use of a very hr 
many things. We have come even to miliar word. He lavs open the word, 
]^e his style, — that is, in him and for uid makes you see the fact, the thing, 
him, though by no means in and for of which it was originally the sign, ani 
others. It is natural, free from all of which it is still the sign, if the sign 
literary primness and affectation, sin- of aught. True, all this is done very 
ceie,eamest, forcible,— admiraUyadap- quietly, by using a capital initial let- 
ted to all the varieties and shades of ter, italicising a syllable, separating a 
thought, and moods of mind of the compound word into its original ele- 
writer ; responding with singular felici- ments, or by giving a Latin equivalent 
ty to all the natural undulations of the for an Anglo-Saxon term, or an Anglo- 
sool ; and, when read aloud, to those of Saxon one for a Latin ; and since it is 
the voice. This is especially true of done so quietly, it is no doubt over-' 
the History of the French Revolution, looked by the great majority of his 
— a great work, and almost the only readers, who, because they overlook it, 
one in our language deserving the name call him obscure and unintelligible. *^ I 
of History, and before which your do not understand you.'* ''Sir, I am 
Robertsons, Humes, Mackintoshes, and under no obligation to furnish you ideas 
brotiierhood, shrink to their proper and brains also." True, my dear 
dimensions. Doctor Johnson, but if we do not Air- 

Carlyle is a thorough master of Ian- nish our readers brains as well as 
guage. We know no writer, ancient ideas, how large a proportion of them 
or modem, who so clearly apprehends will catch even a glimpse of our mean- 
the deep significance of speech ; or so ing on the most familiar topics we dis- 
iully comprehends the profound phi- cuss? To perceive another's sense, 
koophy there is in the ordinary terms or sense in another's words, we must 
of everyday life. True is it, in more have some little sense of our own ;-^- 
senses than one, that our only sure a melancholy fact, and which will de- 
way of arriving at psychology is lay some weeks the complete success 
thraogh the me£um of words; and of our excellent societiefl for the 
not at psychology only, but at philoso- Universal Diffusion of Knowledge. 
phj, the everlasting truth and fitness There is no wisdom in sneering at 
of things. AH speech is significant ; him who truly studies words. Words, 
and if nest with clear insight we may eveflf the idlest, are signs, and signs of 

* Pastand Present. By Thomas Carlyle. Boston : Charles C. Little and James 
Brown. 1843. 12mo. pp. 296. 
TOL. ZIII, — SO, I'XI. 2 

18 The Present Stale of Society. [Juljp, 

things, realities, which things, reali- turn, the very Presencs of the Infi- 

ties, are to be come at only through nite God. 

the signs. The term God and the But it is not our intention to enter 
adjective good, are one and the same into any inquiry concerning the general 
word ; and from this we learn that our or particular merits, characteristics, or 
Anglo-Saxon ancestors called by one peculiarities of Mr. Carlyle. He is 
and the same name, the Supreme no stranger to the American public. 
Being, and that which it is proper to be, This much, however, we may say, 
to desire, to do, or to possess. Tliere- that he is almost the only contem- 
fore, say our wise modern philosophers, porary English writfer of much note, 
our Anglo-Saxon ancestors believed whose writings give us any signs of 
that the Supreme Being is Good ; thus vitality, or that promise to leave any 
proving that Balaam^s ass, or rather trace on his age or country. ^ Your 
that Balaam himself, yet liveth and Wordsworths, Talfourds, Wilsons, 
speaketh. Sajr, rather, therefore, they Broughams, Macauleys, Bulwers, and 
believed and incorporated into their the Uke — emst ist das Lehen, we 
every-day speech, the great truth, the have no time to waste. Bulwer, we 
foundation and spring of all heroism, are told, has given up romancing, and 
that nothing is proper to be sought betaken himself to serious study ; we 
after, to be done, or possessed, which will hope that he will yet do some- 
is not Godlike, or Divine. They found what that will survive, by a few years^ 
not God in Good ; but Good in God. the natural term of his pilgrimage*. 
What shall I be 1 A God-msLn, God- Carlyle, with all his faults, is the only 
like. What shaU I do ? That which live Englishman it is our good fortune 
is God-like. What shall I prize? A to know; and he, though alive, we 
God-ly soul. They did not conceive of are sorry to see, like all his country- 
Good, independent of God, — ^make men, in ailing. Yet most thankful are - 
that conception the standard, and bring we, that in these days of Cant and 
God to it, as before a tribunal, to as- Humbug, Puseyism and Chartism, 
certain whether he conformed to it, or Comtnunisms and Manchester Strikes, 
not ; but they regarded God hiniself i there is even one Englishman, who 
as the standard; and whatever con- though ailing is not dead nor dying, 
formed to him, they called good, and God's blessing on him ! May he soon 
said, That be^ do, possess, live for, die be restored to perfect health, and it be 
for, — ^nothing else is worth a wish, or long before he needs his Viaticum ! 
a thought. The book before us is a remarkable, 
We note in Carlyle, with great plea- but a melancholy production ; it is the 
sure, an unceasing effort to make his wail of a true manly heart, over the 
readers remark the si^ificance, the misery and wretchedness he sees evety- 
wonderfulness of what is ordinary and where around, and from which he him- 
familiar. To him the tliaumaturgic self is not exempt. No man sees 
Word sounds out from all, from flie more clearly the comic, or feels more 
least as well as from the greatest ; and keenly the tragic, there is in our age, 
the Infinite is spoken by the grain of especially our English and American 
sand, as well as by Andes or Hime- portion of it ; yet no one views with a 
]eh. Even silence is eloquent to him, truer or more loving spirit the nniver- 
, and the dumb are not mute. He has sal wrongs and sufierings of our Sax- 
a truly genial and loving soul, — a ready on race. He is sadly, nay, at times 
^rrapathy with and for all in God's terribly in earnest ; but his voice loses 
Universe. There is at times some- never its melody in becoming indig- 
thing startling and fearful in this uni- nant ; his heart is grieved, and his soul 
versal sympathy, and the unexpected is sick, and his whole being laments 
analogies it eiuibles him to discover over the miseries, the meannesses, the 
and disclose. All nature becomes cants, the emptinesses, the quackeries, 
sacred ; the Universe a Temple ; each of the evil times on which we have 
living thing, each thought, each feeling fallen ; but he laments in sorrow not in 
a shrine ; We stand on holy grcAnd ; wrath, — in anguish of spirit, but not 
we fall down and worship ; we are altogether without hope. In his very 
filled with awe ; we hold our breath ; severity, in his most scorching rebukes, 
we feel that we are in the very Sane- he is xiuld, tolerant, loving to all that f« ;. 

1843.] The Present State of Society. 19 

intolerant only to sham, mere make- every kind ; yet England i6 dying of in- 

believe, Tacuity, Nothing pretending to anition. With unabated bounty the 

be Something. We like his earnest- land of England blooms and grows j wav- 

nesB, aad also the cheerfulness, so to »»? with yellow harvests; thick-studded 

speak, which he maintains even in his ^'}^ "fS^^^^^^f^. '"dustrial implements, 

?ofounde«t sorroMT. '^'^ f " J«» millions of workers, under- 

We cannot nndertake to give any- '^.oi-n- iT^Sf^ wh """""'If !f^ 

... V- 1 ^ r «u and the wiUingest our Earth ever had; 

thmg approaching an analvsis of the ^^^^ ^^„ are here; the work they have 

TCiy remarkaWe book before us, de- done, the fruit they have realized is here, 

cidedlv the best Carlyle has yet given abundant, exuberant on every hand of us : 

us. It IS unlike anything else ever and behold, some baneful fiat as of En- 

vritten by any other man, and no chantment has gone forth, saying, << Touch 

ciiticai review can give the reader it not, ye workers, ye master-workers, ye 

not acquainted with the general charac- master-idlers ; none of you can touch it, 

ter of Mr. Carlyle^s writings, the least no man of you shall be the better for it : 

conception of it. It has a purpose, or this is enchanted fruit! *' On the poor 

rather many purposes, — a general bear- workers such fiat falls first, in its rudest 

ing, and many special and particular •hape ; but on the rich master-workers 

bearings; but these are not to be too it falls; neither can the rich master- 

sommed up and given in a line ; they ^'^^^^* If ^, ^^J "«ll«** ^J highest man 

come out from the book as a whole, "5.??^' ^«^/" "« >>^« ^^, ^ ^'^^"^^.^ ^?.^ 

and can be gathered only by a close T J ' • ^ V ^r^ViilT«l ' "" 
-j^***-*^ i" * money-sense or a far fataller one. 
and attentive, we may say, a frequent « J^ ^^^^ successful skilful workers 
reading of the whole book. The great ^^^ j^^ n^im^^ it i^ „^^ ^^^^^^^ ^j 
ami of ^e writer is not to teach one jn Workhouses, Poor-law Prisons ; or have 
lesson, but many lessons; and these < out-door relief flung over the wall to 
not so much by formal statements, as them — the workhouse Bastille being filled 
by presenting the various topics on to bursting, and the strong Poor-law bro- 
which he touches, in such light, or ken asunder by a stronger. They sit 
rather lights, as shall compel the reader there, these many months now ; their hope 
to see and feel their significance, and of deliverance as yet small. In work- 
draw his own moral. houses, pleasantly so named, because 
Mr. Carlyle divides his work into work cannot be done in them. Twelve 
four books ; the first he entitles Proem ; f^^^red thousawi workers in Englaml 
the second. The Ancient Monk ; the f'?"^ ; their conning right-hand lamed, 

third. The Modem Worker; the fourth, ^>'"^ »^*^l" ^t^'T'^l-'il^^Ltu 
rr *. rru i. « L i hopes, outlooks, share of this fair world. 
Horoscope The work properly pre- ^hut iUy narrow walls. They sit there 
aentsus, though m a strange, fitful, pent up, as in a kind of horrid enchant! 
mdirect,8triking, not always satisfiicto- ^^^^ . e,^,, to be imprisoned and enchant- 
Tyhgbt,societyas It was under Feudal- p^i^ that they may not perish starved, 
ism and the Catholic Church ; society Xhe picturesque Tourist, in a sunny an- 
as it now is under the Protestant and tomn day, through this bounteous realm of 
Industrial order; with some glances En eland, descries the Union Workhouse 
at what it should and must become, if on his path < Passing by the Workhouse 
it is to be at all. What was yesterday 1 of St. Ives in Huntingdonshire, on a 
WTiat is to-day 1 What do you pro- bright day last autumn* says the pic- 
poee for to-morrow T You are not lu rescue tourist, 'I saw sitting on wood- 
wbere you were ; you cannot remain ^" benches, in front of their Bastille and 
where you are; whither are you tend- within their ring-wall and its railings, 
ingt "How will you VLrriye there? J>me half hundred or more of these men. 
These are m-eat Questions on which ^"^ ^^^^^^ fiarures, young mostly or of 
i»^i?^ ^fS ; ^ r i f L t^\ mWdle age ; of honest countenance, many 
i^u^J^^" ^"^ linger awhile ^^ ^^^^ thoughtful and even intelligent 

I. ^ ^? "^^^ i^^'L^ * l^'^P*^' looking men. They sat there, near by 

headoi Midaa, m which we have a one another; but in a kind of torpor, es- 

Jketch of the present state of life in p^cially in a silence, which was very 

Engknd, not as Tourists may repre- striking. In silence: for, alas, what 

sent it, but as it actually is. We ex- word was to be said 7 An Earth all lying 

tract the greater part : round, crj'ing, Come and till me, come and 

reap me;— yet we here sit enchanted! 

" England is foil of wealtfa, of moltifa- In the eyes and brows of these men hung 

riott ivoduee, supply for human want in the gloomiest expression, not of angefy 

UO The Present State of Society, [July, 

batof grief and shame and manifold inar- of xis perhaps kept aliye ? It is thought 

ticulate distress and weariness ; they re- and hinted, at last it is done. And now 

turned my glance with a glance tliat seem- Tom being killed, and all spent and eaten, 

'ed to say, <<Do not look at us. We sit en- is it poor little starveling Jack that most 

chanted here, we know not why. The Sun go, or poor little starveling Will 7 What 

shines and the Earth calls ; and by the gov- an inquiry of ways and means !" — ^pp. 1-4. 

eming Powers and Impotences of this _ • j- -j i • t_ 

England we are forbidden to obey. Itisim- These individual instances show to 

possible, they tell us ! " There was some- those who will tlunk, the abject misery 

thing that reminded me of Dante's Hell in and wretchedness to which the work- 

the look ofall this; and I rode swiftly away.' ing population of England is reduced. 

''Somanyhundredthousandssitinwork- "What poverty! and this too in Eng- 

liouses, and other hundred thousands have land, the richest nation on earth, per- 

notyetgot even workhouses; and in thrifty haps the richest the world ever saw; 

Scotland itself, in Glasgow or Edinburgh and in England now, richer, with a 

City, in their dark lanes, hidden from all greater abundance of supply for every 

Irat the eye of God, and of rare Benevo- ^ant than at any former period ! Think 

Icnce the mmister of God, there are ^f ^his, linger long, oh, reader, aad 

scenes of woe and destitution and desohi- thoughtfully on this; for it is full of in- 

tion, such as one may hope the Sun never at-„ction 

saw before in the most barbarous regions ®^™^"""* 

•where men dwelt Descend " Nor are they,** continues Mr. Cor- 

vhere you will into Town or Country, by lyle, •* of the St, Ives workhoases, of the 
•what avenue you will, the same sorrowful Glasgow lanes, and Stockport celiara, tlie 
result discloses itself; you have to admit only unblessed among us. This suceess- 
that the working body of this rich English ful industry of England, with its plethoric 
^Nation has sunk or is fast sinking into a wealth, has as yet made nobody rich ; it is 
state to which, all sides of it considered, ^n enchanted wealth, and belongs yet to 
there was literally never any parallel, nobody. We might ask, which of us has 
At Stockport Assizes a Mother and Father it enriched 7 We can spend thousands 
are arraigned and found guilty of poison- where we once spent hundreds, but can 
ing three of their children, to defraud a purchase nothing good with them. la 
'burial society' of some 3/. %s, due on poor and rich, instead of noble thrift and 
the death of each child ; they are arraign- plenty, there is idle Inxury alternating 
ed, found guilty, and the official author!- with mean scarcity and inability. We 
ties, it is whispered, hint that perhaps have sumptuous garnitures for our life, 
thB case is not sdUary, that perhaps you but have forgotten to live in the middle of 
bad better not probe further info mat de- them. It is an enchanted wealth; no 
partment of things, ' Brutal savages, de- man as yet can touch it. The class of men 
graded Irish !* mutters the idle reader of who feel that they are truly better off by 
newspapers, barely lingering on this in- means of it, let them give us their name I 
cident. Yet it is an incident worth lin- << Many men eat finer cookery and drink 
gering on ; the depravity, savagery and dearer liquors — with what advantage, they 
degraded Irishism, being never so well can report, and their Doctors can ; bat in 
admitted. In the British land, a human the heart of them, if we go out of the 
Mother and Father, of white skin, and dyspeptic stomach, what increase of bles- 
] professing the Christian religion, had sedness is there ? Are they better, bean- 
done this thing ; they, with their Irishism tifuller, stronger, braver ? Are they even 
and necessity and savagery, had been what they call happier ? Do they look 
driven to do it. Such instances are like the with satisfaction on more things and hu- 
* hio[hest mountain apex emerged into view, man faces, in this God's earth ; do more 
tinder which lies a whole mountain region things and human fa^es look with satis- 
and land, not yet emerged. A human Mo- faction on them ? Not so. Human faces 
ther and Father had said to themselves, gloom discordantly, disloyally on one ano- 
What shall we do to escape starvation f ther. Things, if it be not mere cotton 
We are deep sunk here, in our dark eel- and iron things, are growing disobedient 
iar, and help is far. Yes, in the Ugolino to man. The Master Worker is enchant- 
Hunger-Tower, stern things happen j best- cd, for the present, like his Workhouse 
loved little Gaddo fallen dead on his workman ; clamors, in vain hitherto, for 
Father's knees ! The Stockport Mother a verj- simple sort of * Liberty :' the liber- 
and Father think and hint ; our poor little ty ' to buy where he finds it cheapest, to 
starveling Tom, who cries all day for sell where he finds it dearest.' With 
. victuals, who will see only evil, and not guineas jingling in every pocket, he was 
good in this world ; if he were out of mis- no whit richer ; but now, the very guineas 
ery at once ; he well dead> and the re^t threatening to vanish, he feels that he is 

1943.} The Present State of Spcietp. tl 

poor indeed. Poor Master Worker! And tracts waiting to be tiHed; immense 

the Master Unworker, is not he in a gtill treasures yet to be dug from its fertile 

fttaUer situation? Paasing amid his goilt Whence comes then this strange 

game-preseryes with awful eye,— as he anomaly, that men with cunning brains, 

wcUmy! CoerciBgfifty-pouiid tenants; ^ell-made bodies, strong and active 

j»erciiig,bribiiig,cajobng., domgwhathe jj^y^ ^^^ ^^ „^ ^^^ ^^ ^ ^j^^^^^ 
likes with his own. His mouth full of 1. ^:^^x^^. -„p««^ ^r 'uRiatenpi 

hud futilities, and argnments to prove the «^e" ™ S^^ /; ?? r ™^^»^®"^* 

exccUence of his Cora-Law ; and in his ™y be obtamed ? Here lies the ques- 

heart the blackest misgivings, a desperate *i?": ^ ^e tendency is throughout afl 

haltconsciousnessthat his exceUent Corn- Christendom to bring us to the pomt 

Law is tndefensible, that his loud argu- where no smalTportion of the population 

nests lor it are of a kind to strike men can obtain not only the lowest wages 

too literally ^mfr. for work done, but where they can 

*' To whom then is the wealth of Eng* obtain no work to do. Already in 

kad wealth 7 Who is it that it blesses; England has it come to this. Millions 

nakeshappier, wiser, beautifuller, in any say, "Let us work, — for the love of 

way better ? Who has got hold of it, to God let us work, and give us in return 

make it fetch and carry for him, like a the humblest fare and the scantiest 

tree servant, not like a false mock-ser- clothing, so we do but keep the life in 
vant ; to do him any r^ service whaUo^ ^^/^^ ^U ^ ^^ ^^^ V«teful.'» 

ever ? As yet no one. We have more riches y : „-, ver « " Ye nak^ stanrinir 

than any Nation ever had before ; we have . ^ ^}^ ^^^^ ' , J ^ ; ®^» '^T^^I 

lessgoodofthemthananynationeverhad begging workers, Acre is no work fot 

before. Our successful industry is hitherto 7^" ^ ye have already worked too much ; 

nnsnccessful; a strange success, if we stop 7^ "*^® already produced more than 

heref In the midst ofplethoric plenty, the we can find markets for ; ye are auffcr- 

people perish ; with gold walls, and full ing from over-production.*' 
ham, no man feels himself safe or satis- '* Overproduction. Just Heaven, 

fied. WcMkers, Master- workers, Un- what meaneth this? We have made 

woriters, all men come to a pause ; stand too many shirts to have a shirt to our 

fixed, and cannot frrther. Fatal paraly- bock ; grown too much com to be al- 

sts tprea£ng inwards, from the eztremi- lowed to have a loaf to keep the breath 

ties, IB St. Ives workhouses, in Stockport in the bodies of our wives and little 

eelisrs, through aU lunbs, as if towards ones! Over-production, is iti Ha, 

the heart itself. Have we actoally got i,^ warehouses and corn-ricks can 

*^i^,"'*'^'5J^"'^*'^*^"'''S^!r ^^ra\ Torches, torches there! We 

''Midas longed for gold, and insulted the _;|| _^^„ _^„^ . ' _„^ ^„ ^l- -_^-. __^ 

Olympians. Hegot iold,so that whatso- ^^.^^^ P"* »«* «»<* ^o this over-pro- 

ever he touched became gold, and he, with "^^**^"'.„ . . , , . 

his long cars, was little the better for it. , ^o will, and may, and do, we had 

Miias had misjudged the ctkstial munc- almost said, should, desperate men, 

ftus; Midas had insulted Apollo and the forced to the starving point, reply to 

gods: the gods gave him his wish, and a the taunt of over-production. These 

pair of long ears, which also were a good million workers, in the Manchester in* 

appendage to it. What a truth in these surrection, last sununer, striking work, 

M FmJbikM !" — p. 5-6. standing muto, looking gloomuy, are 

significant of much, and may tell Mas^ 

^ We htne more riches than any wf ter- Workers and Master-Unworkers, 

Hem ester had before ; we have less good that the mute will ere long find a tongue, 

frem them than any nation ever had and the dumb will speak, and through 

htfereJ" England, with fifteen millions harsh brazen throats, startling them 

of workers, with machinery increasing from their soft beds, to behold factory 

nan's prodoctive power many thousand and palace sending up their red light 

ffiU, making cotton at twopence an ell, on the midnight sky ; ay, and it may 

and yet some ^e millions of her popu- be, to behold royal and noble blood flow- 

latioB sustained just above the starving ing once and again on the Place de 

peiat, and not always above it ! What Grive. Millions of hands striking work, 

a theiiie for reflection here ! Has the because no work is to be had whereby 

prodoctive power of this God's rich men can keep the breath in them, wiU 

md ghiriooa earth become exhausted 1 soon find work, and that of the direinl- 

Is tbsre not yet room on its broad and lest sort. It is not we that say it, it is 

ioritiag eorfiiee far many millions more all history that says it, it is the human 

efwoitonB; sfe there not yet immense heart that says it. Afastor Workers 

22 The Present State of Society, [July, 

and Master Unworkers, look to it, that die shall he or we. It is an awful 
ya press not the masses beyond the thing to see brother hewing and hack- 
bearable point. Poor Humanity will ing the flesh of brother, and strewing 
bear much, go for long ages with sor- the ground with the limbs and trunks of 
rowful eye and haggard face, bent to precious human beings ; but it is more 
the earth ; patient as the dull ox ; but awful to see a whole nation of working- 
there is a point where, if submission men bound hand and foot, dying starred, 
does not cease to be a virtue, it at least while there is bread enough and to 
ceases to be a possibility ; and nothing spare ; a thousand times more awful in 
remains but for her to draw herself up time of peace and plenty, to see poor 
and turn upon the tyraKt and battle it human mothers driven to devour the 
out. Better die struggling for freedom, flesh of their own offspring, of the dear 
for life, than to die timid, crouching ones who have drawn life from their 
slaves, to be buried in graves of our o^vn breasts ! 

own digging. . But we must pass not too lightly over 
We understand, — we believe nothing this subject. Can there be a more 8or> 
of this modem doctrine of the leg^ rowful sight, can there be a stronger 
right of revolution ; nor do we believe condemnation of an order of things, 
that violent revolutions are the best than this simple fact of men, able-bodied 
method of working out social reforms men, with a rational soul and cunning* 
and advancing humanity in freedom, right hands, willing, begging to work, 
religion, morality, well-being. In all and yet finding no work to do whereby 
countries where there is anything like they can get their victuals 1 Certainlv 
established order, or where there is a not, say all men with one voice. Well, 
governing body that admits but the then, friends and countrymen, is it only 
slightest element of progress, and under in England that we stumble on this 
wUch men can live ; more especially fact ? What, we ask, are we coming 
in a country like ours, where iheie is to in this country, here where there are 
a constitutional order in full force, so many millions of acres of rich, fer- 
which, if not perfect, yet contains in tile lands, waiting to be tilled ? We 
itself the elements of progress; we can have not yet come, it may be, to the 
countenance no measures of reform not Glasgow lanes and Stockport cellars, 
allowed, not sanctioned by that order of which Carlyle speaks, but we have 
itself. But in this world there are come very near to the St. Ives work- 
specialities, and each of these speciali- houses ; but we have come to the point 
ties must always be decided on its own where there are many thousands of our 
merits. In this country, as we liave people who can keep the life in them 
said over and over again for years, only as fed by the grudging hand of 
touching political organisms, we must public or private charity. In 1829, it 
be conservative, and study to preserve was reckoned that in Boston, New 
the order established by the wisdom of York, Philadelphia and Baltimore, there 
our fathers, aided by a beneficent and were eighteen thousand females, semp- 
ever watchful Providence ; because it stresses mostly, unable to obtain work 
is only by so doine that we can work for more than two-thirds of the time ; 
out that higher order of civilisation for and yet if getting work all the time, for 
mankind, which it is our mission to sixteen hours a day, receiving therefor 
^ork out. But they know little of the only about sixteen dollars a year with 
Mbcpirit that bums in us, of the deep in- which to furnish fuel, food and clothing ; 
dignation we feel towards all who wrong many of these wives, with sick or dis- 
or neglect their fellow men, and ride abled husbands ; many of them widows 
rough-shod over their brethren, who with two, three and four small children 
fancy that we hold or teach doctrines to support. So said the benevolent 
of tame, unqualified submiBsion. While Matthew Carey. The matter must be 
there is the least chink through which worse now. In this wealthy, charita- 
can reach us one, even the faintest, ble, industrious. Christian city of Bos- 
gleam of hope, we will submit and work ton, where we now write, we have 
on ; but when the last gleam expires, come, the last winter, to our Bread and 
when nothing remains but blackness Soup Societies ! Bread and Soup So- 
and total extinction, we parley no more ; cieties for the poor, already in this 
we cease to discuss, to plead ; we seize blessed land of America, free, demo- 
the brand and turn on the tjrrant, and cratic America, and in the very heart 

1843.] The Present State of Society. df 

of tlurifty, religioos New England ! So own eyes haye we seen poor ohildren 

alas! have we managed it. We may gliding along the cold streets, thinly 

wince at the statement, may offer all clad, with their tin cans to receive their 

manner of explanations of it, such as modicum. We have set our own feet 

influx of foreigners, stagnation of trade, in the miserable dwellings of those who 

want of confidence, John Tyler admin- have been thus fed, and knelt down in 

istraiions ; but there stands the fact, in prayer by the poor man dying of a fever 

open, broad daylight, that able-bodied bronght on by anxiety and insufficient 

men and women, ready and willing to food. 

work for their food, nay, coming to you, The newspapers told us some time 
and with tears in their eyes, oegging since of a well educated, respectable 
you to give them work, have been kept man, brought up before our police for 
through the long winter just above stealing a parcel from a dry goods shop, 
the starving point, — and we fear in all On the trial, it came out that he was 
eases not above, — only by soup and well nigh starved, could get no work, 
bread dealt out by charitable societies and had taken the desperate resolution 
m tin porringers. Just before the of stealing in order to gain the privilege 
breaking out of the French Revolution, of being sent to the House of Correction 
some poor peasants came to the Court, so as not to die starved. To such 
and asked for bread and got — ^a new straits had it come with him, that he 
gallows ; which shows how it fares regarded it as a favor to be sent to the 
with the people under the monarchical House of Correction. A poor man, a 
method of governing. St. Ives work- worthy mechanic, in Philadelphia, this 
houses, Glasgow lanes, Stockport eel- last winter, can find no work ; comes 
lara, and the present condition of Ire- to the magistrate and begs to be locked 
land, where, out of a population of up in the cell of the City Prison ; so 
eight millions, one-third are reduced to that he may find the food which he 
feed on third-rate potatoes, these scan- knows no other method of procuring, 
tily obtained, and failing altogether for One rejoices to know that the benevo- 
n^ity a third of the year, show how lent magistrate granted him his request. 
ihej minage matters under an aristo- Now, in all soberness, we ask, if a 
ency. Soup and bread societies for state of things in which such incidents 
men and women able and willing to can occur, do occur, however rare, is 
work, in Boston and other cities, show the best that we can have in this nine- 
to what a pass things may come under teenth century, in this Messed land of 
the virtnons and intelligent rule of the America, of universal sufifrage, univer- 
donoeracy ; which, considering the sal education, under the blessed light 
advantages with which we started, the of the Gospel, dotted all over with in- 
vast quantities of fertile lands still lying dustrial establishments, school-houses, 
waste, and our youth, vigor, and elas- and churches ? Is this a God's world, 
ticity, is pretty well, and may be thought or is it a Devil^s world ? O, my coun- 
to prove that, if we have not as yet trymen, say what you will, decidedly 
come up with kings and nobilities, we this is not a question for England only ; 
ar% in a fair way of overtaking them, it is also a question for you. In God's 
aad, if it were possible, of even going' name, in humanity's name, do not blink 
beyond them. this question. Ansu^er me, nay, not 
iiere we are, then, in our own conn- me, but your own hearts, if you are 
try, in the most favored part of it, re- prepared, in the face of that sun which 
Bowned the world over for its industry shines so gloriously on all, the lowly 
and thrift, frugality and economy, and thatched cottage as well as on the 
wise management, come to such a pass lordly palace, to say that you solemnly 
that a portion — ^we will hope as yet not believe that in the decrees of Provi- 
a bxge portion— rof our population can dence, in the riches of Infinite Love, 
get no work, no opportunity whereby and of Infinite Grace, there was nothing 
to sat their bread in the sweat of their better for us than these Bread and Soup 
£iee. The fact is undeniable. It can- Societies, this begging to be locked up 
not be gioosed over. It is here. We in jail, and stealing in order to be sent 
can all lay crar hands on it. These to the House of Correction, so that the 
sonp and bread societies are no fiction, life may be lef^ in us 1 
Ahs, the necessity there was that they We might go further, in proof of the . 
Aonld be» is Mho no fiction. With our aad state to which we are coming or 

24 The Present State of Seciety. [July» - 

have already come. I am told, on have lost our faith in the NoUe, the 

tolerable authority, that in this city of Beautiful, the Just ; we have lost our 

Boston, which I take it is the model- faith in tlie Highest, and have come to 

city of this country, there are some believe in and to worship the lowest, 

four thousand wretched prostitutes out even Mammon, — 
of a population of about one hundred 

thousand. This fact is not only a lucid « Mammon, the least erected spirit that 

commentary on our morals, but also on fe]i 

the difficulty there is in getting a living From heaven ; for even in heaven his 

by honest industry ; since prostitution looks and thoughts 

is resorted to in this and all other Were always downward bent, admiring 

countries rarely through licentiousness, more 

but chiefly, aJmost wholly, through pov- The riches of heaven's pavement, trod- 

erty. I am also told by the agents den gold, 

of the police, who have the best means Than aught divine or holy else eigoy'd 

of knowing, that the principal supply ^ beatific vision." 

of these victims to poverty and men^ 

infamy, comes from the factories in the The demonstration of this fact, and 

neighboring towns ! — no uninteresting a full and impartial description of the 

comment on the workings of the Fac- worship of Mammon, would be a service 

tory System, built up by our Banks and of no mean worth to our countrymen ; 

high Tariffs, and which the chiefs of but who shall undertake to perform it % 

our Industry have taken, and are taking The other day I chanced to drop a 

00 much pains to fasten on the country! word which was misconstrued into a 

But whence come these sad results ? pfrowing distrust of liberty, and voices 

There must be somewhere a fatal vice m all parts of the country were loud 

in our social and industrial arrange- and harsh in condemnation; should I 

ments, or there would not, could not, be now but exercise the liberty of telling 

these evils to complain of. Never, till my countrymen the simple truth, ana 

within these last few centuries, were of directing their attention to the error, 

men, able and willing to work, brought the original sin whence has sprung the 

to the starving point in times of peace, present disordered state of society, 

and in the midst of plenty. ^' Gurth,'^ there would be no end to the berating 

says Carlyle, " born thrall of Cedric I should receive from these same loud 

the Saxon, tended pigs in the wood, and harsh voices, — ^ready always to cry 

and did get some parings of the pork, lustily for liberty, but most ready to 

The four-footed worker has already ^ot condemn all who are really her efficient 

all that the two-handed one is clamoring friends and servants. We boast, in this 

for. There is not a horse in all Eng- blessed land of Washington and JejQfer- 

land, able and willing to work, but has son, of our freedom ; we are free, ay, 

due food and lodging ; and goes about free as the winds that drive througrh 

aleek-coated, satisfied in heart. Is this our valleys or sweep over our broad 

such a platitude of a world, that all plains and inland oceans, — ^to echo the 

working horses shall be well fed, and publio voice, to have no opinion of our 

innumerable working men and women own, and to say only what everybody 

die starved V* We do not believe it ; believes or nobody takes the trouble to 

we will, thank Heaven ! believe no such disbelieve. We knew, onoe upon a 

thing. Whence, where, and what, then, time, a young man, brought up in the 

is the fundamental vice of our modem wild freedom lingering yet in some few 

society, especially in this our Saxon of our mountain homes; an earnest, 

portion of it % simple spirit, who had the strange foncy 

On this question Mr. Carlyle*s book when he came to dwell in cities and in . 

throws some light, though, it must be the midst of civilisation, that he should 

owned, often of the fitful and uncertain be sincere, transparent, and speak out 

sort. In general, and in rather vague always, when speaking at all, the s^m- 

terms, it may be answered that this pie, naked truth, without any circum- 

vice is in the fact that men have sub- locution or reticence, as he found him-* 

sthuted the worship of Mammon for self commanded by the Highest, and 

the worship of God. Mammonism has as all public Teachers and Able Editora 

become the religion of Saxondom, and exhorted him and all men to do. 

God is not in aU our thoughts. We Foolish youth from the mountains I ' 

ISa.] lU Causes. ^ 

It vas never intended by these Lights have within these three hnndred years 
of their age, that thou shouklst exercise sprung up, never before coneeiv^ of; 
freedom of thought and freedom of man has literally made the winds his 
speech, but merely that thoa shouldst, messengers, ana flames of fire his 
in high-sounding and well-turned peri- ministers ; all nature works for him ; 
ods, laud freedom of thought and free- the mountains sink, and the vaUeys rise 
dom of speech^ and tell thy admiring before him ; the land and the ocean 
coontrymen what fine things, beautiful fling out their treasures to him ; and 
things they are. Poor young man ! I time and space are annihilated by his 
own that, with ail thy folly, I loved science and skill. All this is unques* 
thee. Thou hadst a noble heart, a tionable. On the other hand, equally 
brave spirit, and I confess that I have imquestionable is it to him who has 
watered with soy tears the turf on thy looked on the matter with clear vision, 
early grave, out notwithstanding my that in no three hundred years known 
inward admiration of thy free and gen- to us, since men began to be bom and 
erouB nature, I have finally resolved to to die on this planet, when, upon the 
take warning by thy melancholy fate, whole, it has fared worse, for soul or 
and to be like my countrymen general- fw body, with the great mass of the 
ly, — ^wise and prudent. Humbly do I laboring population. Our advance, it 
beg pardon for having said in mv foUy, would seem, has been that ordered by 
that what the demagogues tell them the militia captain, an *' advance back- 
about their intelligence and virtue is all wards !^' This statement nuiy or may 
a hondng. It was an unwise, an im- not make sad work with our theories 
prudent word. I will no more repeat of progress of the race, progress of 
it. I will henceforth be silent, merely light, of political and social wdl-being, 
pointing, in out good city of Boston, to and all that : but it is a fact, an unde-^ 
Soap and Bre^L Societies for able- niable, a most mournful &ct, which get 
bodied men and women, ready, willing, over we cannot, try we never so hard, 
beggiag^ to work, and yet can get no For these last three hundred years 
work to do ; to four thousand victims we have lost or been losing our faith in 
of nanV in^my, the number kept good God, in Heaven, in Love, in Justice, in 
by a satplua fsMstory population ; to tiie Eternity, and been acquiring fiiith only 
honest, iitfelligent, even well-educated in human philoeophies, in mere theories 
man, driven to st^, in order to gain concerning Supply and Demand, Wealth 
the, to him, inestimable favor of being of Nations, self-supporting, labor-sav- 
seat to the Honse of Correction. My ing governments ; needing no virtue^ 
dear fiiends, my most wise and virtuous wisdom, love, sacrifice, or heroism on 
demagogues, sUl yon say of the dear the jiart of their managers ; working- 
peqde, of their intelligence and virtue, out ror us a new Eden, converting aU 
is, Bo doubt, very true, very sweet — for the earth into an Eldorado land, and 
you have sweet breath»--and may I enablinff us all to live in Eden Regain* 
never be again left to question your ed. We have left behind us tiie living 
veiaeity ; hot these four thousand •, faith of the earlier ages ; we have 
these Soup and Bread Societies, this abandoned our old notions of heaven 
ptivflege of being sent to the House and hell ; and have come, as Carlyle 
of Correction, or of being locked up in well has it, to place our heaven in sue* 
a dmigeoQ 1 cess in money matters, and to find the 

We have some thoughts on the ori- Infinite Terror which men call hell, only , 

gia of the evils we have touched upon, in not suoceedinff in making money. \ 

bat which, were we to tell them all We have thus come — ^where we are. 

plaihly, and honestly, and unreservedly. Here is a fact worth meditating. ^ 

woold, we fear, create such a hubbub We boast of our light ; we denounce 

and general confusion, that we should old Feudalism and the middle ages, and 

kne henceforth the power not only to fancy it worth a Te Deum mat we 

be heard, but even to speak at all. have got rid of them ; and yet, the im- 

TfaeR can be no question that within partial and clear-sighted historian being 

the last three hundred years there has asked, what period he lingers on, when, 

been a mosit wonderful increase of in- all things considered, it proved best 

dnatdal activitjr ; «f man^s productive with the great mass of the European 

power ; and of the aggregate wealth of population, answers, without hesitation, 

thewodd. Great Industries, so to speak, the period when Feudalism and the 

2fl The Present State of Society. [July, 

Chiirch vrexB in their greatest glory ; Never before had such labors been 
that is, from the tenth to the end of the performed for humanity. Never be- 
fourteenth century. Compare the con- fore had there been such an immense 
dition of what Carlyle calls the " work- body, as the Christian Clergy, animat* 
ers^' of England, the land of our an- ed by a common spirit, and directed by 
cestors, during that period, with the a common will and intelligence to the 
condition of the corresponding class at culture of the moral virtues and the 
present, and one is almost struck dumb arts of peace. Then was tamed the 
by the contrast. Cotton, as Carlyle wild barbarian, and the savage heart 
says, is cheaper, but it is harder to get made to yield to the humanizing inilii- 
a shirt to one^s back. Cotton is pro- ences of tenderness, gentleness, meek- 
duced at two pence an ell, and shirts ness, humility and love ; then impe- 
lie piled up in warehouses, and men go rial crown and royal sceptre paled be- 
about with bare backs. For food, even fore the crosier ; and the representa- 
Gurth bom thrall of Cedric, did get tive of Him who lived, and toiled, and 
some parings of the pork ; the poor preached, and suffered, and died in ob- 
Mother and Father of the Stockport seurity, in poverty, and disgrace, was 
cellar, alas, none. For spiritual food, exalted and made himself felt in the 
the poorest had faith and were instmet- palace and in the cottage, in the court 
ed at least in the elements of the and the camp, striking terror into the 
Christian religion ; inquiries recently rich and noble, and pouring the oil and 
made into the condition of the popula- wine of consolation into the bruified 
tion employed in the English collieries, heart of the poor and friendless, 
show that human beings do grow Wrong,wrong have they been, who have 
up in the nineteenth century, in rich, complained that kings and emperors 
ay, and Christian England, who know were subjected to the spiritual head of 
not even the name of their Maker, save Christendom. It vras well for man that 
by hearing it desecrated ; and all ae- there was a power above the brutal 
counts agree that the morals of the tyrants called emperors, kings and ba- 
colliers are superior to the morals of rons, who rode rough-shod over the 
the factory operatives. In the highest humble peasant and artisan — ^well that 
departments of thought and genius, the there was a power, even on earth, that 
contrast is hardly less striking; our could touch their cold and atheistic 
most advanced philosophers were anti- hearts, and make them tremble as the 
eipated ; we are scarcely able even to veriest slave. The heart of humanity- 
copy the Gothic Church, the last leaps with joy, when a murderous 
word of Christian architecture ; and Henry is scourged at the tomb of 
Dante has in poetry no rival, unless it Thomas k Becket, or when another 
be Shakspeare. Henry waits barefoot, shivering with 
During these and the preceding four cold and hunger, for days, at the door 
hundred years, more work was done of the Vatican, or when a Pope grinds 
for humanity, under an intellectual and his foot into the neck of a prostrate Pre- 
social point of view, than was ever deric Barbarossa. Aristocratic Pro- 
done, in a like period, since history be- testantism, which has never dared en- 
gan. A writer, not to be suspected of force its discipline on royalty and no- 
undue partiality, in touching upon this bility, may weep over the exercise of 
period and uponthe action of the Church, such power, but it is to the existenee 
isforcedto say, "During the greater part and exercise of that power that the 
of that period, by means of its superior People owe their existence, and the 
intelligence and virtue, it — ^the Church doctrine of man's equality with man, its 
— ruled the State, modified its actions, progress." • 

and compelled its administrators to con- The writer here quoted, is hardly 

suit the rights of man, by protecting just to the Feudal aristocracy. The 

the poor, the feeble, and the defence- old Feudal lords and barons were not 

less. It is not easy to estimate the a mere dilettante aristocracy, a mere 

astonishing progress it effected for unworking aristocracy, consuming 

civilisation during that long period without doing aught for the general 

called by narrow-minded and bigoted work of production. They were, in 

Protestant historians, the dark ages, fact, then a working aristocracy, and 

' Boston Quarterly Review, Jan., 1842, pp. 13—16. 

1843.] The MidJle Ages, 97 

did work in their rode way, and con- natare than any recognized by the 
thred to do no little work of the gov- master-worker between himself and his 
eming sort ; for which the goyemed workman. The slave when old or sick 
did &re the better. In matters of fight- most be protected, provided for, whe- 
ing they did the hardest, and bore the ther the owner receives any profit from 
firet and heaviest blows. It was their him or not ; the master worker has dis- 
special right, not to lead only, but to charged all the obligation to his opera- 
do the work of killing and of being tive, he acknowledges, when he has 
killed. They did in some sense, in re- paid him the stipulated wages. These 
torn for what they received, yield a wages may be insufficient for mere hu- t 
protection to the people, and take some man subsistence, and the poor worker 
kisd of care of them. If the serf, be- must die ; but what is that to the master- 
fore serfage was abolished, labored for worker 1 Has he not paid all he agreed 
his lord, the lord owed him a recip- to pay, even to the last farthing, prompt- 
rocal obligation, ^nd must see that he ly \ We have not heard on our south- 
had wherewithal to eat and to be em plantations, of Stockport cellars, of 
clothed. If fixed to the soil, the serf Bread and Soup societies, by the chari- 
had a right to his support from it. table, and men stealing in order to be 
These old Barons, moreover, did not sent to the House of Correction so as 
entirely neglect the Commons in con- not to starve. This much we can say 
tending for the interest of their own of the slave, tlmt if he will tend pigs 
order, as we may learn by consulting in the wood, he shall have some par- 
Magna Charts. The service they ren* ings of the pork, and so long as his 
dered to society, was no doubt an in- master has full bamB he is not likely 
adequate return for what they received ; to starve ; would we could say as much 
bat nevertheless it was some return, of the hired laborer always ! 
and the castle of the Lord, law-ward^ But the chief thing we admire in 
according to Carlyle, was a tower of the Middle Ages, is that men did then 
strength not only to its owner, but also believe in God, they did believe in 
to tltt hamlet lying under itswaUs; some kind of justice, and admit that 
aadtheproad dame, my Lady, Z>oa/-<fw- man, in order to reap, must in some 
iriiutorj vras not seldom a gentle bene- way aid the sowing ; that man did, 
fiictress to the humble, confiding, and whatever his condition, owe some kind 
grateful peasants. If it was a privi- of duty to his fellow man ; and admit it, 
fege to be high-bom, so was it a privi- not merely in theory, in caucus speech- 
lege to have the high-bom among us. es, or in loud windy professions, but 
On this part of the subject, Mr. Car- seriously in his heart and his practice, 
lyle^s book may be consulted with But we have changed all that, we have 
coofidenhle advantage. He has not called the religion of the Middle Ages 
said iJl he might, nor all that we wish superstition, the philosophy which then 
he lad. He has given us a very plea- was cultivated, miserable jargon, and 
sant riimpee of one aspect of life in the the governing which then went on, 
Middle Acres, that represented by the tyranny and oppression. We have 
Ancient Monk ; but we wish it had com- learned to blush at the page of history 
ported with his plan to have given us which speaks of Hildebrand, and St. 
a clearer insight into the condition of Ansehn, and the enfranchisement of the 
the mral popmation, the cultivators of communes, and would if we could Mot 
the soil, the thralls, sockmen, farmers, it out. It is a reproach to a man in 
pwwants, and their relation to their these times and in this country to name 
ftudlords, masters,or owners. We con- it without execrating it. The age which 
fess that on this subject we are not so covered Europe over with its Gothic 
wA informed as we would be. It is a C)iurches, and with foundations and 
grett and interesting subject, but from hospitals for the poor, produced St. 
Sie ghmpses we catch now and then of Anselm, Abelard, St. Bernard, and 
it, we ue fully convinced that the rela- Dante, Chaucer, old John of Gaunt, 
tion between the two classes which and Magna Charta, De Montfort, Wil- 
tfaen sobsisied, was decidedly prefera- liam Longbeard, Philip Van Arteveld, 
hie to that which now is ; even your Roger Bacon, Albert Magnus, John of 
modem slaveholder is obliged to recog- Fidanza, Duns Scotus and St. Thomas 
use a relation between him and his Aquinas, is a blank in human his- 
■iave of a more genennui and toaching tory ! Thai^ God we have outgrown tt. 

$6 The Present State af Society. [Jaly» 

got rid of it. We are no longer supersti- served, and increased that of the in* 

tious ; we have made sway with the old iantry, composed of commoners. The 

monks whose maxim was " work is wor* monarch was able to dispense then, to 

ship ;" we have struck down the last of a certain extent, with the services of 

the Barons ; we are free ; we have the his nobility, and to find his support in 

Gospel of the cotton mill, laisgez-fairei the people, artisans and peasants, easily 

save who can, and the devil take the hind* collected and speedily disciplined. By 

most, and we can do what we please with thus introducing the infantry into the 

our own. A notable change this, and royal armies, as the main reliable 

worth considering. How was it brought branch of the service, a rude shock was 

about, and what has been the gain 1 given to the power and independence 

We cannot go fully into the inqniiy of the nobles. From that moment the 

this question opens up. The Middle Feudal nobility began to wane, and the 

Ages brought the human race forward power and independence of the monarch 

not a little. What most strikes us is to increase. ' 

the high moral and s|Hritual exaltation The decrease of the power of the 

which everywhere meets us. Man, Nobihty served to weaken that of the 

through the faith nurtured and strength- Church. The people naturally, with 

ened in him by the Church, became their instinctive wisdom, would cleave 

ffr^it, noble, chivalrous, energetic, to the monarch, who employed them in 

This immense spiritual force accumn* his armies. They saw themselves now^ 

lated in the interior of man during the admitted to a share in an employmeat 

four centuries named, overflows in the which had been previously, for the most 

activity, bold adventure, vast enter- part, the prerogative of their mastere^ 

prises, and important discoveries which and proud of being admitted to the high 

commences in the fifteenth century. We privilege of killing and being killed, they 

note here four things resulting from it, fancieci that they were by this admission 

which have especially contributed to virtually enfranchised, and raised to aa 

the change of which we speak: the equality with those who had hitherto 

Invention or rather general use of been their superiors. The mdeet 

Gunpowder; the Revival of Letters; peasant, with a firelock in his hand« 

the Invention of Printing ; and the was more than a nuitch for the bravest. 

Maritime Discoveries in the East and strongest, best disciplined, and com* 

the West. These are considered, we pletely armed knight. Hence, all the 

believe, the principal agents in eflfecting tendencies of the people would be, in 

what we have been pleased to call the any contest, so fiur as possible, to support 

Progress of modem society. their royal masters. In the commons, 

1. The aft of war, as carried on then, royalty found its support against 

prior to the introduction of fire-arms, the nobility, and even against the 

which did not come into general use Church. At least, by admitting the 

before the fifteenth century, was acoes- common people into the royal armies, 

sible for the most part only to the noble Royalty weakened, or to some extent 

class and their retainers. It required neutralised their s^ection for tlie Eo- 

so lone: a, training, so great bodilv desiastical power, which in any contest 

strength and dexterity, and so much between it and the Church was of vast 

outlay in the equipments of the indivi- importance. 

dual warrior, that artisans and peasants 8. The Revival of Letters, as it is 

oould make up but a small part, and called, that is, of the study and rever- 

never a very efiicient piurt of an army, ence of Heathen Literature, which 

The chief reliance was, and necessari- followed the taking of Constantinople 

ly, upon the nobility, the knights, and by the Turks, had also a powerfiil in- 

gentlemen. In this case the king was fluence in bringing about the change 

always more or less dependent on his we have noted. The Chorch, during 

nobles, and could rarely go to war the Middle Ages, had paid great atten* 

without their assent and active aid. tion to Education ; it had covered £u* 

This restrained the royal power, and rope over wi^ universities and schools* 

pevented the centralization ofpovrex In the early part of the fifteenth centorj, 

ia the hands of the monarch. The in- education was almost as genen^ 

vention and general use of fire-arms thrmighout the principal states of £u» 

lessened the importance of the eavalry, rope as it is now ; me actusl amount 

in which only the lords and gentlemen of instruction one is tempted to beUeve 

1843.J Revivai of Letitrs. St 

was greater, though perks^n a agnaUor We had tbea jiusit die state of mind 

nmnber could read and Mnrite. The necessary to welcome the heathen 

Bible had heen tniiidated into the ver- Literatare of which we speak. Its 

naetlar language of Englishmen prior very superficialDess, want of earnestness 

even to Wickliff, ^hieh would indicate and strength, when compared with 

that the Saxon population were able to Christian Literature, was a recommen- 

read. There was, at any rate, a very dation, and facilitated its reception. 

fmeral mental activity throughout The effect of this revived heathen 
aropc, as the relics of the popular Literature, on the tone of thought, and 
ballads and literature of the time bear its general bearings on Christian faith, 
witness. The mind was prepared for are not alwavs duly considered. The 
the New Literatare which was then Fathers of the Church in tlie first five 
Isoaght to light. The Greek scholars, centuries had culled out from it all 
with Greek subtlety and Greek sophist- that Christianity would assimilate to 
ly, were dispersed, by the taking of itself, and made it an integral part dT 
Constantinoplet over the principal Latin the common literary and philoeophie 
states ; the atady of the ancient life of the Chnrch. We had in the 
Heathen Literatare went with them, Church all of heathen Greece and 
and the several schools of aneient Rome that was worth retaining, or that 
Greek plialosophy had their disciples eould be retained in consistency witih 
and champions in the very bosom and our faith as Christians. The human 
sBMnug the high dignitaries of the race then did not need the RevivaL 
Churni itself. Its obvious and un- No good could come of it ; for nothing 
qnestionable superiority, as to the per- new, but exploded heathenism, was to 
fection and beauty of its form, over the be obtained from it. The Revival was 
richer, profoander, more varied, and then in very deed a revival of heathen- 
eamesft, bat lees polished literature of ism. It was hostile to Christianity, 
the Fathers and the Church, secured and deejay prejudicial to the faith of 
it a ready adoption and an almost uni* Christians. And so history has 
venal authority. In this iaet we are moved it. We speak advisedly. We 
to dkMsover a powerfid cause operating Imow very well the estimation in which 
to des&oy the power of the Chnreh the ancient Classics are held, and that 
and the order of civilisation it had buih one may as well speak against the 
up. Bible as against them. But, what is 
Dnring the preceding centuries the this so much boasted classical Litera- 
nobiea, being almost wholly occupied ture ? We admit the exquisiteness of 
with governing, fightin^r, and doing its form ; the perfection of the execu- 
their part, as tlray could, m the general tion ; we, too, have our admiration for 
affibirs of society, had leil literature the Divine Plato ; we love as well as 
almost entirely to the Church. But, in others an Aristotle, and find much in 
the fifteenth century, in consequence the Greek Tragedians that we love 
of the change already noted in the art and admire ; but we cannot forget that 
of war, their original occnplktion was the whole body of Ancient Greek and 
to a ooosiderable extent taken away, Roman Literature is heathenish, want- 
and they began to turn their attention ing in true religious conception, in 
towards Letters. The Schools and genuine love of man, in true, deep, 
rniversities began to send out scholars living. Christian piety. Permit us to 
firom the lay commoners, and we had quote here, what we wrote on this sub* 
for the first time in Europe, since the ject some seven years ago, from 
establishment of the Barbarians, an another point of view, it is true, and 
educated and literary laitv. The sur- with a far different aim, but still with 
faee of education had been greatly substantially the same faith : 
extended ; and always in proportion as .. ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Classics, the scho- 
ediaatwn extends laterally does it lose ^^ ^f- ^ fifteenth cenlury were intro- 
m deptk The diffusion of education ^^^ ^^ ^ ^orW altogether unUke, and 
amouf the laity had created an unmense ^nach superior [perhaps not] to that in 
class of superficial thinkers, half- which they lived,— to ao order of ideas 
educated, alwaya worse, more to be wholly diverse from those avowed or tol- 
dreaded than those who have no edu- erated by the Church. They were en- 
cation, as simplicity is always prelera- chanted. They had foand the Ideal of 
Ue to ignaraaoe fancying itself wisdom, their dreams. They became disgnsted 

30 The Present State of Society. P^y* 

-witii the present, they repelled the civili- tifex Maximns was never more than a 

sation effected by the Church, looked master of police. 

with contempt on its Fathers, Saints, Mar- ''In classical antiquity religion is a 

tyrs, Scboolmeo, Troabadours, Knights, function of the State. It is the same nn- 

and Minstrels, and sighed and yearned, der Protestantism. Henry the Eighth, of 

and labored to reproiduce Athens or England, declares himself supreme bead 

Home. of the Church, not by virtue of his spirit- 

<< And what was that Athens and that nal character, but by virtue of his char- 
Rome which seemed to them to realize acter as a temporal prince. The Protest- 
the very Ideal of the Perfect ? We know ant princes of Germany are protectors of 
very well to-day what they were. They the Church ; and all over Europe there 
were Material ; through the whole period is an implied contract between the State 
of their historical existence, it is well and the Ecclesiastical Authorities. The 
known that the material or temporal order State pledges itself to support the Churchy 
predominated over the spiritual. ... on condition that the Church support the 
Human interests, the interests of man- State. Ask the kings, nobility, or even 
kind in time and space predominate. Church dignitaries, why they support re- 
Man is the most conspicuous figure in the ligion, and they will answer with one 
group. He is everywhere, and his im^ voice, ' Because the people cannot be 
print is upon everything. Industry kept in order, cannot be made to submit 
flourishes; conmierce is encouraged; the to their rulers, and because civil society 
State is constituted and tends to De- cannot exist, without it. The same, or a 
mocracy ; citizens assemble to discuss similar answer will be returned by almost 
their common interests ; the orator ha- every political man in this country : and 
rangues them; the aspirant courts truly may it be said, that religion is 
them; the warrior and the statesman valued by the Protestant world as an 
render them an account of their doings, auxiliary to the State, as a mere matter of 
and await their award. The People — police. 

not the Gods — will, decree, make, un- "Under the reijm of Spiritualism all 

make, or modify the laws. Divinity does questions are decided by authority. The 

not become incarnate, as in the Asiatic Church commanded, and men were to obey, 

world; but men are deified. History is or be counted rebels against God. Materi- 

not Theogony, but a record of human alism, by raising up man and the State, 

events and transactions* Poetry sings makes the reason of man, or the reason 

heroes, the great and renowned of earth, of the State, paramount to the commands 

or chants at the festal board and at the of the Church. Under Protestantism, the 

couch of voluptuousness. Art models its State in most cases, the individual reason 

creations aAer human forms, for human in a few, imposes the creed on the Church, 

pleasure, or human convenience. The King and Parliament of Great Bri- 

"There are gods and temples, and tain determine the faith, the clersry must 

priests and oracles, and augurs and au- profess and maintain ; the Protestant 

guries, but they are not like those we princes in Germany have the supreme 

meet where Spiritualism reigns. The control of the symbols of the Church, the 

gods are all anthropomorphous. Their right to enact what creed they please." * 
forms are the perfection of the human. 

The allegorical beasts, the strange beasts. The Revival and general study of 

compounded of parts of many known and the Classics, tended by their character 

unknown beasts, which meet us m In- to destroy the power of the Church of 

luausm, sprmsmg irom me neaa oi ,^ ., ^ ^ i- r.^/T ~^-. x,..- 

Brahma, and claiming superior sanctity ^er, the effect of which is seen in the 

and power as their birthright ; but simple s«aaf« growth of the monarchical or 

police officers. Religion is merely a royal authority, which took place at the 

function of the State. . . . Numa close of the fifteenth century, and the 

introduces or organizes Polytheism at beginning of the sixteenth. The in- 

Rome, for the purpose of governing the fluence of this heathen literature, 

people by means of appeals to their sen- breaking the authority of the Church 

timentoftheHoIy; and the Roman Pon- and the use of fire-arms superseding 

* New Views of Christianity, Society and the Church. Boston : James Munroe 
& Co. 1836. pp. 34-38j 9t teq. 

1843.] Inveniion ofPrinttng. 91 

to some extent the co-operation of the often execrated, was a great and 

old feudal nobility, combining, enabled learned man, and by no means ignorant 

the European potentates to shake off or destitute of morality. He was the 

the authority of the Church, and to politician^ the statesman of his epoch, 

establish themselves in their indepen- and may be consulted as the highest 

denee. The eause of Protestantism authority for the maxims on which 

wss eminently the cause of the kings, rested the policy of the European 

and under the social and political as- courts at the period under considera- 

peel, — the -only aspect in which we now tion. • 

coDsider, or wish to consider the sub- 3. The ikybntion op printino on 
jeet at all, — ^was the cause of the people, movable types, we are far from think- 
only so far as it was for their advan- ing ; far, very far from wishing to inti' 
tage, to lose the protection of the mate; is not destined to effect the great- 
Church, and the Feudal Noble, and to est good ; but we are equally decided 
come under the unrestrained authority that, up to the present moment, it would 
of the civil magistrate, — an authority be difficult to say whether it has been 
which was not slow to degenerate into productive of the more good or evil, 
unbearable tyranny, as we see in the We will not so far dishonor ourselves 
English Revolution in the seventeenth as even to say that we are the friends 
eeotury, and the French in the of knowledge and universal enlighten- 
eighteenth. But fire-arms and Classi- ment ; we know no advocates of igno- 
g2 literature succeeded, by bringing ranee ; we have no sympathy with 
the laity into the literary class, and the those, if such there be, who would 
commoners into the armies, in break- withhold education from any portion of 
ing down the authority of the Church, the human race ; but we repeat that we 
d^troymg the old Feudal Nobility, and regard half-education as worse than no 
in establishing the independence of education. We are not ashamed to 
kings and the temporal governments, avow our agreement with Pope, that 
and not merely in what were called „ . ,.,^, , . . ,. . 
Protestant countries ; for the principle « A little learning is a dangerous thmg; 

^Protestantisn. triumphed thfoughL ^:^]^1l:^^:^ 

Europe for a season, in the countries bTRitk 

remaining Catholic in name, as well as But drinking deeply sobers us again." . 
in those that became avow^edly Protes- 
tant. Francis the First and Charles The great mass of our American 
the Fifth would have^ done what did people can read, and do read the news- 
Henry the Eighth, the' Princes of the papers, and many other things ; and all 
north of Germany, and Gustavus Adol- of them fancy themselves competent 
phos, if they had not humbled the to sit in judgment on all matters human 
Church, and for a time compelled the and divine. They are equal to the 
Holy See to succumb to their inte- profoundest philosophical speculations, 
rests and wishes. the loftiest theological dogmas, and the 
The independence of civil govern- abstrusest political problems. Filled 
meats established, and the kings, freed with a sense of their own wisdom and 
from the dominion of the Church and capacity for sound judgment, they lose 
the checks of the old Feudal barons, all teachableness, and are really in a 
were not slow to adopt a purely worldly more deplorable state than if they made 
pcdicy ; and before the close of the no pretensions to general intelligence. 
fifteenth century, the policy now termed Unquestionably we must pass through 
Machiavellian, was adopted and avowed this stage of superficial knowledge, 
by every court in Europe, — ^that is to which merely engenders pride, conceit, 
say, a policy wholly detached from all self-will, before we can come to that of 
moral and religious doctrines or princi- true enlightenment ; and therefore we 
pies. Machiavelli was born at Florence, do not complain, but submit to the pre- 
of a noble family, in 1469, and, though sent evil, consoling ourselves with the 

* Coonilt on this subject, Histoire des Doctrines Morales et Pglitiques des trois 
deniien Secies. Par M. Matter. Paris: 1836. 3 Tomes 8vo. Vol. J. c. v. 
M. Mailer is a Protestant, and a Professor at Strasbourg, a man of considerable 
kamiog, half French Eclectic, and the other half German JRationalist, and gcKMl 
uthoritj on the point on which we refer to bim. 


Z2 The Present State of Society. [July, 

hope of the glory hereafter to he re- tendency. A sadden change came 

Tealed. Nevertheless, it is an erii, overthe whole industrial world; yisions 

deny it who will. of untold wealth floated before all eyes ; 

Printing, by multiplying books and and men who would in the twelfth cea- 

making the great mass of the people tury have been content to lead Utos of 

readers, serves to foster the spirit of self-denial, and to labor as peaceful 

Individualism, which is only one form monks, seeking in their quiet retreats 

of supreme selfishness. He who has for the crown of God^s approval, 

not the humility to learn, the meekness were crossing all oceans, penetrating 

to obey, who feels that he has no supe- into all forests, digging into ail moon- 

rior, but that he is as good as yon, will tains, in pursuit of gold. The love of 

soon come to feel that he owes no duty gold supplanted the love of God ; and the 

but to himself; and that the true morali- professed followers of Christ no longer 

tv in his case is to take care of Number made pilgrimages to the Holy Land, but 

One. In this way the invention of to the Gold Coast, to Florida, Mexico and 

printing, co-operating with the causes Peru, in pursuit not of the sacred relics 

already mentioned, tended to destroy of saints and martyrs, monuments con- 

the Church and Nobility of the Middle secrated by faith and love, but of liie 

Ages, to substitute pride, intractableness fabled Eldorado. Commerce took a 

and egotism for the old spirit of sub- new flight, and in a few years manu- 

mission and self-denial, and therefore factures heean to flourish, great indos- 

aided on the change we have noted, trial estabLui^ments to spring up; 

Snorance and self-suflSciency pervert science and inventive genius came in — 

eaven^s choicest blessings ; and the Manchester, Leeds, Lowell,-~an im- 

BiMe itself, thrown into the hands of mense operative populaticm wantziig 

the mass incompetent to its interpreta- sl^rts to their backs while shirts are 

tionor right understanding, becomes, we lying idle, piled up in warehouses, and 

are often obliged to own, a savor of they starving in the midst of abundance! 

death unto death, and generates end- * We have here glanced at Bome of 

less sects and interminable strife, as the causes which have operated to 

fatal to the cause of piety as to indi- destroy the religious faith of the Mid- 

ridual and public happiness. die Ages, to abolish the worship of God 

4. On the heels of all this, material* in Christian lands, and to introdaee the 

ism in philosophy, virtually if not ex- worship of Mammon, — all-triumphant 

pressly, arrogant individualism in mat- Mammon. Going along through the 

ters of faith, selflshness or a refined streets of Boston the other day, we 

or even gross Epicureanism in morals, remarked that it has become the 

and the independence and centralization fashion to convert the basement floors 

of the civil power in the hands of the of our Churches into retail shons of 

absolute monarch, adopting and acting, various kinds of merchandise. How 

as Caesar Borgia and Ferdinand of significant ! The Church is made to 

Arragon, on a policy wholly detached rest on Trade ; Christ on Mammon, 

from religion and morality, came the Was anything ever more typical ? The 

discovery of the psussage round the rents of these shops in some cases, we 

Cape of Good Hope, and of this West- are told, pay the whole expense of the 

em Continent. Already had men^s minister's salary. Poor minister! if 

minds been drawn ofi* from high spirit- thou shouldst but take it into thy head 

ual subjects; already had they begun to rebuke Mammon, as thy duty bids 

to be heathenized, and of the earth thee, and to point out the selfishness 

earthy ; the Church was reduced to be and iniquity of the dominant spirit of 

a tool of the state ; tlie minister of reli- trade, thy underpinning would elide 

gion shorn of his sacred authority and from under thee, and thou wouldst ! 

converted into a police officer. The But land is valuable ; and why should 

world was ripe for a new order of things ; it lie idle all days in the week but one, 

for entering into the career of industrial because a meeting-house stands on it ? 

aggrandizement, the accumulation of Ay, sure enough. O blessed thrift, 

treasures on earth, forgetful that moth great art thou, and hast learned to coin 

and rust may corrupt and thieves break thy God and to put him out at usury ! 

through and steal. The newly dis- But what hast thou gained ? Thou art 

covered worlds afforded the means both care-worn and haggard, and with all 

of increasing and of satisfying- this thy economies, begrudging Hearen the 

1843.] What's Ote Remedy ? 33 

small plat of ground for his temple, — ground ? Do I say one word that party 
Heaven w!x> gives thee all, this whole leaders will not turn pale or look cross 
earth, so much broader than thou canst at 1 What political capital can be made 
cdtiTate, thou hast to provide bread out of what I sayl Alas! brother 
and soap -societies for the poor starving Editors, do not think I intend to upbraid 
men and women, who would work, but you. God knows our condition is not 
cao get no work. one to be envied. With the whole 
Here we are, in Ireland, every third weight of the Republic on our shoulders, 
person reduced to live on third-rate and we, alas ! none of the strongest in 
potatoes, these scantily obtained, and bone or muscle ! God pit^ us ! For 
for only thirty-six weeks in the year ; to carry this huge Republic, with its 
in England and Scotland, with dark Manunon worships, and its Christian 
lanes, Stockport cellars, and St. Ives Churches reared on traders^ shops, and 
workhouses, Manchester insurrections, its party strifes, its rush for office, its 
gloomy enough ; in France, no great forgetfulness of man's brotherhood to 
better, daily emeutes, kept dawn by man, its morality of Let us alone. Save 
sheer force of armed soldiery ; and in who can, and the Devil take the hind- 
this country, following rapidly on in most ; workers no longer finding work 
the same wray, godless and heartless, to do; master-workers counting their 
sneering at Tirtue, philanthropy, owning obligations to their workmen discharged 
no relation of man to man but what in full when the stipulated wages are 
Caxlyle terms '* cash payment.*' What paid ; it is no easy matter, 
is to be the upshot of all this? My But, afler all, what is the Remedy? 
coontiymen, I have before to-day told Let us not deceive ourselves. The 
yoQ all this ; but though you are wise, whole head is sick, the whole heart is 
intelligent, Tirtuous — the freest, no- faint. Our industrial arrangements^ 
blot, meekest, humblest people that the relations of master-workers and 
ever breathed this blessed air of heaven^ the workers, of Capital and Labor* 
I see nothing that you are doing to which have grown up during these last 
guard against worse, or to remedy what three hundred years, are essentially 
is bod. I read the newspapers, the vicious, and, as we have seen, are 
protecting genii and guardian angels of beginning throughout Christendom to 
the land. I seize the leading editorials, prove themselves so. The great evil 
and in the simplicity of my heart and is not now in the tyranny or oppressions 
the eagerness of my spirit ask, AfVhat of governments as such ; it is not in the 
cheer f Surely, with so many Able arbitrary power of monarchies, aristo- 
Editors, all toiling and sweating at the cracies, or democracies ; but it is in the 
anvil, all devoted heart and soid to the heart of the people, and the Industrial 
]mblk; good, we must be safe, and the Order. It is simply, under the indus- 
means oC averting the cakunity dreaded trial head, so far as concerns our mate- 
most be vrithin our reach ; the remedy rial well-being, in this fact, this moum- 
must be found out and insisted on. ful fact, that there is no longer any 
Alas ! brother editors, I love and honor certainty of the born worker obtaining 
ye ; hat I must say, I see not as ye always work whereby he can provide 
lonch the problem, conceive of it even, for the ordinary wants of a human being. 
&r less propose a solution. Ye are all Nor is this altogether the fault of the 
It work with details, with petty master-workers. To a very great ex- 
sebemes, proposing nothing that comes tent, the immediate employer is himself 
sp to the mark. Some of you talk of in turn employed ; and as all who pro- 
Home Indujstry ; the wisest among you duce, produce to sell, their means of 
talk of Free Trade ; none of you, as I employing, constantly and at reasonable 
hear, speak iji God, and tell your read- wages, evidently depend on the state 
era that for a peppie who worship Mam- of the market ; workmen must, there- 
moa, there is no good. Nay, you must fore, with every depression of trade, be 
not sfeak of these matters; for if you thrown out ofemployment, whatever the 
do, vrito will advertise in your columns benevolence of the master- workers. 
or sohserihe for jour papers ? Nay, Nor is it possible, with the i)resent 
how many subscribers will my friend, organization, or rather disorganization 
ibe Editor €f this Journal, lose by in- of Industry, to prevent these ruinous 
setting this rery Article I Am I not fluctuations of Trade. They mav nn- 
trenefing at every moment on forbidden doubtedly be exaggerated by bad legis- 

yaiL. XOM* — HO* LXM. 3 

34 The Present State of Society, [Joly,- 

lation, as they may be mitigated by \^e manage it in this country somewhat 
wise and just administration of govern- better — is obviously defective, and the 
menti but prevented altogether they relation expressed by wages, in our 
cannot be. For this plain reason, that modem sense of the term, is an tmde- 
more can be produced, in any given niable failure. Under it there is no 
year, with the present productive pow- security, no permanency? no true prob- 
er, than can be sold in any given five perity, for either worker or master- 
years, — ^we mean sold to the actual worker ; both hurry on to one common 
consumer. In other words, by our ruin. 

vicious method of distributing the pro- This, we are well aware, will not be 
ducts of labor, we destroy the possibihty believed. We do not believe ourselves 
of keeping up an equilibrium between ill. We mistake the hectic flush on 
production and consimaption. We the cheek for the hue of health. " We 
create a surplus — ^that is a surplus, not have heard," say our readers, " this cry 
when we consider the wants of the of ruin ever since we could remember, 
people, but when we consider the state and yet we have ffone on prospering, 
of the markets — and then must slacken increasing in wealth, refinement, art, 
our hand till the surplus is worked off. literature, science, and doubling oar 
During this time, while we are working population every thirty years." Yes, 
off the surplus, while the mills run and we shall continue to prosper in the 
short time, or stop altogether, the same way. The present stagnation of 
workmen must want emplo3rment. The trade will last not much longer ; busi- 
evil is inherent in the system. We say ness will soon revive, nay, is reviTing ; 
it is inherent in the system of wages, and we shall feel that the evil day is 
of cash payments, which, as at present too far off to be guarded against. We 
understood, the world has for the first shall grow richer ; we slmll build up 
time made any general experiment of yet larger industries ; the hanuner wiU 
only now, since the Protestant Refer- ring from morning till night — ^till fer 
mation. into the night ; the clack of the cotton- 
Let us not be misinterpreted. We mill will accompany the music of every 
repeat not here the folly of some men waterfall ; the whole land be covered 
about equality, and every man being in by a vast network of railroads and 
all things his own guido and master, canals ; our ships will display their 
This world is not so made. There canvas upon every sea, and fill every 
must be in dl branches of human activ- port ; our empire shall extend from the 
ity,mental, social, industrial, Chiefs and Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the 
licaders. Rarely, if ever, does a man Northern Ocean to the Isthmus of Da- 
remain a workman at wages, who could rien ; we shall surpass England as 
succeed in managing an industrial much as ancient Carthage surpassed 
establishment for himself. Here is my the mother Phoenicia ; be the richest,, 
friend Mr. Smith, an excellent hatter, the most renowned nation the world 
kind-hearted, charitable, and succeeds ever saw. All this, it needs no pro- 
well ; but of the fifty hands he employs, plietic eye to foresee ; prosperity of 
^ot one could take his place. Many this sort we may have, shall have. It 
of these journeymen of his have been is not of outward, material ruin we 
in business for themselves, but failed, speak. But what will avail all this 
They are admirable workmen, but have outward prosperity, — our industries, 
not the capacity to direct, to manage, our wealtli, our arts, our luxuries, our 
to carry on business. It is so the boundless empire, our millions of peo- 
world over. There must be Chiefs in pie, if we contain in our midst a greater 
Religion, in Politics, in Industry ; the mass of corruption, of selfishness, of 
few must lead, the many must follow, vice, of crime, of abject misery and 
This is the order of Nature ; it is the wretchedness, than the world ever sa>v 
ordinance of God ; and it is worse than before ? And yet, such will be our 
idle to contend against it. The great fate if we continue on in the path, nay, 
question concerns the mode of desig- the broad road, in which we are now 
nating these chiefs, and the form of the travelling. 

relation which shall subsist between But once more, we are asked, what 

them and the rest of the community, is the remedy % Shall we go back to 

Our present mode of designating them the Middle Ages, to Feudalism and the 

in the Indastrial world-— in the political old Gatholie Ghuroh! No, my eoon* 

1843.] WhatU the Remedy f 35 

trywekf no. Hub is no longer possible old Feudal and Catholic society, we 
ereD if it were desirable. We have would have what Feudahsm and Me- 
gm fiie-arms, heathen literature, print- diseval Catholicity sought to realize ; 
ingf and the new world ; with these it and to some extent, though in a rude 
is not possible to reconstruct the Middle and imperfect manner, it may be, did 
Ages. How often must I remind you realize. We would have men ^(>t7em«<f, 
that there is no going back ? Who and well governed, let who will be the 
ever knew yesterday to return ? From governors, or what form adopted there 
die iNHtom of my heart I believe these may be for selecting them. God's 
Baeh deeried Middle Aees were far curse and Humanity's curse also do and 
jsefeiable, — ^regarded as definitive, — to will rest on the no-government schemers, 
ov own. What we have as yet ob- Satan himself was chief Anarch, and 
tained by departing firom them, — unless aU anarchs are his children. Men 
we make it the stepping-stone to some- need government, nay, have a right to 
thing more, — ^is &ur beneath them. The demand government, without which 
Imeiites in the wilderness, I must there is no life for them. We would 
needs beUere were,— saving the hope also see revived in all its medieval 
of leaehisg the promised land, — worse force and activity the Christian Faith> 
off than in Kgypt making bricks for and as the interpreter of that Faith, 
their taak-mafitera ; but this promised the Christian Church, one and indivisi- 
land, flowing with milk and honey, lay ble ; the ground and pillar of the truth ; 
hefort them, not behind them, and could clothed with the authority which of 
be reached not by returning to Egypt, right belongs to it ; and enjoininff and 
but by pressing oruoard threugh the exercising a discipline on high and low, 
wiidernesa. I pray thee, gentle, or rich and poor, as effective as that of the 
nther ungenile reader, not to misin- Middle Ages, but modified to meet the 
terpret me, on this point, as thou art new wants and relations of Christen- 
wont to do. No more than thou dom. There is no true living on this 
dost do I believe in the perfection of God^s earth, for men who do not be- 
the Middle Ages, as much as I may ad- lieve in God, in Christ, in the ever 
mire them, and as much superior to the present Spirit of Truth, Justice, Love ; 
present as I certainly hcJd them. I in the Reality of the Spiritual World ; 
wouhi not bring them back if I could, nor without the Church of Christ, 
They do not come up to my ideal of active and efficient, authoritative over 
what is most desirable for the human faith and conscience, competent to in- 
lace; nor to what is attainable even, struct us in the mysteries of our destiny, 
Tliey had many and heavy drawbacks, and to direct us wisely and surely 
Got bma under the veil of Romance, through the creation of a heaven here 
whidt Time and Genius have woven on earth, to a holier and higher heaven 
ibr them, we see ever and anon the hereafter. We must revoke the divorce 
ghastly Death's Head peering. No unwisely and wickedly decreed between 
wise man regrets their departure ; no politics and religion and morality. It 
wise man la£ors to reproduce them ; must not be accounted a superfluity in 
and herein the Schlegels and Oxford the politician to have a conscience ; nor 
Dirines are not wise, and do but kick an impertinence to speak and to act as 
against the pricks. We grieve not that if he believed in the eternal God, and 
we can have these ages no more ; that feared the retributions of the unseen 
Feudalism is gone, and the Church of world ; nor inconsistent with the ao- 
Gresory YII., that Napoleon of the knowledged duties of the minister of 
Eedeeiastical Order, is gone, never to religion, to withhold absolution from 
ictnm ; but we do grrieve that in getting the base politician, the foul wretch, 
nd of them, we have supplied their whatever his private morals, who will 
piace by nothing better ; by nothing so in public life betra^r his country, or sup- 
good. In contrasting them with the port an unjust policy through plea of 
preseat,we have wished to show our utility or mere expediency. It must 
eoQBti^nien that they should not be con- not always be in vain that a publio 
boated with the present, nor despair of measure is shown to be unjust in order 
tameduag better ; £>r better once was to secure its defeat, or iust, in order to 
ad may be again ; though not in the secure its adoption. Nations must be 
M finm. made to feel that there is a Higher than 
fiat tf we wiMiid not xeconstnict thfi they» and tha^t they nay lawfully do 

^ ne Present State of Society. {July, 

•only what the Sovereign of sovereigns sity of seeking heaven by self-denial, 
-commands. Right must be carried into by crucifying the world, and exercising 
the cabinet councils of ministers, into faith towards God and charity towards 
legislative halls, into the bureaus of men. These old-fashioned notions 
business, and preside at the tribunals of seem to be outgrown, and men fancy 
justice ; men must be made to feel deep themselves now gliding on safely to the 
in their inmost being, whether in public Celestial City, as my friend Hawthorne 
life or in private life, that they are has it, on recently constructed rail-- 
watched by the all-seeing Eye, and that roads, with Apollyon himself for con- 
it is better to be poor, better to beg, ductor and chief engineer. Could this 
better to starve, than to depart in the have happened, holy fathers, if you had 
least iota from the law of rigid been faithful to the Great Head of the 
Justice, and thrice blessed charity. This Church t O, it is a fearful thing that 
is what we need ; what we demand for you and I shall be compelled to answer 
•our country, for all countries ; and de- at the dread tribunal for the faith of this 
maad too in the reverend name of Him people ! God will ask of us, Where 
who was, and is, and is to be, and in liie are the children I committed to your 
sacred name of Humanity, whose ma- charge ? What shall we have to an- 
temal heart is wounded by the least swerT 

wound received by the least significant Politically, also, we need somethu!^, 
of her children. and something may unquestionably be 
But how shall this faith be repro- done, especiaUy in this country where 
duced ? It is not for me to answer this the people are supreme, inasmuch as 
question. There are, as I compute, the people are wise and virtuous, 
some fifteen thousand clergymen in this Were it my province to suggest any- 
country, of all names and grades ; all, thing to be done under this head, I 
I am bound to presume, good men and should recommend the complete de- 
true ; apostolic men ; laboring with an struction of the paper money system, 
eye single to the glory of their Master the repeal of all measures fieicetiously 
in the salvation of men ; able ministers called Protection of Home Industry, 
of the New Testament, comprehending which tax one interest for the purpose 
all mysteries, and competent to unfold of building up another, and labor for 
' to us the destinies of man and society; the enhancement of the profits of 
speaking with an unction from the Holy capital ; and the adoption of a uniform 
One, words of truth with power, as measure of values, so that men shall 
men having authority. To these belongs buy and sell by the same measure, and 
the prerogative to answer the question traide cease to be only a respectable 
proposed. I have no disposition to form of gambling with loaded dice, 
encroach on their peculiar province. But, I am told that the great merit of 
But, holy fathers, permit me with all the politician is to find out and con- 
respect for your order, to ask, you form to the will of the people ; I will 
being what I have presumed, how hap- therefore make no proposition. There 
pens it that truth dies out of the hearts are at least in this country, computiag 
of the people, that God's altars are Federal and State officers, from Presi- 
everywhere digged down, and those of dent down to tide-waiters, and Gover- 
Mammon set up 1 It is not for me to nors down to field-drivers, all told, not 
rebuke an elder, but, holy fathers, less than some hundred and fifty 
does not this fact speak of neglected thousand office-holders, to say nothing 
duty, of unfaithfulness to your charge ? of twice as many office-seekers, hardly 
Your profession falls into disrepute; if at all their inferiors. These are the 
your fiocks run after strange gods, and Political Chiefs of the people. The 
bA up those to be gods w'hich are no people are virtuous and intelligent* 
gods. Someof your most zealoas sup* They will always therefore select the 
porters, who are severest against tlioee most virtuous and intelligent of their 
who reverence you not, who carry number for their chiefs. These office- 
around the box of charity, put a penny holders, therefore, are and must be 
in but do take a shilling out ; your held to be a fair and full repres^itation. 
well dressed hearers, in their so^ of the virtue and intelligence of the 
cushioned pews, smile or sleep when American people. 
you talk of heaven, of hell, of eternity, Now, it belongs to these, the select- 
of man's accopntability and the nec.e8- ed chiefs of Uie pe<^le, to inftrodooe 

ld43.J What'g the Remedy t 37 

and cany through all needed political in your pockets. You are a respecta- 

reforms. Political Chiefs^ you are in- ble body. I see you occup3ring the 

trusted with power ; you have the con- chief seats in the synagogues, con- 

Mence of the people ; you are selected suited by Secretaries of the Treasury, 

by us to be our governors and glides, constituting boards of Trade, Conven- 

Now, in the name of our common tions of Manufacturers, forming Home 

country we call upon you, since you Leagues, presiding over Lyceums, 

uoquestionably faaire the ability, to put making speeches at meetings for the 

an end to the evils we have com- relief of the poor, and other charitable 

plained of, so £ur as they belong to purposes. You are great; you are 

your department. I am sure the peo- respectable ; and you have a bencTO- 

ple, i£ they are as wise and as virtuous lent regard for all poor laborers. Suf- 

as you tell them they are, and have fer me, alas, a poor laborer enough, 

made them belieye they are, have never to do you homage, and render you 

wished the political state of things the tribute of my gratitude. Think 

which now is. I am sure, that the not that I mean to reproach you with 

great mass of your constituents, how- the present state of Industry and the 

ever they may err as to means, do Working Men. I have no reproaches 

really prefer good government, which to bring. But, ye are able to place 

maintaina freedom for all, and which our Industry on its right basis, and I 

at least gives ns this simple kind of come as one to call upon you to do it ; 

liberty ^ which Carlyle speaks, to nay, to tell you that not 1 only, but & 

buy where we can cheapest, to sell Higher than any of us, will hold you 

where dearest. Do you then regard responsiblo for the future condition of 

this win, resign your functions, or the Industrial Classes. If you goTem 

work oat something better than we industry only with a view to your own 

now hare ; and better not merely for profit, to the profit of master-workers, 

rich capitslfsts and trading politicians, I tell you that the little you contribute 

but better for my poor sister the wash- to build Work Houses, and to furnish 

erwoman, and the still poorer sister, Bread and Soup, will not be held as a 

the sempstress, with her three little final discharge. If God has given you 

children growing up in ignorance, to be capacities to lead, it has been that you 

eocrB{rted by the rabble rout with which might be a blessing to those who want 

tb^ must associate. that capacity. As he will hold the Clergy 

Of Industrial Reforms properly so responsible for the religious faith of 
called, we s^ak not. Owenisms, St. ^ the people, as he will hold the Political 
Simoiiisms, Fourieriams, Communisms, * Chiefs responsible for the wise ordi- 

lad isms enough in all conscience are nance and administration of govern- 

rile, indicating at least, that men are ment,so,my respected Masters, will he 

beginning to reel that the present in- hold you responsible for the wise or- 

dostrial relations are becoming quite ganization of industry and the just 

unbearable. Three years ago, I distribution of its fruits. Here, I dare 

brought forward my '* Morrison Pill,'' speak, for here I am the interpreter of 

hot the public made up \^Ty faces, and the law of God. Every pang the poor 

abeolntely refused to take it ; so much motiier feels over her starving boy, is 

the worse for them. I cannot afford recorded in Heaven against you, and 

to throw away my medicines, even if goes to swell the account you are 

they are quack medicines. I cease running up there, and which you, with 

attempciog to prescribe. I leave this all your JmaTicieringi may be unable to 

BBtter to the natural chiefs of Indus- discharge. Do not believe that no 

try, that is, to Bank Presidents, Cash- books are kept but your own, nor that 

im, and Directors ; to the Presidents your method of book-keeping by double 

and %ectors of Insurance Offices, entr^ is the highest mediod, the most 

of Railroads and other Corporations ; perfect. Look to it, then. What 

heavy manufacturers, and leading mer- does it profit, though a man gain the 

ehasts ; the Master- Workers, in Car- whole world and lose his own soul % 

lyle's terminology, the Plugsons of Un- Ay, my respected Masters, as little as 

ienboL Messrs. Plugsons of Under- ye think of the matter, ye have souls, 

ahot, yon are a numerous and a power- and souls that can be lost too, if not 

fill hodj. You are the Chiefs of In- lost already. In God's name, in hu* 

^BB^, and in some sort hold our lives manity's name, nay, in the name of 


38 Ernest Sieinevy [July, 

your own souls, which will not relish the hire of the laborers who have 

the fire that is never quenched, nor reaped your fields of which you have 

feel at ease under the gnawings of the defrauded them, crieth out ; and the 

worm that never dies, let me entreat cry of them hath entered into the ears 

you to lose no time in re-arranging In- of the Lord of Sabaoth." This is not 

dustry, and preventing the recurrence my denunciation ; it is not the decia- 

of these evils, which with no malice I mation of the agrarian seeking to arm 

have roughly sketched for you to look the poor against the rich ; but it is God 

upon. The matter, my friends, is himself speaking to you now in wam- 

pressing, and delay may prove fatal, ing, what he will hereafter, unless you 

Remenuwr, there is a God in Heaven, are wise, speak to you in retribution, 
who may say to you, " Go to now, ye More we had proposed to say, but 

rich men, weep and howl for your mis- close with recommending anew to 

eries that shall come upon you ; your our readers the work we have noticed, 

riches are corrupted, and your gar- as one, which if not alwa^ sound in 

ments are moth-eaten, your gold and its philosophy^ is earnest m its tone, 

mlver is cankered ; and the rust of just in its rebukes, and often wiae in 

them shall be a witness against you, its suggestions. The more such books 

and shall eat your flesh as it were fire, are multiped and read, the better will 

You have stored up to yourselves it be for us. ^ 

wxath against the last days. Behold 



TwiUdBt was shading with its dusky thought ! peopled with beings not of 

veU the streets of Strasburg, and still clay, and stored with images traced in 

a stream of gold burnished the lofty dreamy loveliness upon the tablets of 

- spire which crowns its cathedral, the fervid mind — beautiful Ideal ! ^vrhoDi 

- Nearly five hundred feet in height, it is I worshipped with all the energy of 
the first object that glows with the kiss youthfttl passion in years gone by, give, 
of the rising sun, and is the last to be oh ! give me back ^e pristine freMuiess 
embellished with its evening rays. of early manhood ; give me bsM^k the 

At a window in the vicmity, com- delusive charm that lulled my spirit 

manding a fuU view of this splendid into a blest forgetfulness of transitory 

Oothic structure, sat a man, perhaps things, and wove a web of transparent 

' fifty years of age, with his eyes intent- light around my soul. 
ly fixed upon t^ illuminated spire. It " Beautiful Ideal ! how I wor^iip. 

was to hun a dear, familiar thing, for ped thee ; yet thine was the vran- 

he had looked upon it from childhood ; dering gleam upon the ocean of exist- 

and there were associations now clus- ence, that led my bark astray ; and, 

termg around his heart, that brought the when with eager joy I would have 

flush of suppressed emotion to his brow, moored that bark in the wished-for ha- 

He was a lonely man — ^with but one ven, it struck and stranded upon nnaus- 

child — and that child was soon to be pected shoals. The wreck floated 

launched upon the billows of a world, once again, dismasted, with nothingr Vn^ 

too often stormy, seldom calm. The the naked hull to stem the wave ; until 

light disappeared ; jet still he gazed drifting on, it found deeper waters and 

■ upon that distant pomt that seemed to a serener calm. But it is at best aL 

• touch the sky ; and, as he pondered, shattered thing ; just bearing its pre- 

his thoughts unconsciously shaped cious freight, and verging towards the 

"themselves into words : far offshore, from which no vessel has 

'^ Beautiful Ideal ! Region of shadowy returned. 

1843.] A Tale of tht Ideal and the Real. 30 

'^Beaotiftai Ideal ! once more I call would worship mind. Nay, tell me not 
apoa thee to restore the day-dreams of what yon have often told roe, that plu- 
my youth — I call upon thee to rebuild losophy is full of dangerous subtleties 
the fiury castles in which it was my and improbable theories. While I hare 
debght to dwell — I call upon thee to the creations of your own g:ifted mind 
renew the golden promises of hope, to speak to mine, I cannot shun the 
Ah f idle, worse than idle, thus to cling dreamy and beauti^l speculations of the 
to what has once betrayed, and would schools." 

betray again. Have wasted years ^* I have lived long enough, my dear 

broo^t with them lessons so severe, Wieland, to become convinced of the 

only to drive me back again in despair, errors of my favorite theories, and to 

to the spell that worked my ruin ? To condemn that system of study, which 

have lived in vain — to have been but as leads us too often to involve in myste- 

an atom of dust in this beautiful world ly the naked majesty of truth. It is 

— and tken, to die ! like shutting out the rays of the noon- 

"• But my son — my only, my gifted day sun, to grope by the li^ht of a 

child — ^how I tremble for thee, possess- flickering candle. And yet, I admit, 

ing as thou dost, all the elements that Wieland, that against my better judg- 

fonn a highly intellectual being. While ment, I find myself sometimes reaiing 

yet thy in&nt lips w^ere unused to those baseless &brics, which a single 

speech, thou wouldst point to the wan- gleam of truth can destroy." 

deriag cloud as it curled into fantastic '* Truth ?" 

shapes, and watch with upturned brow '^ Ay, the real as opposed to the 

the ehanges of lig^t and shade. Thy ideal — ^the actual as opposed to the vi- 

playthings all forgotten, thou wouldst sionary — the thing having being in itself, 

att in nrote eestasv when the sweet as opposed to wl»t is merely a phan- 

tones of thy mother's harp were heard ; tasm of the mind." 

and, unknowing why, the tears would " Good ; and the right angles, triu- 

guh fr<»n their welling fountain, and gles, and squares of tmth, brought to 

tfaoo wouldst hide thy face upon her bo- the very point of the compasses, are to 

son. I remember, tluu while yet a little geometrize the parterre of my brain, 

child, thou didst ask me if stars were until not a curve line of grace is left." 

Bot angels' eyes ; and as I encouraged " Far from it, my dear boy ; I would 

the poetical idea, I felt that thine was not wish to rob life of all its poetry 

not a common mind. Yet, is it to be and grace, but I would press upon yon the 

thy blessing or thy curse ? " danger of livinffin an imaginary world 

^ My blesainff , dear father," said the of your own. The wildest enthusiasts, 

youth, who had just entered and over- who have broached the wildest schemes, 

heard the latter part of his parentis generally began with less startling doc- 

soldoquy ; '' you would not wish me, trines, which finally led them step by 

sorely, to be one of the common herd, step to the natural result, — for error 

obtttse to everything excepting what I can rarely rest satisfied with anything 

see, bear, touch, smell or taste ? I would short of the extreme. In the simple 

as soon be yonder beast of burthen, as recital of the most prominent events of 

be a man, without any of the aspi- my life, you will not be uninterested ; 

rations that dignify and exalt our na- ami the tale may have its infiueoce 

tore." upon your subsequent career. 

The lips of the elder Steiner relaxed '* Like yourself, dear Wieland, I was 

iflio a smile, as he laid his hand upon reared in afiluence, a position not cal- 

^ head of the handsome youth, who culated to make us acquainted with 

bad seen some twenty summers. " And ourselves, nor to give us just views of 

3pet, Wieland," he said mournfully, ** the the world. I entered upon my studies 

Mine of life mnst be gilded with in the university of Gottingen, at the 

soncthing more enduring than day- age of twenty, with a mind all enersy, 

droans and beautiful illusions. If we and a heart all flame. I was toleraUy 

wobM be content when old age overtakes well read in the philosophical literature 

us, we must feel that we have not alto- of the day, from the sublimated doc- 

gether lived in vain." trine of the mystics, to the more chil- 

*^ Lei old age take care of itself, fa- ling dogmas of materialism ; and the 

ther ; I xrofM live while I live, and in result was what might have been ex- 

the gkmoos xeveiationa of philosophy I pected — I had no belief at aU — ^but 

40 Ernest Steinerj [Jvly* 

inclined sometimes towards the tenets back upon me with all the freshness <^ 
of one sect, and sometimes towards the a recent dream. It does not seem re- 
tenets of another. There was some- ality, for years have thrown a misty 
thing that fostered my self-esteem in veil upon my heart, and tinged with an 
the idea of identifying myself with the ideal giow the shadows of the pasit. 
followers of what I, at length, conceiv- Happy months passed on, until the time 
ed to be the most elevated philosophy ; approached that was to unite me in 
and after a residence of three years marriage to the lovely Hermine. 
at Gottingen, I espoused the peculiar Stronger and stronger had become the 
doctrines of Spinoza, in preference to silken bond of love, and I had already 
the rest. I looked around upon the learned to feel for her as the wife of 
beautiful world, and recognized the my bosom. 

universe sus God. A profound lover of " One beautiful moonlight evening as 
Nature, I worshipped a mysterious sub- we sat together, I could not help pl^id- 
Btance, endowed with infinite attributes, ing for a shorter period of probation, 
extension and thought ; of which all until at length she raised her soft blue 
spirits were modifications, and of whose eyes to mine, and whispered, *' Tliy wiD, 
essence all things were but subordi- Steiner, is mine.^ 
nate portions. Rapt in the dreamy " As I pressed my lips upon her brow^ 
speculations to which such a belief im- I said, ' Dear Hermine, may I ever pos- 
polled, I neglected all study that did sesssuchmesmeric influence over thee !^ 
not minister to the gratification of my " She gazed earnestly at me for a mo- 
absorbing passion ; and the ' mind dis- ment, and then asked, ' Could you mag- 
eased ' wrank from more healthful ali- netize me, Ernest ? I have always had 
ment, and from exercise less supine. the greatest desire to know if mesmer- 
'* Endowed by nature with the dan- ism could work such wonders upon me 
gerous gift of eloquence, I became an as I have heard related respecting 
oracle among my young associates; others.^ 

and found but too many ready to em- '' Although not what might be called 

brace the dogmas which w^ere presented a disciple of Mesmer, still I could not 

to them arrayed in all the alluring resist the evidence of my senses in the 

gracefulness of philosophical drapery, experiments I had witnessed ; and in 

From being a teacher, I became a wri- the power I had been able to exercise 

ter ; unfortunately, a successful one ; over others while in the magnetic sleeps 

and thus, having thrown down the I saw enough to stagger my scepticism. 

rantlet as the champion of Pantheism, After repeated importunity on her part 

no longer examined the claims of I consented to make the attempt. She 

other doctrines, but occupied myself sat before me, with her smiling eyes 

solely in defending and advancing the fixed on mine, while I went through the 

cause I had espoused. usual manipulations, until gradually the 

" It was about this time that I ac- fringed eyelids closed, and her head 

knowledged a new influence — ^the in- sank upon her shoulder in a heavy 

fluence of woman, or rather of beauty, slumber. With a still greater intensi- 

Leading the secluded life of a student, ty of will, I said mentidly, ' Go, puie 

I had mingled but little in female soci- spirit, to the land where they say the 

ety, and to look upon the form of beau- blest repose ;' and, ere long, a change^ 

ty, was to love. Sweet Hermine! as unearthly as it was beautiful, seemed 

young, guileless, and confiding, there to flit across her countenance, while 

was no mystery, no chilling reserve in her lips gently murmured, * heaven — 

the acknowledgment of her attach- heaven.' She was the image of tran- 

ment, and I felt that I was deeply, quillity, of peace, of happiness ; and^ 

tenderly, I may say blindly, loved. She trembling with agitation at the visible 

could not comprehend the scope of mv effect of the mysterious spell, I ceased 

severer studies, but would listen with the harmless mcantation, and willed 

dreamy wonder to the lesser mysteries her to awake. With a sigh, and a halT 

of my creed, and would strive to think stifled sob, her spirit returned to its 

as I thought, and to follow where I dwelling, with only a dim and iodis- 

sught lead. tinct recollection of repose. 

*' Ah, this was a beautiful episode in " Several times I repeated similar ex- 

the record of my life, and even now, periments upon herself, and other mem- 

the remembrance of those days eomes Wn of her &mily) not sdways with 

1843.] A Tale of the Ideal and the Real. 41 

eqoal miooeas, bat aeMom fiuHng in pro- tied the pure spirit of the departed t 

daeing the magnetic sleep. Where was the loving soul bound to 

^ It was a loTely afternoon in eariy mine by the dearest and holiest of ties % 
sanmier ; the day preceding that on Annihilation ! the thought was horror ! 
which I was to call Hermine mine for All was doubt-Hdarkneas — and despair, 
erer. Her relations, some of whom No ray of comfort shone on the track- 
had come from a distance to be present less waste of conjecture that spread 
at her bridal, were around her ; and at itselfbefore me ; beyond, around, within, 
the earnest request of one of them who a gloom profound; — the Ideal then only 
was an unbeliever in Mesmerism, Her- aggravated the blackness of the abyss 
mine consented to be magnetized again, into which I was plunged. 
When I had succeeded in producing " I went in to see her for the last time, 
the somnolent state, I willed that she just as they were about screwing down 
should visit the regions of the lost. I her coffin-lid for ever. Oh ! the dread- 
know not how the idea entered my fill realities of death ! How my shud- 
mind, or why I acted upon it, but it was dering soul cowered in the presence of 
done in the thonghtless levity of the man^s relentless and triumphant foe f 
moment. Ere long, an expression of *' Take her not away now,' I said, im- 
siiffering and disquiet overspread her ploringly ; ' see, how beautiful she 
countenance, and distorted its usually looluh—she may still but sleep— oh ! do 
nnmffied lineaments. She gasped vio- not heap the cold, damp mould upon 
lently once or twice, and then became that beloved form — it may yet revive !^ 
pale and motionless. Alarmed and They folded dovm the covering of her 
terror-stricken at the result of my rash neck — oh God ! the livid trace of death's 
proceeding, I instantly resorted to the decaying finger ! A mist came over my 
usual means to awaken her, but with- eyes — I stooped to kiss the pure pale 
out success, — ^I had lost the power ! brow — and as the vivid reality forced 
There she lay, still as death, yet so itself upon me, that she whom I had 
lovely that she seemed too beautiful for loved so well, was but a clod of the 
earth. They besought me imploringly valley now, the scalding drops, which 
to release her from the terrific slum- shame the eye of manhood, fell fast 
ber, — alas ! I had no longer command above her dear remains. 
over myself, and to that circumstance " I found myself, at length, beside her 
I impated my failure in the efibrt to grave. It was a green and shaded 
awaken her. Her brother leaned over spot, where, but a few days before, we 
her, and, touching her hand, started had vrandered together over the grassy 
back with the appaQing cry, * My God, hillocks, in all the buoyant hopemlness 
she is dead!' I grasped the wrist, of youth and happiness. Death had 
there was no pulse ; in agony I placed stepped between us — and as the earth 
my shaking hand upon her heart, it did rattled heavily upon her coffin, I felt 
aot beat ^neath the pressure. With that there lay buried all that I had to 
the speed of phrenzy, I ran for the love and live for. Ah ! Wiel»id, bitter 
nearett physician, so that in a few indeed is the first draught of the cup 
nmmtes be was by her side ; but he of sorrow ; still more bitter, when it is 
toined away in tears, and said that she tasted by one unprepared and unre- 
was dead ! I would not-— could not signed to drink it. 

think so. I believe my senses must 

have left me, for I persisted in striving ^ With a crushed and aching heart, I 

to arouse her from that frightful slum- sought relief in study. In the solitude 

ber, and not until I sank unconscious of my closet, I again strove to illume 

bende her, could thev remove me. the magic lantern that had beguiled so 

'^Hiey ascertained, while I lay in that many weary hours with its glowing 

hesvy swoon, that her death was caused pictures. But the spirit's destiny ! the 

hj the rupture of a blood-vessel near spirit's destiny ! In letters of fire, 

the heart. God only knows how far I written upon the walls — ^the earth — ^the 

was in strum ental in producing it, but sky — ^wherever I might turn, there, in 

I lo^^ed upon mjrself as her destroyer, characters that burned into my soul, I 

Never before lad I witnessed death, saw inscribed, ' the spirit's destiny !' 

save in the bmte creation ; never had I I could not fly from the oppressive 

seen the lamp of life extinguished in thought ; and when I endeavored to 

kmiianity. Whhfaeri oh ! whither had face it, all grew dark around me ex- 

.43 Ernest Steinerj [July* 

eepting those characters of fire, ' the knelt and worshipped the gifted being 

spirit's destiny!' Nature — ^philosophy who thus seemed sent to rescue me 

— ^godlike mind — gave me no clue to from the yawning gulf of atheism, and 

solve the impenetrable mystery ; and to draw aside the veil that hid the 

when, after many months of meiital glorious realities of truth from my 

anguish, I resumed the labors of my mental vision. 

pen, it was but to broach wilder *^ The state of my mind for two years 

schemes, and to disseminate more im- had been such as greatly to affect my 

pious principles. health, and the prostration of my 

'* It was at this time that I began to strength made me a prey to the most 
receive anonymous letters from a distant distressing languor and depression, 
part of Germany, written with so much The blight that had fallen upon my 
talent, and conftiting with so much ambitious hopes, and the impossibUity 
ability my favorite theories, that I be- of retrieving the past so as to distin- 
came deeply interested in the polemical guish myself conscientiously ta the 
correspondence. For more tlum a year path I had chosen, almost proved a 
it continued, uprooting one by one the death-blow to me. In the very zenith 
ailments in favor of natural religion ; of my literary fame, when I bad sue- 
and I was at length both mortified and ceeded in winning for myself an envia- 
conlbunded when my antagonist ac- ble reputation among the Neologists of 
kttowledged herself of the weaker sex. Germany, I saw the foundation of the 
' I contend not,' she said, * I contend fabric I had been rearing crumble be- 
not in the cause of an ideal God ; and neath my feet, and felt that I could no 
if my weapons have in any way blunted longer defend with integrity or ability 
the edge of yours, it is not owing to the cause in which I had Labored. I 
the skill with wluch they have l^en abandoned, for the time, all philoaophi- 
wielded, but to the weight and temper cal study, and determined, at length, to 
of their Uades. There is a foothold in recruit my waning health and exlwaated 
revealed religion, as opposed to philo- ^irits at the springs of Baden-Baden. 
Bophy, which gives a vantage-ground, " What a variety of light and shade 
and enables the weaker combatant to in the condition and circumstances of 
overcome, when, standing upon the individuals does such a place of resort 
same dead level, he must have sue- present! Youth, intent on pleasure, 
oumbed to superior strength. If, as with the flush of joy and hope upon the 
you admit, ysu would abandon your cheek, and the merry laugh ringing 
skeptical doctrines, were it not for from out the depths of a free, unbur- 
. fairii^ing upon yourself the ridicule of thened heart ; — beauty, intent on con- 
your many readers — ^let me implore you, quest, with brow of light and winning 
with all the energy of one who will smile, weaving its resistless spell 
probably ere long enter upon the reali- around a host of votaries ; — ^talent, 
ties of the unseen world — ^let me im- drawing within its maeic circle the 
i4ore you to weigh your decision in the gifted few, aspiring to be the nucleus 
oalanoe of integrity. Recreant, ft-om around which the lesser sateUites delight 
cmiviction, to the cause of error, oh ! to revolve ; — disease, with shrunken 
be not, from choice, recreant to the form and pallid lineaments, yearning 
cause of truth, just as it begins to dawn for the boon that would bring sweetness 
upon your soul ! My failing health may to the cup of life, full, perchance to 
prevent our ever meeting on this side of overflowing, with every other gift that 
the grave — but there — there — Ernest blesses humanity, — all these, and more 
Steiner, shall we meet there V than these, are found among the motley 

"No solicitation—^o entreaties, could crowd that yearly haunt these health- 
induce my unknown friend to reveal restoring springs, 
her name ; and when at length the " It is, at least, comforting to those 
mysterious correspondence ceased, I afflicted with lighter ailments, to see 
felt as if the spirit of truth, of purity, how rapidly the invigorating air and 
and of goodness, had left my soul for healing waters work a change in the 
ever» How I yearned to look upon her almost confirmed invalid ; so mat many 
face, and to hear her voice luring me who arrive on litters, depart in a few 
on to better and more enduring hopes ! weeks, rejoicing in a renovated frame. 
Call it enthusiasm — call it DouBidness — " A day or two afVer my arrival, I was 
eall it what you will — ^I could have standing with a friend on one of the 

1843.] A Tale of the Ideal and the Real. 43 

sloping terraces which adorn the gar- " ' I hare admired your genius,' re- 
dea, while he pointed out and named to plied the old man, * but I admit that I 
me the persons worthy of being distin- have regretted its being exercised upon 
guudied from the crowd. After a long the ephemeral philosophy so much in 
array of titled personages and literati vogue-— a philosophy the more danger- 
had been presented to my notice, ous, because it surrounds itself with 
' Who,' I asked, ' are the unpretending all the allurements of mental imagery, 
persons just advancing towards us — I and casts a veil of dreamy beauty 
mean, that TeneraUe old man, and the around its most glaring inconsisten- 
fiiding yet inteUectual-Iooking woman cies.' 

that leans, as if for support, upon his '*'The harmony of the moral world,* 

aim V I replied, *' as well as the order of the 

*** That is Professor L ,'of Berlin, physical universe, has dispelled in a 

the most celebrated of the few Ortho- great degree the clouds that obscured 
dox* theologians that Germany can my mental vision ; and I see at last the 
boost ; and the lady is his only daughter, scheme of eternal intelligence devel(n>- 
She is, as joo see, past the first bloom ing itself alike in both. The wonderrol 
of mmanhood ; but she is a rare speci- ad^tation of means to ends has con- 
men of intelleotoal culture, and I doubt vinced me that there is a great First 
if oar land can produce another Frede- Cause separate from myself— infinite in 
Tika. Incessant study has worn down power-^the maker and upholder of all 
her ph3rsical strength ; but her mental things.' 

powers are undiminished, and her love " A tear glistened in the eyes of the 

of everything that is true, pure, and old man, as he turned his fiioe towards 

good, adds a bright, untarnished lustre his daughter ; and our conversation 

to her name.' was abruptly terminated by his Imng 

^ An undefinable sensation riiot called away. 

Ikroogh my frame — a thrill, that made '^Frederika and myself were left alone. 

ay h^rtstrings vibrate. My thoughts My heart throbbed with unwonted ra- 

revertedtothei]nknownwho,but a few pidity;the state of suspense was 

Bwnths before, had given a deeper inte- misery. 

rest to my life than it had ever known. *' * Tell me,' I began— and, abashed 

And where was she now t Had her fate at my presumption, I hesitated. She 

been sealed by death*s stem warrant, looked at me for a moment in silence ; 

or did she still live to hope and pray then, gently placing her hand in mine, 

for me t I gaxed after the receding she said : 

form of Frederika ; and as a wild, im- *' ' Ernest Steiner, we have met at 

probable idea forced itself upon me, I last.' 

left my friend, and sought the solitude *'I raised that hand to my lips — but 

of my chamber. emotions too sacred for utterance over- 

^ 1 saw her no more that day ; but the powered me. 

following one, at sunset, we met at the 

upper spring. My friend was also " Two months — ^two eventfttl months 

there, and introduced us to each other, passed away ; and the hue of health 

To my great disappointment, not a shade again visited the cheek of Frederika. 

passed over her countenance as she In my intercourse with herself and her 

haxd my name, but, entering into con- admirable parent, I had felt my nature 

▼ersation with Uie most graceful ease purified and improved ; while my views 

and self-possession, she soon charmed were in a great measure enlightened 

me by the originality and depth of her and confirmed by the simple, but all- 

Bind, and fay the imafifected simplicity powerful arguments of the Christian 

flC her manner. Her father I fcuni a divine. I h^, found in the real friend 

BO 1e» agreeable acquaintance ; and of my soul, the ideal bride of my af- 

vhea at ]eng:th he delicately alluded to fections ; but the word upon which 

my laccess as an author, I saw the my all of happiness must be staked, 

eyes of Frederika turned upon me, as had not been spoken. I had, when a 

I answered, ' Yet I would gladly blot child, blown bubbles in the summer 

out, if I could, all that I have written.' air, and as the floating orb was sos- 

* ^ To belong to the Orthodox party in Germany at the present time, the ^at 
points of Lttiheran belief must be admitted.*'— i)t9»gA<'« Travels in Oermanf, 

44 Ernest Steiner. [Jofy* 

rmded between earth and Heaven, and thy steps astray, then let the counsels 

marked its opal shades, and saw the she has given thee, lure thee back into 

bright images reflected on its surface, the paths of purity and peace/^ 

I scarcely dared to breathe, for fear I The young man clasped his father's 

should dissolve the existence of that hand between his own, and both re- 

fiiiry globe. Thus did I feel, as the mained silent. There were thoughts 

hour £ew on that must either unite, or too deep for their utterance, or for my 

separate us for ever. It was no com- expression, that were busy ' at their 

mon die to cast ; it must be blighted hearts ; and as night in its starry 

manhood-— or — a prospect of happiness beauty closed around them, the 

that I could not trust myself to dwell shrouded memories of other days 

apon. came floating on, and robed the past in 

"It was on the evening prior to her golden colors such as it was wont to 

departure from Baden, that I told her wear. 

of my deep, my fervent attachment. The elder Steiner continued to 
I told her what she had been to me in gaze in dreamy reverie upon the tow- 
that dark and stormy period of my ering spire, and as he remembered how 
Hfe, when I turned away in bitterness often she had looked out upon that sky 
from every sound of consolation ; I with him, and had spoken of its eternal 
told her of the yearning desire of my mysteries, a faint smile illumined his 
heart to be a wiser and a better man. countenance, and he breathed this pas- 
With all the pleading tenderness of sionate appeal to the recollection of 
love, I besought her to share life's weal buried joys : 

or woe with me ; and as the light of '* BeautiM Ideal ! oh, come to me 

her j^acid smile beamed in beauty and again, freighted with the precious love, 

hope upon my soul, I felt that earth which as my wife she bore me. Come 

had no choicer gift to bestow, and that to me, with all the hallowed influences, 

the best blessing I had ever coveted which, for years, she shed around my 

was now indeed mine. soul. Come to me, not with the sha- 

" Dost thou remember thy mother, my dows of the early grave, but with the 

boy 1 Aye, by those tears, I see that soft rainbow hues of my wedded home, 

thou hast not forgotten her. Comes Refined and exalted by the touch of 

she in the still night-watches to bless truth, oh, whisper to my heart of the 

thy slumber? Wieland, when the happiness that is hers! Tell me, in my 

passion-pulses of thy young bosom are hours of despondence, that she lives 

throbbing wildly, and temptation with where the Ideal fades, and is merged 

its winning blimdishments would lead in the mighty Real ! '' 

Note. — ^At the present time, accounts the eflfect of Animal Magnetism upon 
of experiments in Animal Magnetism her ; if, indeed, he should be able to 
are apt to excite the smile of incredulity; succeed in his effort. He willed that 
and one ofthe incidents of the above sto- she should visit heaven; and as he 
ry will, perhaps, find but few believers, watched her countenance, he could ob- 
it is paralleled, however, to some extent serve the expression of suffering giving 
by a circumstance within the know- place to one of tranquil enjoyment, 
ledge of the writer, which occurred in When she awoke, she told him that she 
this country a few years since. An had dreamed of Paradise ; and de- 
eminent physician of New York, who scribed in the most circumBtantial and 
was far from being a believer in Mes- glowing manner, what ^e had felt and 
merism, was attending a female patient seen. The physician, from that time, 
laboring under distressing nervous de- ceased to consider the experiments 
bility. During the heavy sleep that mentioned by others aa unworthy of 
succeeded one of her most severe at- belief, 
tacks, he thought that he would test J. L. S. 

1843.] Remarks 4m American Art. 45 



The susceptibility, the tastes, and the example of revolt and republicanism, 

genins which enaible a people to enjoy was natural ; but the reason which she 

the Fine Arts, and to excel in them, assigned for those deficiencies was not 

IttTe been denied to the Anglo- Ameri- the true reason. She argued with the 

cans, not only by European talkers, depth and the sagacity of a philoso- 

botby European thinkers. The assertion pher who should conclode, from seeing 

of oar obtaseness and inefficiency in an infant imbibe with eagerness its 

this respect, has been ignorantly and first aliment, that its whole life would 

presomptuoosly set forth by some per- be occupied in similar absorption. 

sons, merely to fill up the measure of Sir Walter Scott, rank tory as he 

our condemnation. Others ha?e ar- was, showed more good sense, when, 

rived at the same conclusion, after in recommending an American book to 

examining our political and social Miss Edgeworth, he accounted for such 

character, after investigating our ex- a phenomenon, by saying, " that peo- 

ploits and testing our capacities. They pie once possessed of a three-legged 

admit that ure trade with enterprise stool, soon contrive to make an easy- 

and sIuIIy that ixre build ships cunmngly chair." Humble as the phrase is, we 

and 8ul them iw^ell, that we have a here perceive an expectation on his part, 

quick and far-lighted apprehension of that the energies now exercised in lay- 

^e Talue of a territory, that we make ing the foundations of a miffhty em* 

wholesome homespun laws for its gov- pire, would in due time rear the stately 

emmeot, and that we fight hard Mrhen columns of civilisation, and crown the 

mol^rted in any of these homely exer- edifice with the enti^lature of letters 

eiaes of oar aJ>ility ; but they assert and of arts. Remembering that one 

that there is a stubborn, anti-poetical leg of the American stool was planted 

teodency in all that we do, or say, or in Maine, a second in Florida, and the 

think ; they attribute our very ex- third at the base of the Rocky Moun- 

eellence in the ordinary business of tains, he could scarce expect that the 

life, to causes which must prevent oar chair could become an easy one in a 

derelopment as artists. half-century. 

Enjoying the accumulated' result of It is true, that before the Declaration 

the thought and labor of centuries, of Independence, Copley had in Bos- 

Enrope has witnessed our struggles ton formed a style of portrait which 

with the hardships of an untamed con- filled Sir Joshua Reynolds with aston- 

tinent, and the disadvantages of co- ishment ; and that West, breaking 

looial relations, with but a partial ap- through the bar of Quaker prohibition, 

ppeciation of what we aim at, with but and conquering the prejudice against a 

an imperfect knowledge of what we provincial aspirant, had taken a high 

hare done. Seeing us intently occu- rank in the highest walk of art in 

pied daring seTcral generations in fell- London. Stuart, Trumbull, Alston, 

\o% forests, in buUding towns, and Morse, Leslie, Newton, followed in 

coostrncting roads, she thence formed quick succession, while Yanderiyn won 

a theory that we are good for nothing golden opinions at Rome, and bore 

except these pioneer efforts. She away high honors at Paris. So far 

taunted as, because there were no were the citizens of the Republic from 

statoes or frescoes in our log-cabins ; showing a w^ant of capacity for art, 

she pronoanced us unmusical, because that we may safely afiirm, that the 

lire &A not sit down in the swamp with bent of their genius was rather pecu- 

an Indian on one side, and a rattle- liarly in that direction, since the first 

snake (m the other, to play the violin, burins of Europe were employed in 

That riie should triumph over the de- the service of the American pencil, 

fieiencies of a people who had set the before IrriDg had written, and while 


44. Remarks on American Art. U^j 

Cooper was yet a child. That Eng- us the opinion of the rottenness of the 

land, with these facts before her, should systems ol^ which they are the instiu- 

have accused us of obtuseness in re- ments. 

gard to art, and that we should have De Tocqueville remarks upon the 

pleaded guilty to the charge, furnishes British aristocracy, that, notwithstand- 

the strongest proof of her disposition ing their sagacity as a body, and their 

to underrate our intellectual powers, integrity and high-toned character as 

and of our own ultra docility and want individuals, they have gradually ab- 

of self-reliance. sorbed everything and left the people 

Not many years since, one of the nothing ; while he declares that the 

illustrious and good men of America American empUn/eSy though they are 

exclaimed in addressing the nation : sometimes detaulters and dishonest, yet, 

^ .. „. *fte' *U> ff©t little beyond their dues, 
« Student alu moUius spurantia eera, ^^^xe obliged to sacrifice bodi repu- 
Crcdoequidem ; vivos ducent de marmorc ^^^^ ^^^ self-respect in order to obtain 
''^"^' that little. Those who direct the 
Since that period art has received a Academies of Fine Arts in Europe, 
new impulse among us. Artists have are prone to take an advantage of their 
arisen in numbers ; the public gives position analogous to that enjoyed by 
its attention to their productions ; their the aforesaid aristocracy. As the lat- 
Iflbors are liberally rewarded. It seems ter come to regard the mass as a flock 
now admitted that wealth and cultiva^- to be fed, and defended, and cherished^ 
tion are destined to yield in America forthesakeof their wool and mutton, so 
the same fruits that they have given in the former are not slow to make a band 
Italy, in Spain, in Fiance, Germany of educandi the basis of a hierarchy, 
and England. It seems now admitted Systems and manner soon usurp the 
that there is no anomalous defect in our i^ace of sound precept. Faith is in- 
mental endowments ; that the same sisted on rather than woHlb. The 
powers displayed in clearing the forest pupils are required to be not only docile 
and tilling the farm will trim the garden, but submissive. They are not free. 
It seems clear that we are destined to To minds once opened to the light 
have a school of art. It becomes a of knowledge, an adept may speak in 
matter of importance to decide how the masses, and the seed will fall on good 
youth who devote themselves to these ground ; but to awaken a donnant soul, 
studies are to acquire the rudiments of to impart first principles, to watch the 
imitation, and what influences are to be budding of the germ of rare talent, re- 
made to act upon them. This question quires a contact and relations such as 
seemed at one time to have been decided, no professor can have with a class, such 
The friends of art in America looked as few men can have with any boy. 
to Europe for an example, and with If Europe must furnish a model of 
the natural assumption that experience artistical tuition, let us go at once to 
had made the old world wise in what the records of the great age of art in 
relates to the fine arts, determined upon Italy, and we shall there learn that 
forming Academies as the more refined Michael Angelo and Raphael, and their 
nations of the continent have ended by teachers also, were formed without any- 
doing. We might as well have pro- of the cumbrous machinery and mill- 
posed a national church establishment, horse discipline of a modem Academy. 
iTiat the youth must be taught is clear They were instructed, it is true ; they 
— ^but in framing an institution for that were apprenticed to painters. Instead 
object, if we look to countries grown of passively listening to an experienced 
old in European systems, it must be for proficient merely, they discussed with 
wamiuff rather than example. We their fellow students the merits of differ- 
speak irom long experience and much ent works, the advantages of rival 
observation of European Academies, methods, the choice between contra- 
We entertain the highest respect for dictory authorities. They formed one 
the professional ability and for the another. S3rmpathy wanned them, 
personal character of the gentlemen opposition strengthened, and emulation, 
who preside over those institutions, spurred them on. In these latter days. 
Nay, it is our conviction of their capa- classes of boys toil through the rudi— 
eity and of their individual willingness ments under the eye of men who aro 
to mipart knowledge, which forces upon themselves aj^irants for the publio 

1843.] Remarks on American Art. 47 

fsTor, and wiio, deriving no benefit, as poaitiyely hindrances instead of hej^ 

ma^teis from their apprentices, from to art. 

the proficiency of the lads, look upon The great element of execution, 

e? eij dever graduate as a stumbling- whether in painting or in sculpture, is 

block in their own way. Hence their imitation. This is the language of art. 

system of stupefying discipline, their Almost all clever boys can leam this 

tying down the pupil to mere manual to a decree far beyond what is sup- 

eieeotion, their silence in regard to posed. That objects be placed before 

piinciples, their cold reception of all them calculated to attract their atten- 

attempts to inTent. To chill in others tion and teach them the rules of pro- 

the effort to acquire is in them the portion, while they educate the eye to 

instinctxTe action of a wish to retain, form and color, no one will dispute ; 

Well do we remember the expression but the insisting upon a routine, the de- 

of &ce and the tone of voice with priving them of all choice or volition, 

vhich one of these bashaws of an the giving a false preference to readi- 

European Academy once received our ness of hand over power of thought, 

praiae of the labors of a man grown all these are great evils, and we fuUy 

grey in the practice of his art, but who, believe that they fall with a withering 

Siouffh his works were known and ad- force on those minds especially whose 

mired at Naples and Petersburgh, at nourishment and guidance they were 

London and Vienna, had not yet won intended to secure— we mean on those 

from the powers that were his exeftui/ur minds which are filled with a strong 

— ^** Yes, sir, yes ! clever boy, sir ! yearning after excellence ; warm sym- 

fromises well .^ pathies, quick, delicate, and nice per- 

The president and the professors of ceptions, strong will and a proud con- 

ao Academy are regarded by the public sciousness of creative power of mind, 

as of coarse at the head of their respect- joined to diffidence of their capacity to 

ire proiessions. Their works are bring into action the energies they feel 

models, their opinions give the law. within them. The paltry prizes offered 

The youth are awed and dazzled by for the best performances seldom rouse 

their titles and their fame ; the man of men of this order ; they may create in 

ffenius finds them arrayed in solid pha- such souls an unamiable contempt for 

kox to combat his claim. Tn those their unsuccessful competitors; they 

eountries where a court bestows all may give to successful mediocrity in- 

encouragement, it is found easy to keep fiated hopes, a false estimate of its own 

from thme in power aU knowledge of a powers. As a substantial help they 

dangerous upstart talent. How far are worthless even to the tyro who 

diis nxiachieTOos influence can be car- wins them. 

ried may be gathered from the position Leonardo da Vinci coiled a rope in 

in which Sir Joshua Reynolds and his his studio, and drew from it, with the 

cmtrt managed to keen men like Wilson subtlest outline and the most elaborate 

and Gainsborough. He who sees the study of light and shade. '^ Behold !'* 

productions of uiese men in company said he, " my academy !" He meant 

with those of their contemporaries, and to show that the elements of art can be 

who renaembers the impression which learned without the pompous array of 

^\i Joshua^s writings had conveyed of the antique school or the lectures of the 

their standing as artists, will perceive professor. Few will be tempted to 

vith surprise that they were not the vie- follow his example ; but even that were 

tims of any overt act of misrepresenta- far better than a routine of instruction 

tion, but that they were quietlv and which, afler years of drudgery and 

gendy praised out of the rank due to labor, sends forth the genius and the 

them bio an inferior one, by a union of blockhead so nearly on a level with 

real talent, constituted influence, and a each other, the one roanaelod with 

sly, cool, conBistent management. precepts, the other armed with them at 

Many of the ablest painters and all points. 

scoiptors a( £urope have expressed to The above reflections have been 

OS directly and frankly the opinion that drawn from us by the of^-repeated 

Academies, iiimished though they be expressions of regret which we have 

whfa aD the naeans to form the eye, the listened to, '* that from the constitution 

hauid and the mind of the pupil, are of our society, and the nature of our 

48 Remarks <m American Art. [July, 

institutions, no influences can be brought Disciplined by his previous occupa- 
to bear upon art with the vivifying tions to the ezactest mechanical execu- 
power of court patronage." We fully tion, he brought to his first effort in 
and fumly believe that these institutions sculpture, a hand and eye, a gift from 
sue more favorable to a natural, health- God and fruit of toil, which made his 
ful growth of art than any hotbed cul- first effort in its walk a masterpiece, 
ture whatever. We cannot— *(a8 did The series of portraits which came 
Napoleon) — ^make, by a few imperial from his hand during the three or four 
edicts, an army of battle painters, a years previous to his leaving this coun> 
hierarchy of drum-and-fife glorifiers. try are unparalleled by any modem 
Nor can we, in the life-time of an in- works in that class, which we have 
dividual, so stimulate this branch of seen. In the portraits of private citi- 
culture, so unduly and disproportionate- zens, he displayed the breadth of the 
ly to endow it, as to make a Walhalla classic models, united to the force, the 
start from a republican soil. The mo- evidence, and the unflinching exactness 
numents, the pictures, the statues of the of the Daguerreotype. In his bust of 
Tepublic will represent what the people Mr. ex-President Adams, he has given 
love and wish for, — ^not what they can the type by which the forms of other 
be made to accept, not how much tax&- portraits of that statesman will be 
tion they will bear. We hope by such tested ; in that of General Jackson, the 
slow growth to avoid the reaction re- indomitable will and high purpose of 
suiting from a morbid development ; a the old hero are incarnate. His bust 
reaction like that which attended the of Mr. Webster is perhaps his chef- 
building of St. Peter ^s ; a reaction like d^cntvre of portraiture. It has the in- 
that consequent upon the outlay which dividuality of Houdon's Voltaire united 
gave birth to the royal mushroom at to the grand breadth of Chantry's Scott. 
Versailles ; a reaction like that which Whether we regard the action of the 
we anticipate in Bavaria, unless the head, the attitude of the features, or 
people of that country are constituted the detail of the forms, we find nothing 
differently from the rest of mankind. wanting. Compare this Demosthenian 

If tiiere be any youth toiling through bust with some of the lowering carica- 
the rudiments of art, at the forms of tures which libel the late Secretary, and 
the simple and efiicient school at New you will see at once the difference be- 
York, (whose title is the only pompous tween the grasp of genius and the shifts 
thing about it), with a chilling belief of mediocrity. 

that elsewhere the difficulties he strug- During several years past, a consi- 
gles with are removed or modified, we derable portion of Mr. Powers's time 
call upon him to be of good cheer, and has been devoted to a statue of Eve. 
to believe — ^what from our hearts we This work will doubtless soon be sent 
are convinced of— that there is at to this country. We have seen it in 
present no country where the develop- the germ, in the flower, and in the fiill, 
ment and growth of an artist is more rich fruit. It is worthy its author, 
free, healthful, and happy than it is in We hope and trust that its exhibition 
these United States. It is not until here will not only confirm the fame 
the tyro becomes a proficient — nay, an which Italy has accorded to him, but 
adept — ^that his fortitude and his temper will remove from his path in a foreign 
are put to tests more severe than else- land some of the bitterest thorns by 
where — ^tests of which we propose to which the feet of genius are goaded in 
speak more at large on a future occasion, its march toward perfection. We will 

As a confirmation of the statements not believe that, even in these times, 
we have made, and in support of our America will allow a man who has 
view of them, we turn wiUi pride and done so weU, to be punished for his 
hope to Hiram Powers, as the most devotion to his art, and to be made to 
remarkable instance we have ever met suffer from his love for those connected 
with of a natural and healthful develop- with him. 

1843.] Jacta est Alea ! 40 


Play on! play on? the stakes ran high, 
The wine haih flowed right merrily, 
And all of human bliss and wo 
Seemed melt**d in its golden glow. 
But now its ffenial power is past, 
A darker spell around is cast, 
Where two are sitting all alone. 
Motionless as if turned to stone. 
And each, to careless madness driven. 
Plays, as unminding hell or heaven* 
It was a painful sight to see 
The crowd dispersing silently, 
Weary at last of song and jest 
Whicn could not fill an empty breast, 
Thai sighed to feel, *roid all its glee, 
The emptiness of revelry. 
•Twas sad to see the torches wane; 
They flicker, — scarce enough remain 
To light the two still seated there, 
Their game all hope, and all despair. 

Still deeper in the night it grew, 
And all things wore a ghostly hue 
Pale was the cheek so lately flushed. 
The jest, the cry, the curse were hushed ; 
With hands which each more firmly clench- 
Wilh eyes which tears can never quench — 

United not in love nor hate. 
Bound, not by friendship nor by ire, 
But by a wild and strange desire — 

Seek they the secret of their fate. 

The brow of one is frank and fair 
Beneath a cloud of sunny hair, 
Among whose gorgeous light and shade 
A mother's hand lo-day has played; 
But now one gathering line it shows, 
One track upon a field of snows. 
And, like that track upon the plain, 
Till all be gone, 'twill there remain. 
The hidden beauty of his soul 
His quivering features doth control ; 
And not from feverish raiser thirst 

Risks he his all upon the die, 

But with a proud unquailing eye, 
As one too brave lo fear the worst, 

Does he the throw of fate defy. 

The other darker is of hue. 
Of purpose dee];>er and less true ; 
An evil light is in his eve, 
He feels an evil triumph nigh. 
The faroring fortunes to him fall, 

TW.»XIII.— -wo. LXI. 4 

so Jacta est AUa ! [July^ 

He winneth much, he winoeth all» 
And still he tempts his rival on, 
Althoaeh his every hope is gone. 
And stili, all pitiless, he smiles 
Upon the victim of his wiles. 

Heavy sums of gold are lost. 
Fair estates, and gems of cost ; 
And, as each wild stake he gains. 
Higher, higher still he strains, 
Till at last a paper sealed 

From his traitor breast he drew. 
And bis smile a thonc^ht revealed. 

And his features* changing hue — 
« Come, by this we stand or fall. 
Here with thee I risk my ail." 

" Thou off Vest me an unknown stake ! 
So wild a leap I may not take." 
" Stand then, but never try again 
Thy courage with unfearing men.*' 
<* Come on, thou know^st I do not fear ; 
My fortunes lie all ruined here. 
Take the poor remnant — wherefore not ? 
I can achieve a nobler lot" 

With steady hand the die is cast, 
And lost ! well may it be the last ! 
All ashy grows the stripling's brow. 
For his brave heart is beggared now; 
His castled lands, and all beside, 
Were little — he has lost his bride ! 
Oh mad, to think to give away 
The heart that beats for thee alone! 
Oh mad, to think thine evil play 
Could make that guiltless heart thine own! 
It may be crushed to nothingness. 
Thou mayst destroy, but ne'er possess. 

" I loved her well, and loved her long ; 
And thv success hath done me wrong. 
Thou snould'st have counted well the cost ; 
I am avenged, and thou art lost." 

The debt is cancelled, and the maid 
Before the victor's feet is laid ; 
But the dear eyes are closed in death, 
And the sweet lips resigned their breath, 
To one beloved, who, on the ground, 
Cold in her cold embrace is bound — 
Two violets growing side by side 
That perished ere the spring had died. 

i^^-3 'ne Medical Philosophy of Tratfelling. 61 


Dr. Jamis J0HK8OK, one of the authors tarbed slumbers, or distressing dieams, 
quoted below, speaks of the " wear- the unfortunate victim of high ciTilisa- 
AHD-TSAK coirpijiniT," whioh means a tion is doomed to rise, scarce less lan- 
eooditioQ of body and mind iuterroediate guid than when he lay down, 
to that of sickness and health, but hav- No sooner, however, does the per* 
ing a decided inclination to the former manent resident of a large city, laboring 
«»tc. This morbus arwnymus he con- under this deterioration of health, which 
aiders incurable by physic ; but not- has been termed Caehena Londinensit^ 
withstanding its incurabQity, it no doubt leave the 
oakes much less work for the under- 
takers than for the doctors. It is obvi- ** chaos of eternal smoke 
maty the resuh of the wvab akd txab And volatile corruption from the dead, 
of the living machine, both mental and The dying, sickening, and the living 
eorp<n«aI ; bat it is much less the effect world," 
of ever-exertion <^ the corporeal powers 

than of the thinking faculties, more than the etiolation or blanching, stamp* 
especiaBy if attended by anxiety of ed upon the countenance, vanishes, and 
mind and the breathing of an impure the glow of ruddy health usurps its 
ktraoflphere. place. As in the corporeal structure. 

This disease, according to Dr. John- different effects result from Uie dry and 
Mm, predominates in London, while in restless air of the mountain, compared 
Paris it is almost unknovm. This with those evidenced in the moist and 
difiereoce is iairly attributable to the sluggish atmosphere of the valley ; so, 
eircamstanee, that in London they make &s regards the mental manifestations, 
their pleaMire consist in iwsiness, while the observation of the poet Gray is 
in Puis the rule may be said to be philosophically correct : 
leveraed. The former state of things 

Te cimerre in our own city of New <* An iron race, the mountain difis nmisif 
York. The fatigue induced by the tain, 

krdest day's toil of m^re bodily labor, Foes to the gentler manners of the plain." 
nay be dissipated by 

In proportion as the mechanical arts 

"Toed Nature's sweet restorer, balmy of civilisation outnumber the simple 

sleep ;" contrivances of the savage, are the m> 

tellectual powers called comparatively 
bat not so with the thought and care-^ into action ; and in the same ratio is 
the &tigae of mind — ^which harass the the susceptibility to moral impressi^ms 
eonstitutimi that has been overworked, augmented. In proportion as man's 
bteUeetoally and corporeally. The relations with the world around him are 
Tepose of the downiest pillow will be multiplied, do we observe the deleteri- 
»ogfat in vain. After a night of dis- ous inffuence of mental perturbations 

* Change of Air, or the Philosophy of Travelling ; being Autumnal Excursions 
tboQgfa France, Switzerland, Italy, Germany, and Belgium ; with Observations and 
Rcfteetirms on the Moral, Physical, and Medicinal Influence of Travdling-Exereise, 
ClBoge of Scene, Foreign Skies, and Voluntary Expatriation. By James Johnson, 
M. D^ Physieian Extraordinary to the King. London. 1831. 

TheSuiative Inflaence of Climate; with an Account of the Best Places of Resort 
far lanlids in England, the South of Europe, &c. By Sir James Clark, Bart., M. D., 
P. R. 8L, Physiciatt in Ordinary to the Queen, and to the Prince Albert. London. 

Tbe dhnate of the United States, and its Endemic Influences ; based chiefly on 
(be Recoidsi^the Medical Department, and Adjutant-General's Office, United States 
Anay. By Samuel Forry, M. B. New York. 1842. 

The Northern Lakes, a Summer Residence for Invalids of the South. By Daniel 
Dnke, M. J>., Professor in the Medical Institute of Looisville. Louisville. 1842. 

^ Hie Medical PMosopky of Travelling. [July, 

on his physical frame ; as, for example, is supposed to exist in headwoiic, there 
the functions of the digestive organs is a general and unquenchable thirst for 
and nervous system generally. If we every species of knowledge. Believing 
look around us in this vast city of New that " knowledge is power," this emu- 
York, we observe on every side an lation of intellect has always been a 
intensity of interest attached to politics striking feature in the higher pursuits 
religion, commerce, the arts, and lite- of literature and science, as divinity, 
rature ; and, more than all, we behold law, medicine, and politics ; but now 
that intense anxiety of mind attendant the same trait — the working of the 
on the speculative risks by which the brain in preference to the hand — char- 
pecuniary affairs of a large majority of acterizes, in various degrees, every art 
the community are kept in a state of and vocation, from the most delicate 
peipetual vacillation. and refined to the most gross and me- 

These observations are fully con- chanical. 
firmed by the results of statistical evi- That purely literary pursuits, how- 
dence. Affections of the nervous sys- ever, are not unfavorable to long life, 
tern, frequently implicating the mental seems to be now an admitted axiom, 
manifestations, as well as typhus and no matter whether they call into action 
typhoid fevers, occur oftener in large the memory, the imagination, or the 
and crowded towns than in the country, judgment. This conclusion has been 
and much more frequently than in states deduced from extensive tables, showing 
of society not completely civilized, — the average duration of life among the 
effects resulting from a confined and several classes of the conununity. 
impure air, co-operating with the ex- Natural philosophers would seem to 
haustion arising from dissipation or have the fairest prospect of longevity, 
mental exertion, the luxuries of refine- By Dr. Madden, however, it has been 
ment, and the excitement of the various inferred, but upon grounds which are 
passions and moral emotions. Accord- far from unobjectionable, that in those 
ing to Mr. Farr, as shown in a letter literary occupations in which the ima- 
appended to the First Annual Report of gination is most vigorously exerted, the 
the Registrar-General of Great Britain, wear and tear are comparatively great, 
in which a comparison is made among But these literary pursuits, it is gene- 
seven millions of persons, one-half of rally believed, cannot be prosecuted 
whom dwell in towns and the other half with the same impunity in the young 
in counties, the mortality from epidemic as in the adult. Intense study, before 
diseases and disorders of the nervous the organs have undergone their full 
system is doubled by the concentration evolution, may, it is easy to conceive, 
of population in cities. In towns, as lead to great energy of nutrition in the 
compared with counties, the mortality brain, and to faulty development in 
from consumption is increased thirty other parts of the body. This, how- 
per cent. ; from childbirth, seventy-one ever, happens but very rarely ; the im- 
percent.; and from typhus, two hundred paired health of the studious, instead 
and seventy-one per cent. The great of being directly induced by disorder of 
marts of commerce have been truly the brain, being generally referable to 
designated "the sepulchres of the dead collateral circumstances, Neverthe- 
and hospitals of the living." less, the opinion of the morbific agency 

This " wear and tear" of both the of great intellectual application is one 
fhvsime and the morale^ in city life, is that prevails almost universally, both 
mdeed obviously perceptible, wherever among the learned and illiterate ; and, 
art, science, or literature — ^the hand- indeed^ a host of names might be enn- 
maids of civilisation — ^spread their po- merated, who have been regarded as 
tent influence. It may be detected by martyrs to literary glory. But should 
the experienced eye at a single glance, even self-immolation be thus voluntarily 
in the court and the cabinet, at the bar incurred, that is, by the too intense and 
and at the altar, m the theatre and the protracted mental application in a con- 
counting-house ; in fine, in almost every stitution unusually excitable, the moum- 
habitation of our busy commercial me- ing relative happily never fails to find 
tropolis. In the umversal pursuit of a soothing pleasure in the melancholy 
happiness, man is continually aiming reflection, that the unfortunate victim 
at improving his condition ; and as the was pursuing a path bright with honor, 
means of accomplishing this great object and one which» especi^y in youth, haA 

1843.] The Medical Philosophy of Travelling. 53 

been esteemed in all ages as the most long, without destroying the corporeal 

mrrthy of admiration and applause. fabric. They are only momentary 

Very different, however, are the gusts of passion, from the effects of 

effects produced by intense mental ex> which the mind and the body are soon 

eitement, in him having the cares of relieved. But the less obtrusive cmo- 

empire reposing^ on his shoulders, or tions, resulting from the thousand forms 

in the case of the merchant engaged of solicitude, sorrow, and vexation, 

in deep and involving speculations, growing out of civilized life, sink deep 

Compared with the comparatively into the soul, sap its energies, and 

tnnquil mental exertions of the student, stamp their melancholy seal on the 

the effects here induced are not unlike countenance, in characters which can 

those of the passions and emotions, be- neither he prevented nor effaced by any 

neath which the* most towering intellect exertion or ingenuity of mind/' 

may soccmnb. The permanent impressions of these 

Altfaoogh man's organization proves apparently subordinate emotions of the 

that he was designed by his Creator to soul on the " human face divine," are 

exeieise both his intellectual and cor- not unlike the soft breeze and gentle 

poreal powers, yet nature allows these shower, which effect more in disturbing 

fibcnlties to be exercised in the most the present order of geological pheno- 

unequal degree in different individuals, mena than the devastating impetuosity 

TfaiGS while the coal-heaver or hod- of the volcano. There is, in truth, not 

carrier is straining daily, like an Atlas, a more obvious mark of the wear and 

under his load, without any exercise of tear of mind, as evinced in modem 

the thinking ^ulties, the barrister, on civilized life, than the care^-wom coun»' 

the other hand, puts an equal strain, tenance. 

daring as many hours of the day, upon Closely connected with this care- 

his btain, without scarcely calling his worn aspect is that etiolation or blanch- 

mmcolar system into action. Never- ing of the complexion, by which the 

tbeiess, this disproportion between inhabitants of a city may be readily 

mental and corporeal action has its distinguished from those of the country, 

limit, to go beyond which is an in- Independent of much thinking or mental 

£ringenient upon the laws of our organi- anxiety, this effect seems to depend on 

zatioB, which is sooner or later resented physical causes, such as sedentary 

by nature. avocations, late hours, breathing an 

Look upon the car^-tromcottn/enance impure atmosphere, want of exposure 

of the majonty of the denizens of our to the light of heaven, &c. Hear Dr. 

city — an aspect which, to a certain Johnson : 
extent, may be regarded as peculiarly 

American. Why it is that the Ameri- ,, ^^^^ ^ gardener wishes to etiolate, 

can generaUy presents a countenance ^^^^ j^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 

raoie sombre, care-worn, and prema- jy.j.y ^ vegetable, as lettuce, celery, &c., 

ncrety old than the European, is a ^e binds the leaves together, so that the 

qaestioii still open to discussion ; but lig^t may have as little access as possible 

there is a care-worn expression efface to their surfaces. In like manner, if we 

peculiar to the Londoner and New wish to etiolate men and women, we have 

Yorker, widch cannot escape general only to congregate them in cities, where 

obaerration. " To mask or conceal they are pretty securely kept out of the 

thm expression," that is, of our feelings sun, and where they become as white, 

and our passions, says Dr. Johnson, tender, and vratery as the finest celery. 

•* is the b(»8t oi the vUlain—the policy For the more exquisite specimens of this 

of the conrtiei— the pride of the philo- ^"™?^ etiolation, we must survey the 

Bopher-and the end^vor of everyone, ^habitants of mines, dungeons, and other 

T* ^__ ^^ «.^«»».i>«ki^ ♦!.*.♦ :* ;• subterranean abodes ; and for complete 

It nay appear *?««?'^*^^ ^^V,'* " contrasts to these, we have only to exa- 

mnch eaaer to veU the more fiery and ^^^^ ^^^ complexions of stage-coachmen, 

tcorbsieat passions of our nature, as shepherds, and the saUor « on the high and 

ang^, hatred, jealousy, revenge, &c., ^y^y ^^^^^^ Modern Babylon furnishes 

ihauk the more feeble and passive emo- ^^ ^m^ ^\\ t^e intermediate shades of 

tioos oC die soul, as grief, anxiety, and etiolation, from the « green and yellow 

li« Tarioos fbnns of care. The reason, melancholy* of the Bazar Maiden, who 

howerer, is obvions. Vivid excitement occupies somewhat less space in her daily 

mi tempestdods leeling cannot last avocations and exercise, than she will 

M Th^ Medical Philosophy of TravelUng. [My, 

txltimately do in her qmet and everlasting highest interest and importanee to the 

abode, to the languisbmg, listless, lifeless physician, whose duty it is to watch the 

JiVbvfm of the boudoir, etiolated in hot- workings of mind as well as of matter, 

hwues by the aid of 'motley routs and i,i the human microcosm. ThusShak- 

midnighl madrigals,' from which the light gpeare, that faithfuilcst observer of 

as well as the air of heayen is carrfujly jJatuje, makes the courage of Csssar 

excluded. . •.•.•••,: ,.^5** to sink annihilated beneath the inAn- 

t'chL'i^o/'aS^^^^^^ -ce of^ invisible, but a material 

the long nails on the fingers of a Chinese agentr-ww/orw ; 

intUcate-no a«)ca<um. Bi the middling ,. jj^ ^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^j,en he was in %>aiii j 

ami lower orders of life, it indicates im. ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ I ^ n^^ 

hialihy avocatum ; and among the thinking jj^^ j^^ ^^ ^^^^ '_ 

part of the community, it is one of the jjj^ ^^^,^^ jj ^jj ^^^^ ^^ color fly; 

symbols or symptoms of wear and tear of ^ ^^^ ^j^^^ ^^ ^f ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ 

constitution. But different people enter- Romans 

tain different ideas respecting etiolaUon. Mark him, and write his speeches in their 

The fond and fashionable mother would books 

as soon see green celery on her table as ^„ , jj ^;^^^^_, qj^^ ^^ ^^^^ dri^ 

brown health on the cheek of her daugh- Titinius * 

ter. When, therefore, the ladies venture ^^ ^ ^^ girl,'' 

into the open carriage, they carefully 

P~^j^« ^''r^f^T ^^ ?T^^' ^''^^ Every fiiculty of the soul may thus 

the dense clouds of an English atmosphere , j *^ i^v j • ^^i ^-^ 

in preventingthe slightest intrusion of the ^ ""^de to feel the depresamg influence 

oheerihl but embrowning rays of Phcebus. « material agents. But the mmd fails 

In short, no mad dog can have a greater not to reciprocate upon the body these 

dread of water, than has a modem fine disturbing effects ; for to menUl per- 

Jady of the solar beams. So much docs tuibation and tribulation are due more 

this Phcebophobia haunt her imagination, than a moiety of our corporeal discern* 

that the parasol is up even when the skies forts, and even diseases. Any strong 

are completdy overcast, in order, appa- emotion of the mind, as a transient 

rently, and I believe designedly, to prevent sense of fear, a sudden gust of pas- 

the attrition of the passing zephyr over gion, or an unexpected piece of intelli- 

her delicate features and complexion." gence, may cause a palpitation of the 

heart, a trembling of the muscles, or 

Between mind and body there exist a suspension of the digestive functions, 

certain reciOTocal relations. In the Even the minutest capillary tube bear- 

words of the Jp8almist,man is " fearfully ing the vital current, responds instan- 

and wonderfiilly made." He is, in taneously to the influence of mental 

truth, a curious and compound ma- perturbation. While the emotion of 

chine, — a combination of matter with shame will crimson the ohe^, that of 

a spiritual essence. While many of fear will blanch it. These organic 

his functions are voluntary, he has laws might easily be illustr&ted by a 

also many organs that acknowledge thousand examples. Let it sufllce, to 

not his control. Those operations remark in conclusion, that in propor- 

b^ which his food is digested, his blood tion as man congregates in cities, does 

circulated, and the wear and tear of the exercise of the intellect predo- 

the day repaired, maintain their cease^ minate over that of the body ; and in 

less, round vrithout his knowledge or the same ratio will there be an aug* 

consent. By means of his intellectual mentation of the range of corporeal 

nature, he becomes the ** lord of crea- effects resulting from the incresised 

tion;^ but that he pays for this *^ play of the passions." In this way does 

superiority a heavy tax in health and the morale act most injuriously upon 

happiness, it would not be difllcult to the ffhysique ; for diseases of the heart, 

demonstrate. for instance, as is observed by Cor- 

The immaterial part of man, not- visant, were extremely common dnr- 

withstanding it will survive the mate- ing the period of the French Revolu- 

rial portion in " another and a better tion, when the public mind in all classes 

world f^ 18) in the world here below, was scarcely ever free from agitation 

.linked with the latter in the strictest and alarm. 

bonds of reciprocal influence. It is, The question now arises, whether, 

indee4i a fiubject fruitfid with the when these ills, which we have design 

ie«.J The Medical Philoeophy ^ TrmfeUing. 56 

ated as the eonseqiieBoes of the wear of that iavalnabfe htcBing , as w pro- 

«id tnr of eiriksed, and ei^cially of eeed.'' 
eitf life, bSYS actoally superrenedy 

tkeie does not exist any remedy or tt^ ^^^ ^n j« 4^ *!. * i j 

antidiite. The experience of every .,f ^ "^^ """T !!i k *u *!i ^^'SS? *^^ 

aammer, indeed, tells us, in language ^P^^?'!?^ f^H^^^ ^^*"*^*^; *?* 

admittiiig of no iwo-fold meaning tlit ^^P^'^l^Wj V dieordered Btetea of the 

Ihcy Bis^an find reparation, in some digesure organs, which is far worse to 

de^e at least, in the relaxation and Jfl^^ltTt^r^ ^"^ ' u'^J'? "^ 

wJporeal exercise sought in a pure TH L this kind of mebocholir, he 

ruiTatmosiihere. Look at the >ile thinks there is no rther moral wpliyw. 

asd riekly aspect of the deaiaen ofour ^*? 7"?^^ of half so much effieacy as 

metropolis, aVhe sete forth on a trip • J^<l»«ons tour : 
«f a DMHith for Saratoga and the White 

Mountains, — for Niagara, Quebec, and *' It is true that, in some eases of con- 

the Great Jjakes, or the medicinal finned hypochondriacism, no earthly 

springs abocukding in the mountains of amosemeDi, no changs of scene, no 

Vixginia. Behold him again on his n>enlal impressions or excitement, no 

retnm; the care-worn countenance exercise of the body, can cheer the gloom 

^siddied oVr with the pale cast of that sprees itself over every object pre- 

.IhoQght," is now tinged with the glow f^f^^ ^^ ^^ ""I^'?' ^^^ imagmaUon! With 

ofhShh. In this^manner does^the '^'Xm^J^a^^^\^^^ 

XI-,- I ^^ t' 11 ^ '-^(zuim non ammum mutant* xetairom 

Bnti^ metropolis annually pour out t^^ or three instances which have corns 
lis thousands of citizens, seeking within my knowledge, of the most mveU 
health and recreation among the lakes erale, and apparently indomitable hypo- 
•cf Cumberland, the lochs and moua- chondriacism being miiigaied by travel- 
tains of Scotland, the valleys of Waies, ling, (though the mode of conducting the 
and the gveen hills of £rin ; others journey was far fVom good), I have little 
-swarm the routes that lead them to the doubt that many cases of this kind* which 
AJ^ or to the Appenines. It is, in- ultimately end in insanity, or at least in 
deed, fbrtnnate for the well-being of monomania, might be greatly ameliorat- 
the civic inhabitant, that a temporary <^» '^ ^^ completely cnred, by a system 
ahsttaetkm from smoke, and dust, and <^f e^wcise conducted on the foregoing 
din, » tfaos afforded ; and that one an- ??«*' ^"^^ ""S^^ '""^ ^t'^c''^ by power- 
noal interval of reUiiation is thus ex- ^^ P^jsuasion, or even by force, if necea. 

perienced in the cares of commerce, ^' 
the thirst of gold, the struggles of 

eompetitioD, the maidness of ambition, ^^ other states of mental depression 

and the riot of dissipation. resulting from moral causes, as grief, 

The saiolary moral and physical disappointment, reverses in fortune, 

effects, indoeed by change of air &c., similar beneficial efiects will fre- 

daiing trareliing, are admirably and quently follow. As the corporeal or- 

jttdkionsiy depleted by Dr. Johnson, g&ns often become deranged through 

As regards tht moral effects, he says : the medium of the moral and intellec* 

tual functions, so these last may, on the 

^If alMCraetioa from the cares and contrary, be made the medium of s 

sffricties sf lifCy ftom the perplexities of salutary influence. The attention of 

hiisiacsi, and, in short, from the operation nervous and hypochondriaoal patients, 

sf those eosAietiDg passions which ha- it is well known, becomes so steadily 

xaas the mind and wear the body, be pos- fixed on their own morbid feelings, that 

sihte aoder any circumstances, it » likely to divert it from this point demands ex- 

^he so on sncb a jonmey as this, for traordinary impressions. To effect 

^^^7!i:^J^:fl'^l::L^J'± tWe object, the circmnstances of do- 

mi where a constant soccession of new -"« .""Jf-"'. "'^ v.ruuu««uct« u* ««- 

n-d interesting ohjecU is presented to the °^f ^^ ^^^^ "* consequence of their mo- 

«y« sad sndCTSUiidmg, that powerfnlly °«^»y ^^ quite inadequate ; while 

niRsto Oie attention and absorbs other any attempt to reason with the sufferer, 

ieeiius, leaving litflc time for reflection »<> ^a^ ^^m aUeviatmg, actually m- 

<m ibe past, or gloomy anticipations of creases his distress, inasmuch as he 

the fstore. To this may be added, the suffers vexation from the bdief, that 

hope of cetBmiag health, insreased, as it his advisers are either nnspupathizbg 

fiaeratty will be, 1^ the daily acquisition or jncreduhms as regards bis toxments : 

56 The Medical Philosophy of Travelling. [Jvly, 

^ In such cases/' say^ Dr. Johnson, among ice and snow, with a fall of forty 
** the majestic scenery of Switzerland, the or more degrees of the thennometer, ex- 
romantic and heantiful views of Italy and perienced in the course of a few hours, 
the Rhingau, or the keen mountain air of between mid-day at Salenche, and even- 
the Highlands of Scotland or Wales, com- ing at the foot of the glaciers in Cha- 
hiued with the novelty, variety, and suo- mouni. There were upwards of fiAy 
cession of manners and customs of the travellers here, many of whom were fe- 
countries through which he passes, ab- males and invalids ; yet none suffered in- 
stract the attention of the dyspeptic and convenienpe from this rapid atmospheric 
hypochondriacal traveUer (if anything transition. This was still more remarica- 
can), from the hourly habit of dwelling ble in the journey from Martigny to the 
on, if not exaggerating, his own real or great St. Bemanl. On our way up, 
imaginary sensations, and thus help to Sirough the deep valleys, we had the 
break the chain of morbid association by thermometer at ninety-two degrees of re- 
which he is bound to the never-ending fleeted heat for three hours. I never felt 
detail of his own sufferings. This is a it much hotter in the East Indies. At 
paramount object in the treatment of nine o'clock that nighty while wandering 
these melancholy complaints ; and I am about the Hospice of the St. Bernard, the 
convinced that a journey of this kind, in thermometer fell to six degrees below the 
which mental excitement and bodily exer- freezing point, and we were half-frozen 
ctse are skilfully combined, would not in the cheerless apartments of the monas- 
only render many a miserable life com- tery. There were upwards of forty 
paratively happy, but prevent many a travellers there — some of them in very 
hypochondriac and dyspeptic from lifting delicate health ; and yet not a single cold 
his hand against his own existence. It was caught, nor any diminution of the 
would unquestionably preserve many an usual symptoms of a good appetite for 
individual from mental derangement." breakfast next morning. 

<<This was like a change from Cal- 

The physical effects of travelling are cutta to Melville Island in one short day ! 

happily portrayed by Dr. Johnson, in So much for the ability to bear heat and 

the following quotation, which, not- cold by journeying among the Alps. Let 

withstanding its length, will, we doubt ^* see how hygrometrical and barometri- 

not, be no ways exceptionable to the ^ changes are borne, A very large 

reader : concourse of travellers started at day- 
break from the village of Chamouni to 

• ^< The first beneficial influence of trav- ascend the Montanvert and Mer de 

eUingis perceptible in the stale of our Glace. The morning was beautiful; but, 

corporeal feelings. If they were pre- before we got two-thirds up the Montaa- 

viously in a state of morbid acuteness, as vert, a tremendous storm of wind and rain 

they generally are in ill health, they are came on us, without a quarter of an 

rendered less sensible. The eye, which hour's notice, and we were drenched to 

was before annoyed by a strong light, the skin in a very few minutes. Some of 

soon becomes capable of bearing it with- the party cerUinly turned tail ; and one 

but inconvenience ; and so of hearing and hypochondriac nearly threw me over a 

the other senses. In short, morbid sensi- precipice, while running past me in his 

bility of the nervous system generally is precipitate retreat to the village. The 

obtnnded, or reduced. This is brought majority, however, persevered, and 

about by more regular and free exposure reached the Chalet, dripping wet, with 

to all atmospheric impressions and changes the thermometer below the freezing point. 

than before, and that under a condition of There was no possibility of warming or 

body, from exercise, which renders these drying ourselves here ; and, therefore 

impressions quite harmless. Of this, we many of us proceeded on to the Mer de 

see the most striking examples in those Glace, and then wandered on the ice tiU 

who travel among the Alps. Delicate our clothes were dried by the natural heat 

females and sensitive invalids, who, at of our bodies. The next morning's mus- 

home, were highly susceptible of every ter for the passage over the Col de Balme 

change of temperature and other states showed no damage from the Montanvert 

of the atmosphere, will undergo extreme expedition. Even the hypochondriac 

vicissitudes among the mountains, with abovementioned regained his courage 

little inconvenience. I will offer an ex- over a bottle of champaigne, in the even-, 

ample or two 'in illustration. In the ing at the comfortable 'Union,' and 

month of August, 1823, the heat was ei!- mounted his mule next morning to cross 

cessive at Geneva and all the way along the Col de Balme. This day's journey 

the defiles of the mountains, till we got showed, in a most striking manner, the 

to Chamouni, where we were, at once, acquisition of strength wMeh travelling 

1843.] The Medical Philosophy of Traveliing. 57 

eonlecB OB ibe invalid. The ascent to the sand wretched sensations and nerrous 

nifflBUt of this moantain pass is extremely affections thereon dependent, vanish be- 

fatigning; but the labor is compensated fore persevering eiercisc in travelling, 

by one of the snblimest views from its and new life is imparted to the whole 

highest nd^Cj which the eye of men ever system, mental and corporeal. In short, 

beheld. ^The valley of Chamouni lies I am quite positive that the most invet- 

bebind, with Mont Blanc and snrronnd* erate dyspepsia, (where no organic dis- 

ingmonntains apparently within a stone's ease has taken place), wonld be com- 

tbiow, the cold of the Glaciers producing pletely removed, with all its mnltiform 

a most braciog effect on the whole frame, sympathetic torments, by a journey of two 

lo fronty the valley of the Rhone, flanked or three thousand miles through Switzer- 

OQ each side by snow-dad Alps, which, at land, Germany, or any other country, con- 

trst sight, are taken for ranges of white dncted on the principle of combining 

dondsy presents one of the most magnifi- active with passive exercise in the open 

cent views in Switzerland, or in the world, air, in such proportions as wonld suit the 

The saMime and the beautiful are here individual constitution and the previous 

protruded before the eye, in every direc- habits of life.'* 
tion, and in endless variety, so that the 

traveller lingers on this elevated moun- In these opinions we most heartily 

tsio pass, lost in amazement at the en- coincide, more especially as they have 

chanting scenery by which he is sur- been confirmed by our own experience, 

rosukdon every point of the compass, j^ civil lifq, to sleep between damp 

^J^T^L^J the Martigny side was sheets is considered almost equivalent 

t^J^^^I^!^i\rZl^^ to having one's death-warrant signed ; 

my Uie, yet there were three or four in- % . . ^ t\ t i_ ^^^l 

valiib Irith ns, whose lives were worth ^^^ »«^^f^' ^.^'; J«*Jf ^^'^ «y«' ^^^ 

icsreely a year's purchase when they left ^^^ philosophic traveller ; and not so, 

Eogfawd, and who went through this la- aj^ve say, with life in the tented field. 

horioas, and somewhat hazardous descent, The writer of this article has seen, in 

sliding, tumbling, and rolling over rocks Florida, an army lie down night after 

tod throngh mud, without the slightest night for weeks in succession, upon the 

Bhimate injnry. When we got to the wet and marshy soil, often without 

|oat-herds' sheds in the valley below, the even the protection of a tent, and not 

heat was tropical, and we all threw our- unfrequently exposed to showers so 

selves on the ground and slept soundly incessant that even all the fires were 

for two hours— rising refreshed to pursue extinguished ; and notwithstanding this 

^^IJ'*"*^" , ,1. exposure, the sick-list was generally 

« Now these and many other facts i^^ ^Yio^n when these same men had all 

which I could adduce, oner incontestible ^j^ advantaires of a 0-arrison We 

proof how mmch the morbid susceptibility 1 %„^J1r» u- - ^ a j * u j 

to transitions from heat to cold-from ^^^^ ^"^^'^ «?1^^^^« ««°^"«^ J^ ^ 

drought to drenchings-is reduced by ^ measles, at a temporary fort m 

travelling. The vicissitudes and exer- Florida, when orders came for its 

tiotts which I have described would lay abandonment ; and as the means of 

up half the effeminate invalids of Lon- transportation were scarcely adequate 

doA, aad kill, or almost frighten to death, to carry what was indispensable to 

many of those who cannot expose them- camp-life, it became necessary for the 

seives to a breath of cold or damp air, sick to arise and walk, or to remain be- 

witfaovt cooghs or rheumatisms, in this hind victims to the scalping-knife. Led 

«wotry- along by their fellow-soldiers through 

•« The next effect of travelling which I marshes often more than knee-deep, and 

AaBnotiee, is its influence on the organs occasionally drenched to the skin by 

of d^estion. This is w decided and oh- ^old and chiUy rains, these patients in 

T^ S?! ^ ^^i?^^* ^Tr.Z ^^"^ '^ the various stages of measles would 

C^the i^^^f d^^^^^ y^* ^^«^"7 i^P^^'^^- The second 

«w«. •^^L^^tl« «n«rm«iifMi A m.*. •»•» ^ay would fittd them better than the 

iio« are greatly aogmenteu. A man may - -^ , /• ^1. ^u • j j 1. /• 

eal aid drink things whUe travelling, ™' */*V^i. ^^ **® ^'^^ ' ^"^ T, v 

'wkiek would make him quite ill in ordi- *he end of the march, some wonld be 

juajlife^ convalescent, whilst others would be 

** These unequivocally good effects of actually again on duty : 
travelling on the digestive oigans, account 

satiiftetonly for the various otber bene- '* It is, indeed,^^ says Dr. Forry, in 

ficial iaflnenees on the constitution at the work cited on our first page, "a 

luge. Hea^ dyspepsisy and the thoa- remarkable fact in the medical history 


58 The Medical Philosophy of Travelling. [July, 

of fleets and annies, that, during tiie When the extent of benefitSy which may 

active progreas of warlike operationa, be deriTed from this remedy, both on the 

troops are little subject to the influence physical and moral eonstitntion^ is duly 

of disease. It seems as though the estimated, no person whose circumslancoi 

excitement of the passions has the pennit him to avail hmiself ofit, willfea 

power of steeling the system against ^ "® ^' 

the agency of morbific causes. On When we consider the multitude of 
the contrary, as soon as the excitement valetudinarians who annually visit the 
is withdrawn, by a cessation of opera- watering places of this country and of 
tions and a return to the monotony of a Europe, and who return to their homes 
garrison, the constitution manifests the renovated in health and inspired with 
consequences of recent fatigue and ex- confidence in the virtues of the waters 
posure.'^ (p. 221). near which they may have resided, the 
liie advantages which result from inference is obvious that the saktaiy 
change of climate, are, therefore, not effects are attributable more to the 
problematical. Indeed, from the earli- change of air and other extraneous cir- 
est period, change of climate has been eumstances, than to the various waters, 
regarded as a remedial a^ent of great This is well illustrated in the circum- 
efficacy. The opinion is, m truth, con* stance that man^ a valetudinariao in 
firmed by daily experience. Diseases leaving an Atlantic town for the interior 
that have long resisted medical treat- mountainous region, as, for example, 
ment, are frequently suspended or en- the White Sulphur, in Virginia, finds 
tirely cured by a removal from a crowd- himself during the journey, fatiguing 
ed city to an open country, or are found as it is, almost restored. Many springs 
to yield, under the influence of such a ^hich are inert, as the Bath and Mat- 
change, to remedies that previoi^ly lock waters of England, have thus 
produced no impression. We have acquired a high reputation for their 
already pointed out how the denizen of medicinal qualities. These agreeable 
the city, after a sojourn of a week or watering places are constantly crowded 
two in the salubrious air of the country, during the season of visiting, the latter 
finds an augmented appetite and in- in consequence of the surrounding beau- 
creased powers of nutrition ; where ties of nature, and the former for the 
languor and lassitude before predomi- ceaseless round of amusements, which, 
nated, there are now buoyancy and keeping the mind agreeably and lightly 
elasticity,— «nd the civic etiolation engaged, produce a beneficial reaction 
marked upon the countenance is now on the mental or corporeal disorder. 
Qsurped by the brighter hues of health. Were such waters bottled and trans- 
** On the continent,^' says Sir James ported to a distance, it is obvious that 
Clark, another of our authors, the title no beneficial effects could follow their 
of whose work ornaments our first use by an invalid. It was proposed, at 
pag^- one time, to l?krry sea-water by means 
—"the beneficial effects of change of of pipes to London, to place witWn the 
air are duly estimated; and the inhabitants reacn ™ all of its inhabitants the ad- 
of this country [England], and more espe- vantages of sea-bathmg at home ; bm 
cially of this metropolis [London], are had the scheme been carried into exe- 
Bow becoming fully sensible of its value, cution, it is much more than probable 
The vast increase in the size of our water- that the usual effects of sea-bathing 
ing places, of late years, and the deserted would have been no longer realized, 
state of London during several months, The establishment of a rail-road be- 
are sufficient proofs, not to mention others, tween a city and a watering place, 
of the increasing conviction among the exercises, to some extent, a like agency, 
public in gencial, that for the presenra- j^ ^ chiefly, as is well known, in 
tion of health, it is necessary, from time ^.^^^ ^f u consumption," that the ad- 
to Ume, to change the relaxing, I may say ^ ,.^ ^^ ^ 
detenoratms air of London, for the pure \® , . ^^^^^.-^ ^i .^ 
and invigorating air of the country. This, »ought ; and smce a more rational view 
indeed, is the hist, if not the only remedy ^f ^^ namre and cau^ of puhnonaiy 
of that terrible malady which preys upon «i5®"»««^™» prevailed, the beneficial 
the vital^ and stamps ite hues upon the effects of change of climate m certain 
countenance of almost every permanent forms, have been fully established, 
resident in this great city, and which may Formerly, when consumptive patients 
l»e justly tenned the CoeftmeiZoiNltfifiim. were indiBcrimtnately condenmed to 

180.] The Medical Philosophy of TraveUing. M 

Qodergo expatriation, the unfortmiate high dew-point, from the desert mnda 

inralid often sank before he reached hit of Lybia, peninsular Florida possesses 

dertination, or he was doomed soon to decided advantages, 

add another name to the long and melan- Dr. Forry also determines by statistic 

ebolj list of his countrymen, who seem cal facts, based on an aggregate mean 

to hare sought a foreign land, &r from strength of 47,220 soldiers of the Uni- 

iiiends and home, only to find a prema- ted States army, erobracinff the reports 

tare grave. When it is considered, for a period of ten years, that the class 

JioweTer, that all remedial agents have of pulmonary diseases, with the excep- 

prored so ineffieacious against this fear- tion of tubercular consumption, is do- 

fal foe, as to place it emphatically pendent chiefly on atmospheric laws, 

among the opprohria medicarum^ it is That the ratio of catarrhal affections, 

no ways surprising that its yictims pleurisy, inflammation of the lungs, 

should seek beneath the influence of a and chronic bronchitis, (chronic inflam- 

nore genial clime, the relief, howerer mation of the lining membrane of the 

uncertain, denied them in their own. wind-pipe), increases and decreases in 

Oa the capabilities of climate afforded proportion as the seasons are contrasted, 

to such classes of invalids by our own thus maintaining a direct relation with 

coimtiy, J^. Forry thus remarks : the extreme ranve of the thermometer 

as connected wiUi the seasons, appears 

*< AsKMig the Tsrious systems of dlmats to have been fairly demonstrated by Dr* 

presented in the extensiTe region of the p. ; or, in other words, it would seem to 

United States, that of the Peninsula of be a law that in proportion as the high 

Fterida is whoUy peculiar. Possessing an temperature of summer makes an im- 

insahr temperature not less equable and pression upon the system, do the lungs 

Blobnous in winter than that afforded by ^^^^^ su^eptible, so far as inflamn^- 

the south of Europe, it will be seen that .^ j:„«„««„ ™ ^^L^«»«^ *,. t\^^ «,«» 

bvalids requiring a mild winter residence, ^^ ^^^^« *^? concerned, to the mor- 

hsTegonrto foreign lands in search of ^^ ^S^Ticy of the opposite seasons, 

what might have been found at home, These constitute the predupostng 

Florida, therefore, merits the attention of causes, to which the exciting ones of 

physicians in our northern States ; for here moisture and variability of temperature 

the poliDonary invalid may exchange for are subordinate. The error of ordinary 

the inclement season of the north, or the observation has arisen from the circum- 

deteriorated atmosphere of a room to stance that the former are less obvious 

which he may be cosfioed, the mild and than the latter. As vicissitudes in 

eqnsble temperature, the soft and balmy temperature are more appreciable by 

hrecxes of an evergreen land. Instead our senses, it is to such that our atten- 

flf that feeUng of loneliness and abandon- tion is most attracted ; and it could not 

meat Which often <»ste a gkwm over the jj^ve been a priori inferred that the 

wnsiure mind ofhm, who goes to foreign ^^^^ ^^^ produced are of less hn- 

lands m search of health, ne nncts nimself -^w„«^^ Ak^^ «k« «.»4k<i«a»^M;«-;i^n o*;«i«<» 

still among his fellow-ciUzens, with whom ^ ^ ^ * f^l!S^ Sl^JS 

lie is bound by the common ties of Ian- ^"^ '^« ^^ J'J?* «^^- . ^^»f ^ T 

guage, laws and customs ; and should he ^»^« *» explanation of the fiwt that the 

require a physician, the difficulty of com- aweaae* o/ the puhnonary organs are 

mnaicating with a foreigner, perhaps by generaUy less nfe along our northern 

Buans of an interpreter — a circumstance irontier than in the middle States, and 

pecoJiarly vexatious to an invalid — is not less prevalent in our northern region hn 

ken presented.'* the moist and changeable climate pecu- 
liar to the sea-coast and large lakes, 

It is satisfketorily shown by Dr. than in the dry atmosphere of the 

Forry, that a comparison with the most opposite locality ; and hence, too, is 

fevored localities on the continent of aM>rded a rational explanation of the 

KiDspe, and the various islands of the advantages to be derived from change 

Mediienranean and the Atlantic held in of climate in the way of a winter resi* 

highest estimation for mildness and dence. 

equability of temperature, is no way These general conclusions are con- 

dMparaging' to the climate of East firmed b^ recent statistical facts in £u- 

Florida. Compared with Italy, which rope. It is found that consumption, as 

is alternately exposed to the icy winds in the middle regions of the United 

which sweep from the snow-clad Alps, States, is much more frequent in the 

and to the sirocco, with its depressing temperate regions of Europe, comprised 

60 The Medical Philosophy of Travelling. [July, 

between the ilfty-fifth and the forty-fiAh site locality. This opinion is likewise 

degrees of latitude, than it lb farther to confirmed by the British army statistics, 

the north. That a cold temperatore is on comparing the results given by the 

not essentially, per se, favorable to the cold and extremely foggy regions of 

development of consumption, as well as Nova Scotia with the dry inland cli* 

pleurisy and inflammation of the Inngs, mates of the same parallel, or even of 

seems, therefore, an established point, more southern latitudes. 
Dr. Forry thus remarks : Since the days of Hippocrates it has 

been a generally, indeed universally, 

'< So potent is the influence of early admitted opinion, that change of climate 

opinion, that the ideas of consumption and is beneficial in many forms of pulmo- 

a changeable climate, seem almost insepa- ly^y diseases ; but recently it has been 

rable. In countries, however, in which deduced from the " Statistical Reports 

the disease occurs most frequently, ' those ^^ ^i^^ Sickness, Mortality, and Invalid- 

who are U^t exposed to its mfluence are • „ ^ ^j^^ ^^-^^^^^ ^ -^ 

precisely those tww^ exposed to thevicissi- * ^^^ ^e *u^ ^\^u^ ♦»,«♦ ;♦ ;« «< a« «/, 
tudes of the climate.'^ Now, as it has quarter of the globe, that it is by no 
been satisfactorily ascertained that the fneans likely that anybenejkudmfiu- 
maximum of liability to consumpUon in ^^^ ^^^ ^^ exerted by clmuUe tUelJ 
England is found among those who sufler "» these affections. Upon the strength 
the least exposure to climatic variations, it of these statistics, the opinion that it was 
follows that the inflaence of the latter worse than useless to visit southern re- 
must be regarded as secondary to the ac- gions in pulmonic complaints, was very 
tion of other causes, as, for example, generally embraced, not only by all the 
occupation, food and habits. Although it medical journals of the day, but the 
cannot be doubted that a changeable cli- question was deemed of sufficient gene- 
mate exercises an evil influence on con- nil importance to be made the subject 
stitutions predisposed to consumption; of newspaper paragraphs. This de- 
yet, as we find the most variable climates ^^^tion is controverted at length in Dr. 
are best, adapted for the d-yelopment of p ,g ^^^^ ^^^ ^^j ^„ ^j^^ ground of 

Wn3n? ^J.?! fL^\pn^'if Jhk ^Z, -p ^^^ ^^atistics of the tJnited Stales army, 

IS apparent that the agency oi this cause , ^ - ^t rxu^ -d •*• u ,. :«,,«ir. 

in the production of consamption has been ^"^^^^ those of the British army itself; 

much exaggerated, ormuch too exclusive- ^n^ notwithstanding their strictures 

ly considered. Confirmatory of these re- were m turn severely criticised in Lon- 

marks is the observation of Dr. Rush, don, they have since been fully sus- 

that among our Indians and the frontier tained by such distinguished authorities 

inhabitants, consumption is very uncom- as Sir James Clark and Dr. John Davy, 

moQ." Inspector-General of Army Hospitals. 

The conclusion at which Dr. Davy, 
Notwithstanding moisture, of all the the brother of the illustrious Sir Hum- 
physical qualities of the air, has been phrey, arrived from Tarious statistical 
regarded as the most injurious to human facts, and an ingenious train of reason- 
life, it is also stated, on the authority of ing^ upon the attending circumstances,— 
Cowan^ in the work just quoted, that as a knowledge, the acquisition of which 
regards ita agency in the production of was especially favored by his official 
pulmonary consumption, all evidence situation as president of the medical 
•* tends strongly to expose the fallacy committee of Malta, — is as follows : — 
of theoretical opinion.'* But what is " As the statistical facts show that pul- 
yet more surprising is that the same monary complaints are more fatal 
fact is demonstrated by Dr. Forry by amongst our troops serving at home 
means of the army statistics, through- than in the Mediterranean ; and as all 
out every region of the United States, the circumstances, independent of cli- 
in reference to pleurisy, inflammation mate, so far as I am acquainted with 
of the lungs, and catarrhal aflfections ; them, affecting the question, appear to 
for these diseases are invariably less be in favor of the troops serving at 
prevalent in the moist and changeable home, especially the cavalry, I am not 
climate peculiar to the sea-coast and only 7iot able to adopt the opinion re- 
large lakes on our northern frontier, f erred to^ thai the cltmate of the Medi^ 
than in the dry atmosphere of the oppo- terranean is more productive of diseases 

— ■ — 

* Cowan's Additions to Louis on Phthisis* 

1B43.] The Medical Philosopht/ of TrateUing. 61 

of the chest than our oum dtmate, but not directly ascribable to climate, which 

om obliged to faU back on the old and contribute to the same end; such as 

hilherto generally received opinion of change of scene and of occupation, the 

an opposite nature.^** influence of the journey or voyage, as 

In Tiew of the high authority of the well as the hope inspired. Most im- 

Briti^h army statistics, and the wide- portant of all, however, as regards the 

spread diffusion of the erroneous con- advantages of a winter residence in 

elusion deduced, — that it is " bi/ no more southern latitudes, is the avoid- 

means likely t/tat any beneficial injlu^ ance of the extremes of the seasons, 

eiice can be exerted by climate itself*^ and consequently the predisposing 

in pulmonary diseases, — the putting of causes of pulmonary diseases. Along 

the question right is here deemed the coast of New England, for exam* 

necessary. pic, the annual ratio treated for catarrhal 

Although the influence of different afi'ections per 1000 of our troops is 233 ; 

climates in the causation as well as the but the average of each season is by no 

alleviation and cure of diseases, is a means the same, that of the flrst quarter 

fact universally conceded ; yet the at- of the year being 63, the second 49, the 

tempts hitherto made to explain the third 36, and the fourth 85. 
Tiiodus agendi of this power are not 

whoUy satisfactory. This, however, " These facts having been determined,** 

win not be a matter of surprise, when says Dr. Forry, " the advantage of a 

it is recollected that the problem of winter residence in a more southern lati- 

ph>-aical climate remains, in a great J^^^e ^^. » Pe«o» laboring under chronic 

measure, unBDlred. How much more ^T??^**'."' becomes at once apparent, 

complicated, then, must the subject [Chronic bronchitis is a form of consump- 

x^^zZ^ Ja..^ ;^1ai^^a «,;♦», *u« ii« ^^^^ havmg the closest relation to acute 

become, when mvolved wih the ele- catarrhal diseases, and it is by far the most 

menta of oipnic life, and all the com- ^^^^^ ^^^ ,^^j,Jl ^^ ^^„ Jj^j ^ . 

piexily of their combinations resultmg „,e„t.j jf ^e can avoid the transition 
from health and d^caae. of the seasons, that meteorological condi- 
As regards the benefit which invalids tion of the atmosphere, which stands first 
experience by a removal from a cold among the causes which induce catarrhal 
to a warm climate, Sir James Clark diseases, he will do much towards con- 
seems, however, to give a satisfactory trolling his malady. Let us suppose him 
explanation in the obvious agency of a on the coast of New England, in the third 
warm and dry atmosphere in promoting quarter [of the year], the ratio of catarrhal 
aa equable distribution of the circulating aflections being as low as 36, when the 
fluids, and more especially in relieving »"^^«; transition of the season brings it 
that congestion of the internal vessels ^^ *^^ tV' ^^^ '*^ ^^^^^ '"?°^^s ?^ L^« 
whichlinerally obtains in chronic dia. J^'^ The consequences will mevitaby 

J ^, «.~^«+;«« 4U^ -^♦; ;♦«. «r be an aggravation of that disorder to 

CTdera, by augmenting the activity of ^^^^ he is predisposed j for the respini- 

the «^pillary circulation, or extreme ^^.y ^^gans, even when healthy, are pecu- 

yeaete, on the surface. Its influence ji^rfy susceptible, at this season, to mor- 

is, Mdeed, manifested on perhaps every ^i^ action. Let us, on the contrary, sup- 

Amction of the animal economy. An- pose him gradually moving'soulh with the 

other very evident explanation of the change of the season, and the fourth 

eflfects observed may be reasonably quarter will find him in a climate whose 

ascribed to the influence of a bland ratio is even lower than that of the pre- 

atmosphere on the extensive surface of ceding quarter in the region which he had 

the respiratory organs, which is fully left. On the coast of New England, the 

equal in extent to that of the external ratio of the third quarter is 36, and that 

surfece of the body. To this we may of the fourth is 85, whereas the average 

M the impression made on the nervous ?^ ^*^f ^;«" ^^^^^ "^ peninsular Florida 

»r«em generally, and on the mind If ?" ^ ?/• These are not isolated facU, 

thioogh the me^nm of the external ^^J"*i^"" results obtained from ten 

^ J 1 *u„ ^ • 1 years' observation. As the same law ob- 

«n»ea, and conversely the reciprocal ^^^^ j^ ^^^ of climate, it is easy 

mfiaeiiee of the mind on the corporeal ^^ |^pp^y ^j^g remedy." 

fsnctioBS. But these influences have 

already been brought under notice, as As there is a general opinion preva- 

weil as other incidental circumstances, lent that it is consumption alone that is 

9 Note» and ObserratioBs on the Ionian Islands and Malta* 


63 The Medical Philosophy of Travelling, [July, 

benefited by change of climate, a few In these cases, oar object must be not 
words may be here given to the several only to remove these local disor- 
other forms of specific diseases, in ders, but also that low degree of febrile 
which the invalid will no doubt realize irritation, or that unhealthy condition of 
advantages equally great. the nutrient matter of the blood, which 
But Snt we will observe that the causes the deposition of tuberculous in- 
south-western coast of a country, espe- durations in the lungs. Hence, in the 
cially when lying like England on the manajreraent of consumptive patients, 
western coast of a continent, is gene- constitutional treatment should always 
rally mild and humid, and consemiently hold a prominent place ; but it is in 
soothing but rather relaxing. In dis- cases in which local disorders have 
eases accomjpanied with an inflammatory been the chief cause of the mischief, 
condition of the general system, or that we have the best chance of success, 
dependent on an excited state of par- In the constitutional treatment, our 
ticnlar organs, this variety of climate remedial ageats must be calculated to 
has been found more especially bene- give at once tone to the system, and 
ficial. Decided advantage may rea- promote the free action and balance of 
sonably be anticipated in chronic in- all the functions ; such as, the most 
flanmiatory affections of the lining mem- nutritious food that the digestive or- 
brane of the air passages, attended gans can readily assimilate without in- 
with a dry cough and little expecto- ducing excitement of the vascular sys- 
lation ; but when such cases occur in tern, pure air and a climate well adapted 
individuals of a languid and relaxed for regular exercise, and j^roper cloth- 
state of constitution, accompanied by ing to maintain the activity of the 
copious expectoration from the mucous circulation on the surfiaMse of the body, 
sunaces, the disease is as likely to be But it is not intended to enter into a 
aggravated as relieved. These re- detail of the treatment, which must be 
marks are equally applicable to all constantly adapted to individual cases, 
other diseases attended with great re- The remedial measuTes applicable to 
taxation of the general system. It is, the local disorders and particular symp- 
therefore, obvious that, in recommend- toms, may be so combined as to act, at 
ing a change of residence to invalids, the same time, favorably on the func* 
attention to these distinctions, both in tions at large. It must be constantly 
recard to varieties of climate and pe- borne in mind that this disease is a 
cimaritieB of disease, is absolutely ne- secondary one, originating in a morbid 
cessary. state of the general system. 

In this form of consimiption, pure 
*' The dimate of Florida,'' says Dr. country air may be considered indis- 
Forry, ** has been found beneficial in in- pensable. A dry sea-coast, under these 
eipient cases of pulmonary consumption, circumstances, is truly an antidote to 
and those threatened with the disease from the poisonous effects of a town resi- 
hereditary or acquired predisposition. It dence, more especially if conjoined 
is in chronic iM-onchial affections [those with gentle exercise, both by walking 
implicating the lining membrane of the air and riding on horseback. If the local- 
passages], more panicularly that it speeji- ity however, is much exposed to the 
ly manifests its salutary tendency. To - ^ 

and upon this distinction frcqucnUyhanes But should a marine atmosphere be 

the propriety of a removal to a southern "'""^' "^"^ peculiarity of constitution, 

dime. The application of the physical *® disagree, the patient majr resort to 

means of exploration, now so ardently the dry air of the interior, which, in con- 

enltivated, has fortunately given a greater junction with the aroma of pine forests, 

degree of certainty to onr diagnosis. The as in Florida and Georgia, is found very 

same remarks apply to the more mild and congenial to delicate lungs. Indeea, 

simple grades of chronic laryngitis.'' the Greeks, as we are told by Hippo- 
crates, and also the Romans, sent Uieir 

Bat even patients having tubercles consumptives to the pine forests of 

in the lungs, when mostly limited and Egypt. Moreover, much benefit would 

merely nascent, often experience re- also be derived from the sea-voyage, 

iiM u rkAle benefit ftom such a ehange. both in going and returning^— a remark 

ld4S.l The Medical PhUotophy of TrmfelUng. «S 

eooftUy applkaUe to the oiTalid uf our nervous a£S»ctionB and disfcressiiig men* 

?«oitheiii and Middle States who visits tal feelings which so often accompany 

Honda or the West Indies. these, in asthma, in bronchial diseases, 

in scrofula, and in rheomatism, the 

"Although our diagnostic means," says beneficial effects of climate are fiur 

Dr. Ferry, " have been much improved more strongly evinced than they are in 

of late years, yet the diagnosis of the early consumption. " 

stage of tubercular consumption, depend- !„ chronic diseases of the digestive 

ng as It does on a proper consideraUon organs, when no inflammation easts, or 

of Ae general symptoms, as weU as a structural changes have supervened in 

carefQi examination and interpretation of „;.«^«, ;™««^««+ ♦« i;<u k„* *.k^ i^Ai 

the physical signs, is often a matter of ^^»?^'*. ""P^"!*"!^ *^^' ^^> ^""ffl 

eitr^e difficSty. In the advanced cation is merely to remove disease of a 

stages of consumptioo-the scrftened ftiiwUonal character, a wmter residence, 

taberaOoBS and ulcerated states— as no ^^^^. "»« circumstances just stated, 

benefit can scaieely accrue from change promises great benefit ; but exercise m 

of dimate, it is only admissible when the open air, aided by a proper regunen, 

itroag^ desired by the patient On the are indispensable adjuvants. These 

ether handj notwithstandiDg the disease morbid states of the digestive organs 

be bat little advanced, it is unallowable, are treated of by Sir James Clark under 

if the patient is strongly averse to the three heads, viz., inflammatory, atonic, 

messure; for the possible advantage and irritable dyspepsia. For these 

which might accrue would be more tban difiierent form8,he recommended ifTerent 

connteibaUnced by the moral eflfecU climates; for the first, the south-west 

malting from this mvoluntary cxpatria- ^f jpnace, or Rome and Pisa in luly ; 

°' for the second, Nice and Naples ; and 

for the third, a climate of a medium 

In describing the other forms of dis- character. But to enlarge upon these 

ease in which change of climate is not distinctions were contrary to the design 

usfreqnently of decided advantage, we of this article. 

shall follow, mainly, Sir James Clark. Chronic Rheumatism is another dis- 

To this class belongs Asthma-—^ ease which vnll often be benefited hy 

term which is too commonly applied to change of climate. As these cases 

every disease in which difiiculty of frequently resist the best directed 

le^iration is a prominent symptom, efifortsofmedicine, it is the only remedy 

When consulted on the propriety of a which the northern physician can 

change of climate in this disease, let recommend with a reasonaiile prospect 

not the physician, therefore, prescribe of success. In northern Europe, a 

for a mere name, without duly estimat- warm climate, and the internal and 

kg the pathological condition of his external use of thermal mineral waters, 

patienL In simple spasmodic asthma, are regarded as the most valuable 

unconnected with organic disease, or resources known in the treatment of 

in that form which is complicated with inveterate chronic rheumatism. Rome 

chrooie bronchitis, or is symptomatic and Nice are considered the most eligi- 

of primary irritation in other viscera, ble situations in Europe^ while the 

as the stomach, intestines, &c,, the climate of the West Indies is supposed 

natient is generally much benefited, to exercise a still more beneficial influ- 
In asthma connected with affections of ence. When the disease is complicated 

the heart, a mild climate often affords with much derangement of the digestive 
tempmry relief ; and in this variety of organs, it is customary to visit such 

complication, a sea-voyage is frequently phwes as combine the additional ad- 

ef striking service. vantages of a course of bathing, as the 

la many of those affections termed mineral waters of the Pyrenees, those 

nerroitf, unconnected with inflamma- of Aix in Savoy, and the various baths 

tion, exercise and travelling, conjoined of Italy. In our own country, the Hot 

with a winter residence in a mild Springs of Virginia, which are used 
climate, arc frequently, in the case of only externally, m the form of bathing 

invalids from more austere latitudes, and the spout-bath or douche, are much 

powerful and eflicient remedies. It is resorted to ; and in many cases, if the 

the opinion of Sir James Clark, that patient visits them in summer, they 

* m dyspepsia, and disorders of the succeed very well, more especially in 

digestive organs generally, and in the preparing the system to realize the 

64 The Medical Philosophy of Travelling. [July* 


advantages to be derived from a win- Let not the invalid, however, trust 

ter^s residence in Florida,. Cuba, or too much to a change of climate. Un- 

some other West India island. fortunately for the character of the 

When there exists a general delicacy remedy, it has been recommended 

the constitution in childhood, often indiscriminately, and without proper 

:ie sequel of measles and scarlet fever, consideration. It has been too often 

manifesting itself by 83rmptoms indica- resorted to as a last resource or forlorn 

tive of a scrofulous disposition, a winter hope ; or in cases susceptible of aUe- 

residence in a warm climate frequently viation or permanent cure, it has been 

produces the most salutary effects. A wholly misapplied. One person is 

similar condition of the system often hurried from his native land, with the 

arises in young females ; and this gene- certainty of having his sufferings in- 

ral derangement, if not soon corrected, creased and his life shortened, instead 

often results in that constitutional dis- of being allowed to die in peace in his 

order, beyond the resources of the own family ; while another, who might 

healing art, which is denominated by derive much advantage from the change, 

Sir James Clark, *' Tuberculous Ca- is sent abroad wholly uninstructed in 

cheona,^^ — ^the precursor of pulmonary regard to the selection of a proper 

consumption. If the winter can be residence, or ignorant of the various 

passed in a warm climate, and the circumstances by which alone the most 

patient have the advantage of exercise suitable climate can be rendered bene- 

on horseback, warm sea-bathing, and a ficial. It is one of our most powerful 

well-regulated diet, the youthful invalid remedial agents, and one, too, which, 

may often be rescued from an untimely in many cases, will admit no substitute, 

grave. But much permanent advantage will 

Sir James Clark refers to another result neither from travelling nor 

form of disease in which change of change of climate, nor their combined 

climate promises its healing powers, influence, unless the invalid adheres 

viz., premature decay of the constitn- strictly to such regimen as his case 

tion, characterized by general evidence may require. This remedy — change 

of deteriorated health, while some of climate — ^must be considered in the 

tissue or organ, important to life, com- light of all other therapeutic means, 

monly manifests symptoms of unhealthy and to insure its proper action, it is 

action. This remarkable change, which requisite that the necessary conditions 

is not inappropriately termed, in com- be observed. The patient should, in a 

mon parlance, ^^ a breaking up of the measure, regard the change of climate 

constitution,^' often occurs without any as merely placing him in a sitaation 

obvious cause. more favorable for the operation of the 

All the advantages, however, to be remedies demanded by his disease, 
expected from change of air, depend It now remains to take a view of the 

upon the just adaptation of the remedy various climates treated of by our 

to the individual case. In bronchial several authors; but as this subject 

disease, for example, attended with alone, if fully presented to the reader, 

little expectoration, and that degree of would comprise a good-sized volume, 

irritation which induces cough from the the present notice of this branch of onr 

slightest exciting causes, a mild and subject must necessarily be exceedingly 

humid air often gives relief, while a restricted. It ought, moreover, to be 

dry and keen air cannot be tolerated, preceded by directions for invalids 

On the other hand, the same state of making a change of climate ; but this 

atmosphere which proves so irritating point we are obliged whollv to forego, 

in this case, acts beneficially in subjects In the first place, we shall follow, in 

of a more languid habit, with less sen- our survey, the order pursued by Sir 

sibility of the mucous membrane and a James Clark. Commencing with £}iig- 

more copious expectoration. This re- land, he says : 
mark is equally applicable to the other 

affections just brought under notice. ccxhe mild region of England admits 

As regards the sea-coast, or the mtenor of being divided Into four districts or 

of a country, not only is the relative groups of climate : that of the South 

preference a subject for consideration. Coast, comprehending the tract of coast 

but likewise the situation itself as mo- between Hastings and Portland Island ; 

dified by paxticular local causes. the Sovth-Wjest Coasti from the latter 

iW3.] The Medical Philosophy of Tngvelling, 55 

joat to Conii^ ; the district of the one of the leading grounds on which 

LA«rD^Eim; iheW«T«aufGEot7P,com. Dr. Forry disproved the concE 

{Rheodiog the places aioog the boidera aJreadv referrpd tn of thlo .^f!^- ' 

of ike Bristol Channel and ^uary of the vi^ that it ^ -hv nTZ^ri'''^^' 

Sefen. We riiall find th« each of these tw^nf Lnlfi^i^l i^^ 

iCffiMis has some pecaliar features in its I^L^LT ^^^^^'^, '"?;*,?»5« ^"^ ^ «- 

iHimBte, which chifiterize it and disu" T ^ "°*^^ '^^' "" pulmonary 

guish it from the others, both as regaids <**sf a»®8- 

its phisical and medicinal qualities/' ^ oaicombe, on the southwest 

coast, " under the shelter of a wooded 

We cannot, of course, foUow our *^^»"8*y« I^. Clark, " the American 

aatlior in the details of these groups. *. ^ ^Y^^^ flowered in the open 

Suffice it to say, that the mildness of "}^' *"^ '^Jl? * ^^gree of luxuriance 

Mine parts of England is truly surpris- ?™®^ equaUing that which it displays 

ing. Penzance, in the district of the }" * **'^«« olmiate. The orange and 

Land's End, for instance, is remarkable |«mon;tree, also, thrive here, and ripen 

f<ff its equal distribution of heat "^®*' *™" ^ "»« open air ; the only 

thron^wut the yeai^-aquaUtyin which, Protection they require during the 

so ^ as the investigations of Sir Jameh T^^^^^^j ^emg that afforded by a cover- 

Claik eictend, it finds a saperior in the "¥• ^^ f^^"^ "J*^- These trees ex- 

dimates ak«e of Madeira and the *"J?** ^^^gree of luxuriance and vigor, 

which I have seen in no other part of 

England, under the same circumstances* 

« The same rematkable equality in the nilS^^l^wf ^V H"^ occasionally 
distribatioii of temperatmV durfeg the P">d»i?ed fruit m this place." Although 
year at Pennnce, holds equally true for ^^^ J® 7^ difference here, it may be 
the dar; and, indeed, I may observe 'e"^™a» o«t^een the mean tempcra- 
generaily, that the progression of tcm- J"'"® of summer and winter than pcr- 
peratare for the year and the day, are "*P^ ^^ ^T part of Italy, yet the 
fkttfafbl types of each other. I find, on climate is not so well adapted to this 
cMoparing the months for a series of species of fruit ; for the winter tern- 
yews, that the daUy range at Penzance peratnre is so low that these phints re- 
is littk more than half that of the south quire a covering of straw-mat, whilst 
of Europe ; but, in this quality, it also the summer temperature is not suffi- 
falb s hort of Madeira. And here is a ciently high to develope the fruit in its 
proper opportunuy of remarking, that fullest perfection. «« '™« »n its 

ahhough m mean temperature for the Next in order comes the climate of 
whole twenty-four hours, Penzance is France - c«imow oj 

coaaderabiy lower than that of the south 
of Europe, yet that during the night, 

thn»«gh the winter, iu extreme minimum " The south of France has long been 
tesBperatore seldom is so low. It is heW in estimation for the mildness of its 
donag the day only that the south of winter climate, and various parts of it 
Earope, as far as regards temperature ^^^e ^en, and are still resorted to by in- 
sioijdy, possesses a superiority. Thus, in ▼»Hds. The southern provinces, as re- 
wijiter, at seven o'clock in the morning, g^rds climate, admit of being classed un- 
ihere is little difference between Rome ''er two divisions, namely, the South- 
aod Pemeance, but at two o'clock in the isabtern and the South- westebkj diA 
^lemoon, there is nearly the difference f«ring essentially from each other in the 
ef seren degrees. Indeed the whole ad- physical characters of their climate, and 
^»ntage of Penzance, as compared with ^^e influence of this on disease. . 
thesoath of Europe, appears to occur in Generally speaking, the climate of the 
Oe wiato- ttad during the night." Sooth-wkst of France will be found use- 

fnl in chronic inflammatory affections <«f 
As the range of the thermometer is j!*® mucous membrane, accompanied with 
not greater in England than in Italy, "'^® secretion, as in chronic bronchitis 
auid as the difl^rence between the mean ^?i *"«»«*«? ^7 much expectoration or 
teaipsratui« of summer and winter is u^'^. ^ breathing, and in simUar 

•ctnally less, a classification of climates ^""'Xl '^^«L^^ '"I'" !^i *™^^?- 

based on mere hititude in reference to L"! L^nfT- ?• ^''^^'^!; "" ^'^' ^^ 

n-TttMtoiii. liiiin ■ Oik i^ A^^^ ; *u «"»ptions of the skin j in dysmenorrhcea ; 

P^^aiy diseases, as is done m the fn certain kinds of headache, especiaU; 

j™ anny medi^ statisties, be- those induced, or eiasperated by shi^ 

««a8 an aetoal ateanbty. This m aortheast winds; aad in high morbid sea* 

^L. zut— Na LXX. 5 

6^ The Medical Philosopky of Travelling. U^Jr 

ability in general, when accompanied Genoa, of Florence, of Pisa, of Rome,, 

with that habit of body which the ancients and of Naples. In leaving England to 

called atnctum. On the other hand, the pass the winter in Italy, the invalid 

same diseases occurring in relaxed habits, should set out either in the early part 

in which thereis a disposition to copious of June or of September. If at the 

secretion, will be aggravated by ihis fonncr perioit, lie may , as is often done 
climate. . . . v anous places m the -.i. j « *„ ' ^«i j ^ua «.,.».«*»* ;« 

Southeast of France have been, nt dif. J^^^ advantage, spend the summer n 

ferent times, recommended as affording a Germany or Switzerland; and if at 

good winter climate for consumptive pa- ^^^ latter, the patient, avoiding the 

tients ; but nothing can be more unac summer heat, may reach his destina- 

connUble than how such an advice ever tion by means of a continuous journey 

came to be given ; as the experience of through a mild climate. The proper 

later years is in complete opposition to it, time for arriving in Italy is about the 

and the general and leading characters of firatt of October ; and the best route is 

the climate show that there never was through Switzerland, and across the 

the least reason to sanction it. How the Simplon : 
practice of sending consumptive invalids 

to the southeast of France originated, it «Xhe principal circumstance," says Sir 

is not of importance to inquire; bat that j. Clark, « which appears to modify the 

it IS founded in error, I think I shall be general character of this climate at the 

able to prove, by a reference to the total different places, is, iheit relative position 

want of success which has attended it, as ^ith respect to the sea-shore and the Ap- 

well as the physical characters of the ennines. In this there is considerable 

climate." variety ; Genoa and Naples are in the vi- 

c^«»* ,„*» «»/» ♦i^o* «,/» ^«n*.^« A>» cinity of both, as the mountains at these 

Sorry we are that we ^no^, for j^ ^pproich closely to the Meditcr- 

want of space, accompany Dr John- ^^^^ . 'f^ j^ ^^jy ^}^^ ^j,^, ^^^^ 

son m hia rambles through la belle ^^^^ ^y^^ jitter, and close to the Tuscan 

France ; but, instead of sounding ex- hju,^ ^ branch of the lower Apennines ^ 

travagant praises of " fair and fertile Rome jg about twelve miles from the 

France," our philosophic traveller coast, and nearly twice that distance 

rather coincides in opinion with the from the mountains; Florence is quite 

spirited authoress of ** Rome in the embosomed in the Apennines, and the 

Nineteenth Century," who says that characterof its climate is thereby affected 

** France is the most unpicturesque to such a degree, as scarcely to admit of 

country in Europe. It is everywhere its being classed with the other Italian 

bounded by beauty, (the Alps, the Py- climates." 
Tenees, the Jura Mountains, &c.,) but 

the country these erand boundaries in- When it is necessary for an invalid 

close is remarkafaly devoid of beauty to pass several winters in Italy, Dr. 

and interest. It is a dull picture set in Clark advises as a general rule, more 

a magnificent frame." especially in a consumptive case, his 

The climate of Nice is recommended quitting the country during the sum- 
in nearly all the forms of disease pre- mer. Hence the selection of a sum- 
viously enumerated, as likely to be re- mer residence becomes a matter of im- 
lieved by change of climate. In tu- portance. But eligible summer resi- 
bercular consumption, however, espe- dences may be found even in Italy ; 
cially when complicated with an irri- and the places principally resorted to 
table state of the mocous membranes by invalids who remain in the country 
of the larynx, trachea, or bronchi, or during the summer, are Naples and its 
of the stomach, this climate, according vicinity, Sienna, and the Baths of 
to Clark, " is decidedly nn&vorable ; ^' Lucca. Should the invalid recross 
but in chronic bronchitis, the most sain- the Alps, he will find an excellent as 
tary effects are often produced, particu- well as a delightful summer residence 
larly when accompanied by copious ex- on the borders of the Lake of Geneva, 
pectoration. The gouty, rheumatic, Here, too, he may try the effects of a 
and dyspeptic invalids, also, frequently course of grapes, " Cure de Raisins^ 
derive much benefit from a residence at — a remedy in high repute in several 
this place. parts of the Continent. 

We come now to the climates of The Atlantic cUmates^ consisting 

Italy, comprising, in the work of Sir of Madeira, the Canaries, and the 

James Clarke a description of that of Azores, in the eastern, sjid the Baba^ 

1843.] The Medical Philosophy of Tracelling. 67 

mu and Bennadas in the western At* eker, both of whom resided Ibr yeara 

hntic, arc next considered by Dr. on this island, show conclusively the 

Clark. necessity of adopting change of climate 

As regards mildness and equability as a means of preventing, rather than 

of climaae, Madeira has been long held of curing consumption. Sad expe- 

in bigh estimation. '^ When we take rience proves the inutility of sending 

into eoDsiderotion,'' says Sir James, patients in the advanced stage of con- 

'* tiie mildness of the winter and the sumption to Madeira ; but, on the other 

eoobieaB of the summer, together with hand, in incipient cases, and on those 

the remarkable equality of the tern- who are merely threatened with the 

pentore during the day and night, as disease, the effects of the climate are 

wefl as throughout the year, we may of the most encouraging character. 

safely conclude that the climate of From the cases of which Dr. Ronton 

Madeira is the finest in the northern kept notes, during a period of eight 

hemisphere.*^ The result of the ob- years, the following interesting and 

servations of Drs. Renton and Hein- mstructiTe table is furnished : 

Caaesof Cca^irmtd Consumption^ 47 

Of these there died within six months sHer their arrival at Madeira, 32 

Went borne in snmmer, returned, and died, 6 

Left the Island, of whose death we have heard, 6 

Koi anee heard o(^ probably dead, 8 

Total, 47 

Cases of Incipient Consumption, 35 

Of these there left the Island much improved, and of whom we have had 

good aceonots, -.26 

Also improved, bat not since heard of, 5 

Haveonoedied, 4 

Total, 35 

For those invalids who ought to pass withstanding the uniformity of tempo- 
several winters abroad, as is indeed rature which obtains in the former group 
the ease with the majority of consump- of islands, the summers are exceedingly 
tire patients, Madeira presents the hot, even more so than in the West 
fi>rtunate circumstance of possessing a Indies ; and as regards winds, the damp 
eooi and pleasant summer. " I am ac- and oppressive south-west, and the dry, 
qoainted with no place,*' says Captain sharp and cold north-west, are so injur!- 
JSaail Hall, " in which such a variety ous to delicate invalids as to justify the 
of climates roay be conmianded with epithet applied by Shakspeare— -** the 
eextainiy aa in this beautiful island — still vexed Bermoothes." 
beamifoi in every sense ; for the We will now advert to the cHmaie 
sceaery is so raried, that almost all <yf the West Indies. By Sir James 
tastes may be suited. '^ Madeira has, Clark, it is '* laid down as a general 
therefore, this important advantage, rule that the climate of the West Indies 
that it affords a residence, during the is an improper one for patients with 
whole year, to an invalid, without his tuberculous diseases of the lungs.** 
ssSenng from oppressive heat, or being As the winter temperature of some of 
subjected to the inconvenience of a these islands is higher than the summer 
kim journey. temperature in the south of Europe, 
^The Canaries, of which Teneriffe is this may be a correct opinion ; but it 
tlie pincipal island, and the only one certainly has no application to the larger 
poasessixig accommodations for invalids, islands, more especially if they con- 
have by no means the reputation of tain, as for example Cuba, elevated 
Madeira, — a remark that applies in a tracts. By those who have had the 
sdllgxeater degree to the Azores. The best means of arriving at a correct 
B^modas and Balumias belong to the knowledge, as Drs. Arnold, Musgrave, 
ttme category. In localities properly Ferguson and Melville, this cumate 
protected, these islands doubtless pos- jfcnerally has been highly esteemed for 
many delightful iH'ots ; but not- its influence on persons predisposed to 

et The Medical PMosophy of TraoeUvng. [My, 

tionmunption. As regards the climate clnde this article with another extiaet 

^ Cuba, we can speak, from personal from it, in reference to the climate of 

knowledge, of its highly beneficial East Florida, as a winter residence for 

effects. the northern invalid : 

The personal observations of Dr. 
Forry in reference to climate, as a win- ^^ The influence of temperatore on tbe 

ter residence for the northern invdid living body, more especially as regards 

of oar own conntry, are mostly confined 'winds, is oAen indicated more aecaiat«Iy 

to East Florida. So remarkable is the ^V ^^ sensations than the thermometer, 

©quality in the distribution of tempera- ^"** instance, in Parry's Voyages to the 

tore among the seaaons here, that a Arctic Regions, we are told that when the 

eempariaon wHh the most farored lo- mercury stood at fiily-one degrees below 

mU^ already noticed is no way dis- ?^° of Fahrenheit, in a cahn, no greater 

v«^«^«u«»ujr i«^iauo« w itv w»jr uio mconvenience was expcneoced thsD when 

F»*agiKg* it ^as at zero daring a breeze. Conse- 

** A comparison of the mean tempera- qiJ^ntly, the advantages of climate as re- 

tore of winter and summer, that of the g*^^ its fitness for the puhnonie, not nn- 

warmest and coldest months, and that of frequently depend on the mere circum- 

succesfiive months and seasons, results stance of exposure to, or shelter fit)in, 

generally in favor of peninsular Florida, <^old winds. The frequency and severity 

The mean difierence of successive months ^^ ^^^ winds at St. Augustine constitute a 

stands thus: Pisa 5^.75, Naples 5^.08, considerable drawback on the benefits of 

Nice 4*».74, Roine 4*»:39, Fort King [in the ^^^ climate. The chilly north-east blast, 

interior of Florida] 4*'.28, Fort Marion at sorcharged with fogs and saline vapors, 

fit. Augustine 3°.68, Fort Brooke [on the sleeping around every angle of its ancient 

western coast of Florida] d^'.OS, Penzance, ^^^ dilapidated walls, often forbids the 

England, 3<*.05, Key West [at the south- valetudinarian venturing from his domicil. 

em point of Florida] 2«».44, and Madeira ^o obviate these disadvantages, a hrgc 

2^41 The lime, the orange house was erected at Picolata on the St. 

and the fig, find here a genial temperatnre J John's; but during the pending Indian 
the course of vegetable life is unceasing ; disturbances, it has been eonverted into a 
eulinary vegetables are cultivated, and barrack and an hospital, 
wild fiowers spring up and flourish in the "^^ ^^^ present time, St. Augustine 
month of January $ and so little is the *"^ Key West are the only places which 
temperaiure of the lakes and rivers di- ^^^^ ^bc conveniences required by the 
minished during the winter months, that ^^^^s of an invalid j but assuming that 
one may almost at any time bathe in their P^pP®'" accommodations can be equally ob- 
waters. The climate is so exceedingly ^i^^ed stall points. Key Biscayno on the 
mild and uniform, that besides the vegela- «o«ith-ea8tern coast, or Tampa Bay on the 
ble productions of the southern states ^^^ ^^ Mexico, elainas a decided prefer- 
genarally, many of a tropical character ^*^> especially over St. Augustine. As 
are produced. . . . Along the south- « general rule, it would be judicioosfor 
eastern coast, at Key Biscayno, for exam- ^**® northern physician to direct his pnl- 
pie, frost is never known, nor is it ever so nK>°wy patient to embark about the mid- 
cold as to require the use of fire. In this ^^^ °^ October for Tampa Bay. Braving 
system of climate, the rigors of winter are ^}^^ perils of the wide ocean, he will real- 
Unknown, tind smiling verdure never ^^ '^^ healthful excitement incident to 
ceases to reign.'' ^e fears and hopes of a sea- voyage. The 

salubrious air of the sea has, indeed, al 

Now compare this mild and equable ^.^y^ ^^^ esteemed as peculiarly conge- 

-olimate with that of Italy, as described "^^^ *° ^^® lungs. Even the Romans, 

by Dr. Johnson. among whom consumption seems to have 

been of frequent occurrence, were wont 

" Italy indeed," he says, "is very sin- to seek relief in a voyage to Alexandria, 
gularly situated in respect to climate. Having spent the wintermonths at Tampa, 
With its feet resting against the snow-clad ^^ the invalid proceed early in March to 
Alps, and its head stretching towards the ^' Augustine, by way of Dade's battle- 
miming shore of Africa, ii is alternately ^ound and the old Seminole agency. la 
cstpcved to the Suflbcation of the sirocco, >idd2tion to the corporeal exercise, he will 
ftom the arid sands of Lybia, and the icy ^^^ 'bod for mental digestion at every step 
chill of the tmmontane, from the Alps or ^^ bis journey. Haying thus reaped the 
the Apennines." benefit of a sea-voyage and all the ad- 

T» «t;<it^» ixT *!.» A«»«^^^ V ^ vantages to be derived from a change of 

-rflS. S!-.^ American character climate, the valetudinarian may return to 

Of i^r. Forry'e work, we will now con< his anxious friends so much renovated in 

1W8-] T?ie Medical PkUasophy of Travelling. 00 

Mth and 8^U M to be capable of tance from Buffalo to Chicago is more 

"^-T^yJ^r!,^'"^ of social hfe. than twelve hundred miles, the invalid 

J^1;i^r;t^;^^^ ^^,f -%h is enabled to derive much 

«ik, few idncraitinvalids wiU imiSi?e ^^^^^ntage from a voy^e over this long 

the eiasiple of the celebrated Spanish ad. f^P^nse of waters But we wOl aJQow 

veotorer, Pbnee de Leon, who, in the wild T® ^""^^^ ^^ *P®** ^ ^ ^^'^ graphic 

spirit of the sixteenth centory, braved the **nguage :— 
pcriJs of nnloaown seas and the dimgers .^ _ . 

of Florida's wilds, in search of the faiw . -^°^ »c sammer climate of the lakes 

famed fountain of rejuvenescence. When J? "*^* ^^® ^^^^ source of benefit to inva- 

the period, however, of the red man's de- }~*5 ^^ *^® agitation imparted by the 

partore shall have passed, [an event which *J**' **" voyages of several days' duration, 

has been officially announced], the cli- ^'^^S'^ 'waters which are never stagnant, 

mate of this« land of flowers' will, it and somctunes rolling, will be found among 

may be safely predicted, acquire a celcbri- J'^*,?®?* efficient means of restoring 

ty, as a winter residence, not inferior to f «a*^> ^ "^^y chronic diseases, especial- 

thal of Italy, Madeira, or Soathem "^ ^°®® ®^ * nervous character, such as 

Prance.'* hysteria and hypochondriasm. 

" Another source of benefit is the ex- 

In coochision, we will present some f^^^^''^ imputed by the voyage to the 

of the fects contained in a highly in- S»ol lif ti,*^«T'*'''°'f ,^* * ''•*'?"* 

terestingpamphletbyDr. Daniel D^ke, Ti^n!™ J^!''S^n^I^^^^^ 

-.^♦;*i Jju^i ikT^A r 1 a scenery are soon laminanxed to the eve, 

eimtled ^The Northern Lakes, a Sum- ^hjeh then merely wanders over the coin! 

mer Residence for Invalids of the raingled throngs of valetudinarians, doc- 

SotUh, which has been the result of a tors, dancers, idlers, gamblers, coquettes, 

two months- voyage, for medical obser- and dandies, whence it soon returns to 

vation, during the last summer. Our inspect the infirmities or teftuinvf^tf of its 

Botioe of it, however, seeing the space possessor; but on protracted voyages, 

already devoted to this article, must through new and fresh regions, curiosity 

necessarily be brief. is stirred up to the highest pitch, and 

La view of what has been written on pleasantly gratified by the hourly unfold- 

the comparative fitness of diflferent ing of fresh aspects of nature; some new 

places towards the equator, as winter ^^^^^}^^^?i ^^^ /^** lake—a group of 

residences for the invaUds of the north, fff^ .^^^""^ ^'"""^ *,^^ hist-aquatic 

Dr. Drake thinks, with good reason! walking TnthT*?^^^ 

that the valetudinarians of the former ^^ter-spout, or a shifting seriesV ^Snted 

regions have equal claims upon the clouds seen in the kaleidoscope of heaven, 
medical observer as regards a summer « But the North has attractions of a 

residence. He merely purposes to add different kind, which should draw into its 

ancuher, and as he supposes a superior summer bosom those who seek health and 

place of resort, to those already fre- recreation in travel. Prom Ontario to 

qoented ; such as the Springs of Vir- Michigan, the voyager passes in the midst 

gioia, Kentucky, Pennsykania, and of spots consecrated to the heart of every 

J^ewYork, — the marine Avatering places American; and deeply interesting to aU 

of Long Branch, Newport, Nahant, &c. ^^o delight to study the history of their 

— as well as a trip to the I'alls of Ni- native land. The shores and waters of 

agara, or a voyage on the St. Lawrence ^^ Jakes, so oilen reddened with, the blood 

to Montreal and Quebec. ^J ^^^« ^*^° fought and died m the cause 

How truly delightful it is to traverse f^^^.'' ^^^^^^^^ ^^ P"^"^ {?^^« *"^1- 

^ocea^akes'orinUnd seas during IrcUe^n^n^^ft re{:2r^!h^^^^^^ 

thescaaon of summer, we can add our ^ ^^^^, ^^^^^ ,^1 ^^^^ ^^^ 

testmiooy from personal experience, ^nd the imaginary be forgotten." 
Instead of the reflected heat of inland 

Tegioos on the same parallels, which Along this routo of twelve hundred 

rirafe that of the West Indies, we have miles from Chicago to the Falls of Nia- 

here cool and refreshing lake and land gara, patriotic emotions, as is justly ob- 

Ixreezes, the former prevailing through served by Dr. Drake, are being continu- 

i&ost of the daj, and the latter setting ally excited in the mind of the traveller ; 

in at night as soon as the radiation from but as we cannot here follow our author in 

the ground has reduced its temperature the narrative of his voyage, descriptive 

Wlow that of the water. As the dis- ofthe scenery and historical associations 




70 The Orchestra. [Jolf? 

eTerywheie obtruded upon his view, ranged upon the thread of travel I We 

we must content ourselves with giving in»y fearlessly aflirm, that, in this respect, 

his concludinff remarks .— t*>c lakes of the north take precedence 

over any other region of oar beloved ooan- 

<'Such are some of the historical asso- try. Their deeply wooded shores yield a 

ciations connected with a voyage upon the bountiful harvest of facts to the historian, 

lakes ; and where else in the Union can while their green waters reflect imatces of 

the invalid and the patriot roam^ to find glory, sadness and shame, which the poet 

localities so opulent in varied and affect* and orator will embody and bequeath to 

ing recollections — so accessible — so ar- posterity." 




The versatile, discursive violin, 

Light, tender, brilliant, passionate, or calm, 
Sliding with careless nonchalance within 

His range of ready utterance, wins the palm 
Of victory o'er his fellows for his grace ; 

Fine, fluent speaker, polished gentleman. 
Well may he be the leader in the race 

Of blending instruments — ^fighting in the van 
With conscious ease and fine chivalric speed ; 

A very Bayard in the field of sound. 
Rallying his struggling followers in their need, 

And spurring them to keep their hard-earned ground. 
So the fifth Henry fought at Azincour, 
And led his followers to the breach once more. 



Larffer and more matured, deeper in thought. 

Slower in speech and of a graver tone. 
His ardor softened, as if years had wrought 

Wise moods upon him, living all alone, 
A calm and philosophic eremite, — 

Yet at some feeling of remembered things, 
Or passion smothered, but not purged quite, 

Hark ! what a depth of sorrow in those strings ! 
See, what a storm growls in his angry breast ! 

Yet list again ; hjs voice no longer moans ; 
The storm hath spent its rage and is at rest. 

Strong, self-possessed, the violoncello's tones : 
But yet too oft, like Hamlet, seem to me 
A high eoul struggling with its destiny. 

4843.] The Orchestra. 71 



Now come with me, beside this sedgy brook. 

Far in the fields, away from crowded street : 
Into the flowing water let us look. 

While o^er our heads the whispering elm-trees meet . 
There will we listen to a simple tale 

Of fireside pleasures and of shepherds^ loves : 
A reedy voice sweet as the nightingale 

Shall sing of Corydon and Amaryllis ; 
The grasshopper shall chirp, the bee shall hum, 

The stream shall murmur to the water-lilies, 
And all the sounds of summer noon shall come, 

And minglinf in the oboe^s pastoral tone, 

Make them mrget that man did ever sigh and moan. 



A band of martial riders next I hear, 

Whose sharp brass voices cut and rend the air. 
Tkie shepherd^s tale is mute, and now the ear 

Is filled with a wilder clang than it can bear ; 
WTiose arrowy trumpet notes so short and bright, 

The long-drawn wailing of that loud trombone. 
Tell of the bloody and tumultuous fight, 

The march of victory and the dying groan. 
O^er the green fields the serried squadrons pour, 

Killing and burning like the bolts of heaven ; 
The sweetest flowers with cannon-smoke and gore 

Are all profaned, and Innocence is driven 
Forth from her cottages and wooded streams, 
"While over all red Battle fiercely gleams. 



IBui who are these far in the leafy wood, 

Murmuring such mellow, hesitating notes, 
It seems the very breath of solitude, 

Loading with dewy balm each breeze that floats 1 
They are a peasant-group, I know them well. 

The diffident, conscious horns, whose muffled speec h 
But half expresses what their souls would tell. 

Aiming at strains their strength can never reach ; 
An untaught rustic band ; and yet how sweet 

And soothing comes their music o'er the soul ! 
Dear poets of the forest, who would meet 

Your melodies save where wild waters roll, 
Reminding us of Him who by his plough 
Walked with a laurel- wreath upon his brow '. 

Boston^ May, 1843. 

7il Laurettej or the Bed Seal, [i^Jr 



The road from Artois to Flandera is were ruined by the rain. That was no 

a long and dreary one. It extends in slight affliction ! 
a straight line, with neither trees nor My horse hung his head, and I did 

ditches along its sides, over flat plains, the same. I began to reflect, and for 

covered at aU seasons with a yellow the first time asked myself, where I 

day. It was in the month of March, was going. I knew absolutely nothing 

1815, that, as I was passing along this about it ; but that did not trouble me 

road, I met with an adventure I have long ; I knew that my squadron was 

never forgotten. there, and there too was my duty. As 

I was «3one ; I rode on horseback ; I I felt in my heart a profound and im- 
had a good cloak, a black casque, pis- perturbable tranquillity, I thanked that 
tols, and a heavy sabre. It had been meflfable feeling of duty, and tried to 
raining in torrents during four days explain it to myself. Seeing every 
and four nights of my journey, and I day how gaily the most nnaccustoined 
remember that I was singing the '^ Jo- &tigues were borne by heads so iair or 
conde" at the top of my voice — ^I was so white, how cavalierly a well assured 
8o young ! The body-guard of the future was risked by men of a worldly 
king, in 1814, was filled up with old and happy life, and taking my own share 
men and boys; the empire seemed to in that wonderful satisfiiction which eve- 
have seized and killed ofl* all the men. ry man derives from the conviction that 

My comrades were on the road, he cannot evade any ofthe obligations of 
somewhat in advance of me, escorting honor, I saw clearly that je(/*-aMe^a/wn 
Louis XVIII. ; r saw their white cloaks ^^'as a far easier and more common 
and red coats on the very edge of the thing than is generally imagined. I 
northern horizon. The Lancers of asked myself whether this abnegation 
Bonaparte, who, step by step, watched of self was not an innate sentiment ? 
and followed our retreat, showed from what was this need of obeying, and of 
time to time the tricolored pennons placing one^s freedom of Mrill in the 
of their long lances at the opposite hands of others, as a heavy and trouble- 
horizon. A lost shoe had somewhat some burden t whence came the secret 
retarded my horse ; but he was young pleasure of being rid of this burden ^ 
and strong, and I pushed him on, to and why the pride of man never re- 
rejoin my squadron. He set off on a voltedatthis? I perceived this mysteri- 
quick trot ; I put my hand to my belt — ous instinct binding together, on every 
it was well furnished with gold ; I side, families and nations into masses 
heard the iron scabbard of my sword powerful in their combination ; but I 
clank upon my stirrup, and I mlt very nowhere saw the renunciation of one^s 
proud and perfectly happy. own actions, words, wishes, and almost 

It rained on, ana I sang on. How- thoughts, so complete and formidable 
ever, I soon ceased, tired of hearing as in the army. In every direction I saw 
nobody but myself, and I then heard resistance possible and habitual. I be- 
only the rain and the feet of my horse held the citizen rendering an obedience 
as they plashed in the ruts. The pave- that was discriminating and intelligent, 
ment of the road gave way ; I sank examining for itself, and liable to stop at 
down, and was obliged to have resource a certain point. I beheld even the tender 
to my feet. My high cavalry boots submission of woman reach its limits, 
were covered on the outside with a the law taking up her defence, when 
crust of mud, yeUow as ochre, and in- the authority she obeys commands a 
side they were fast filling with water, vnrong. But military obedience is 
I looked at my new epaulettes, my blind and dumb, because at the same 
happiness and my consolation — they time passive and active — ^receiving its 

* This exquisite story is from the French of De Vigny. 

1841.] LsureUe, or the Red Seal. 73 

onier and executing it — striking with could see, from under a short and well* 

ejes shut, like the Fate of antiquity, worn blue cloak, the epaulette of a 

I fbliowed out, through all its possible chef-^-hataiUon, His face was rough 

eoiue({iience8, this abnegation of the ana hard, but good, as you so oflen see 

soldier, without retreat, ^v^ithout condi- in the army. He looked at me side- 

tion, and leading him sometimes to ways from under his heavy black eye- 

tada of illest omen. Such were my brows, and drawing a musket quickly 

leQ/KtiaaB as I 'walked on at my horsed out of the wagon, he cocked it, passing 

own pleasure ; looking at my watch to the other side of the mule, of which 

from time to time, and beholding the he thus made a rampart. Having seen 

road fts it stretched along for ever in a his white cockade, I simply showed 

straight line, varied neither by house him the sleeve of my red coat, when 

nor tree, and intersecting the plain as he replaced the musket in the wagon, 

&i as the horizon, like a yellow stripe saying : 

00 a grey cloth. Sometimes the liquid ** Oh ! that^s another matter. I took 

line was lost in the liquid ground that you for one of those coneys who are 

sonoonded it ; and when a little running after us. Will you take a 

hn^^ttening of the dull and pale light drop V 

of the day spread over that most me- "With all my heart,^^ I answered, 

laacholy expanse of land, I saw myself drawing near ; " it is four-and-twenty 

ia the midst of a muddy ocean, follow- hours since I have tasted one/* 

inga current of clay and plaster. He had round his neck a cocoa-nut, 

Examining attentively the yellow beautifully carved, and made into a 

line of the road, I observed upon it, at bottle, with a silver neck, of which he 

the distance of about a mile, a little seemed a little vain. He reached it 

black point, which was in motion. I to me, and I drank a little poor white 

was d^ighted with the sight, — ^it was wine with a great deal of satisfaction, 

somebody. I kept my eyes steadily and returned him the cocoa-nut. 

&xed upon it. I saw that the black " To the health of the king !" said 

point was going in the same direction he, drinking ; " he has made me an 

writh myself, toward Lille, and that it officer of the Legion of Honor, and it 

vent with a zigzag motion, as though is but right that I should follow him to 

with painful toil. I quickened my gait, the frontier. And as I have only my 

aod gained ground upon the object, epaulette by which to live, I shall then 

vhich began to lengthen a httle and rejoin my battalion. That^s my duty." 

increase in bulk to my sight. Reaching As he thus spoke, to himself as it 

a firmer soil, I resumed a trot, and soon were, he set his little mule in march 

fiuicied that I could distinguish a little again, saying that we had « no time to 

black wagon. I was hungry, and lose ; and as I was of the same opinion, 

hoped that it was the waggon of a sut- I resumed my route two or three steps 

ler ; and, looking upon my poor horse in his rear. I still kept looking at him, 

as a Teasel, I crowded all sail to arrive but without asking any questions, as I 

at that fortunate island in this sea of never liked that talkative indiscretion 

OMmdi where he sometimes sank down which is so common among us. 

above his knees. We went on in silence for about a 

When about a hundred yards off, I at mile. As he then stopped to rest his 

distinguished plainly a little wagon poor little mule, which it was really 

of white wood, covered by a black oil- painful to see, I halted too, and tried 

cloth stretched over three hoops. It to press out the water which made my 

looked like a little cradle mounted on riding-boots Uke two reservoirs in 

two wheels. The wheels sank down which my legs were soaking. 

to the ajdetree ; the little mule which *^ Your boots begin to stick to your 

drew it was wearisomely led by a man feet ?" said he to me. 

on foot, who held the bridle. I drew '^ It is four nights since I have taken 

near, and took an attentive look at them off." 

him. " Bah ! in a week you will think no 

He was a man of about fifly, musta- more of it," he replied, with his hoarse 

ehioed, tall and strong, and his back voice. " It is something to be alone in 

rooadcd, like that of tbe old infantry times like these, I can tell you. Do 

officers who have carried the knapsack, you know what I have got inside 

Be had also their usifonn ; and you there V 

74 Laurette, or the Red Seal. [J^ly, 

** No,*' said I. was always a sailor, and afterwards in 

"It is a woman." the infantry; so that I know nothing 

" Ah !" was my answer, with no about riding." 
particular astonishment, as I quietly He went on for about twenty steps, 

resumed my route at a walk again. He looking sideways at me, as if expecting 

followed. a question ; but as he heard none, he 

"This wretched covering here did presently continued himself : 
not cost me very dear," he resumed, " You are not very inquisitive, that's 

" nor the mule neither ; but it is all a fact ! That ought to astonish you a 

that I need, although this road here is little, what I said there." 
rather a long queue riband." " I am not often astonished," said I. 

I offered him my horse to mount " Ah, but if I were to tell you how I 

when he should be tired ; and as I came to quit the sea, then we should 

only spoke gravely and simply of his see." 

equipage, of which he feared the ridi- " Very well," I answered, " why 

cnlous appearance, he became suddenly don't you try 1 That will warm us, 

quite at his ease, and approaching my and make me forget the rain that is 

stirrup, gave me a slap on the knee, pouring in at my back, and only stop- 

and said : ping at my heels." 

" Come, you are a good fellow, The good chef-de-hataHLon prepared 

though you are one of the redJ*^ himself deliberately to speak, with all 

I ^t, in the bitterness of his accent, the pleasure of a child. He adjusted 

as he thus designated the four red his shako on his head, which was 

companies, how many angry prejudices covered with black oil-cloth, and gave 

the luxury and rank of these corps of that peculiar shrug of the shoulders, 

officers had created in the army at which none can imagine who have not 

large. served in the infantry, — that shrug of 

" However," he added, " I will not the shoulders which the soldier gives 

accept your offer, considering that I do to raise his knapsack, and ease its 

not know how to mount a horse, and weight for a moment. It is a hid>it of 

that, for my part, that is not my busi-, the soldier, which, when he becomes 

ness." an officer, remains as a trick. After 

" But, commandant, you superior this jerking movement, he drank a little 

officers are obliged to." wine from his flask, administered a 

" Bah \ once a year for inspection, kick of Encouragement to the little 

and then a hired hack. As for me, I mule, and began. 


"You must know then, in the first place, brushes with' the pirates, which I will 

my boy, that I was bom at Brest. I tell you about some other time, and 

began by being^ troop-boy, gaining my they gave me the command of a small 

half ration, and my half pay, at the age brig-of-war, named the Marat, 
of nine years, as my father was a sol- " On the 38th of Pructidor, 1797, I 

dier in the Guards. But as I had a received orders to get ready for a 

liking for the sea, one fme night, when voyage to Cayenne. I was to trans- 

I was at Brest on leave of absence, I port there sixty soldiers and a diportSj 

hid among the ropes of a merchant- who had remained behind, of the one 

ship bound to the Indies, and was not hundred and ninetyHhree which the 

found until they were out at sea, when frigate La Decade had taken on board 

the captain preferred making a sailor- some days before. I had orders to 

boy of me, to throwing me overboard, treat this individual with kindness, and 

When the Revolution came on, I had the first letter of the Directory enclosed 

made some headway, and was captain of a second, sealed with three red seals, 

a neat little trading vessel, having been the middle one of which was of 

tossed about the sea, like its foam, for enormous size. I was forbidden to 

fifteen years. As the old royal navy — open this letter before reaching the 

a good old navy, faith, it was — ^found it- first degree north latitude, and between 

self suddenly depopulated of its officers, the 97th and 28th of longitude — ^that is 

ihey took their captains from the mer- to say, when about crossing the line, 

chant service. I had had some little This l^ letter was of a (Siape alto- 


1^1 Zaureite, or the Red Seal. 75 

getber pectiiiar. It xvns yery long, a letter up here. If you would only 

udwtigfatlj closed, that I could not help me a little V 

gel U& word, either in at the corners, "*^''*^I ^^^® really good little chil- 

onimgh the envelope. I am not dren. The little hushand took the 

npeisbtioiis, but it nrightened me, hammer, and the little wife the naila, 

tbt letter. I placed it in my cabin, and they would hand them to me, as I 

wkt the glass of a poor little English asked for them ; and she would say, 

clock, which was nailed up over my * To the right — to the left—captain !* 

beith. Mine was a real sailor^s bed, — all the time laughing, because the 

ifyookno^^ mrhat that is. Bat what knocking made my clock swing. I 

m I talking about 1 — you have lived at think I hear her yet, with her tittle 

Bost bat sixteen summers ; you can voice, ' To the right — ^to the left — cap- 

sever have seen anything of that kind, tain!^ She was making fun of me. 

A queen's chamber cannot be so *Ah, haP said I, * you little puss, 111 

neatly arranged as a sailor's cabin — make your husband scold you, youll 

be it said inrithoot boasting. Every- sec' Then she jumped upon his neck 

thing has its o^*n place, and its own and kissed him ; — they were indeed a 

nail; nothing can move. The vessel charming pair, and so our acquaintance 

nay toss as much as she chooses, began. We were all at once good 

without putting" anything out of order, friends. 

The fdraiture is all made to fit the ** We had a fine passage, too. The 

fbnn of the ▼essel, and of one's own weather seemed always made on pur* 

iittJe room. My bed was a chest ; pose for us. As I had never had any- 

when it was opened, I slept in it ; and thing but dark faces on board my vessel^ 

when it was shut, it was my sofa, and I made my two little lovers come to my 

there I smoked my pipe. Sometimes table every day. It put me in spirits. 

it was my table, and then I sat on one When we had eaten our biscuit and 

of the htUe casks in the cabin. My fish, the little wife and her husband 

flcxxr was waxed and nibbed like ma- would sit looking at one another, as 

faogasy, and shone like a jewel. A though they had never seen each other 

real looking-glass ! Oh, what a sweet before. Then I would set to laughing 

little cabin it was ! — and my brig, too, with all my might, and making fun of 

VFSLs not to be sneezed at. There was them. They would laugh, too, with 

some fine fun on board there, and the me. You would have laughed to have 

▼oyage began this time pleasantly seen us there like three imbeciles, not 

enough, but for But I must not an- knowing what was the matter with us. 

ticipate. The fact is, it was really pleasant to 

** We had a fine breeze from the see them so fond of one another. 

X.N.W., and I was busy putting away Tlicy were contented anywhere ; they 

this letter under the glass of my clock, found anything which was given them 

^wlken my deporte entered my cabin ; good. Still they were on allowance, like 

be had by the hand a beautiful little the rest of us. I only added a little 

^irl of about seventeen, and he told me Swedish brandy when they dined with 

he himself vras only nineteen. A me ; only a little glass, just to keep up 

le fellow, though a little too my rank. They slept in a hanunock, 

i, and too fair for a man. He was where the vessel rolled them about like 

a man though, and a man who behaved those two pears I have here, in this wet 

better on this occasion, than many an handkerchief. They were lively and 

old one would have done — ^you will see. contented. I did like you, I asked 

Se had his little wife under his arm ; them no questions ; what use was there 

wibm was fresh and gay as a child, for me to know their name and their 

TImst looked like two doves. It really business — ^me,a traverser of the waves % 

> a pleasure to see them. So said I: I carried them from one side of the 

'Ah,well,youngones, you cometo ocean to the other, as I might have 

ij a visit to the old captain, eh 1 carried two birds of Paradise, 

ifis kind of you. I am taking you " AfV»r a month, I came to look up* 

ler fo away ; but all the better, for on them as my children. Every day 

shall have the loi^r to make one when I called them, they came and sat 

another's acquaintance. I am sorry to near me. The young man wrote on 

reeeire Madame with my coat off, but xAy table, (that is to say, on my bed), 

yom. see I am nailing this big scamp of and when I wished it, he helped me to 


76 LtturettCf or the Red Seal. U^Jr 

take my observation ; he soon knew for. Ton will tell me that some of 
how to do it as well as myself, — ^I was these days— or never, if you choose, 
quite astonished sometimes. Theyoun? You don't look as if you had a very 
woman would sit down upon a barrS heavy conscience, and I am sure that 
and sew. I have done many a worse thing than 
" One day, when they were fixed so, I you, in my life, my poor innocent little 
said to them : — ' Do you know, m^ souls. Now, so long as you are under 
little friends, that we make quite a fanu^ my guard, I shall not let you go, yon 
ly picture as we now are % I don't may be sure of that ; I would rather 
wish to ask you any questions, but you wring your necks like two pigeons, 
probably have not any more monej But the epaulette once off, I know no 
than you need, and you are very deli- longer admiral nor anything else.' 
cate, both of you, to dig and work as *' * The fact is,' he answered, mourn- 
the convicts at Cayenne do. It's a fully shaking his brown head, though a 
wretched country, I can tell you, from little powdered, as was still the fasmon 
the bottom of my heart ; but as for of that day, — ^ the fact is, I think it 
me, who am already an old wolFs skin would be dangerous for you, captain, 
dried in the sun, I could live there like to seem to know us. We laugh be- 
a lord. If you have, as I rather fancy cause we are young ; we look happy 
you have, (without wishing to catechize beeause we love one another ; but I 
you), ever so little regard for me, I have many a miserable moment when 
would willingly leave my old brig, I think of the future, and I know not 
which is at best but an old wooden shoe, what will become of my poor Laura.* 
and establish myself there with you, if And he again pressed the head of his 
you liked it. I have no more family young wife to his bosom, 
than a dog, and I am tired of it. You *' * That was what I ought to say to 
would make a nice little company for the captain,' added he, ' was it not, 
me. I could help you to many things, my child ? You would have said the 
and I have got together, honestly same thing, wouldn't you V 
enough, quite a snug little affair in the " I took my pipe, and rose, because I 
contraband way, on which we might felt that my eyes were becoming some- 
live, and which I would leave to you, what moist, and that doesn't bec<Mne 
when I should come to kick the bucket, me very well. 
— ^to speak politely.' " ' Come, come,' said I, ' this will all 

"They looked at each other with quite clear up by and by; if the smoke of 

a bewildered air, as if they did not my pipe incommodes Madame, she 

think I ^>oke the truth ; and then the must go away.' 

little one ran, as she always did, and " She raised her ^e all scarlet and 

threw herself on the neck of the other, wet with tears, like a child w^hich has 

and sat upon his knees all crimson and been scolded. 

weeping. He pressed her very closely " ' Besides,' said she, looking at my 

in his arms, and I saw tears in his eyes clock, * you forget that there — the 

too. He gave me his hand, and be- letter V 

came even paler than usual. She "I felt something that struck home to 

spoke in a low voice to him, and her me at these words, — something like a 

long fair hair fell loose upon his sudden pain at the roots of my hair as 

shoulders. Its twist had got loosed she spoke. 

like a cable suddenly unrolling, ibr she " ' Pardieu ! I did not think of that,* 

was as lively as a fish. That hair, if said I. ^ This is a pretty piece of 

you had seen it ! — ^itwas just like gold, business, to be sure. If we had 

As they continued to speak together in only crossed the first degree of north 

a low voice, he kissing her forehead latitude, nothing would be left for me 

from time to time, I became impatient : but to jump overboard. Can't I get to- 

" ' Well, does that suit you V said I lerably happy, but this child here must 

at length. remind me of that big scamp of a l^ter !'* 

"* But — ^but — captainr— you are very "I looked quickly at my sea-chart, 

good, but you cannot live with con- and when I saw that we had yet a week 

victs, — and — ' he cast his eyes down to sail, my head was relieved, but not 

as he spoke. my heart — I knew not why. 

" * As for me,' said I, ' I don't know *'* It's no joking matter with the Di* 

what you have done to be transported rectory about the article obedience,* 



1648.] Lmtrette, or the Red Seat. Tl 

sail 'Well, I am all strai^t this what they were about befwe I got 

time. Time has passed bo quickly, angry. 1 had only to lean orer and I 

list 1 had completely forgotten that.' could see through the sky-light of the 

'' Well, sir, there we remained, all little cabin, and I looked down. The 

three of ns, with our noses in the air, young girl was on her knees at her 

kwkiBg up at that letter, as if it could prayers. There was a little lamp which 

apeiL What struck me forcibly was, east its light upon her. She was in 

thit the sun, as it shone through the her night <&ess, and I saw from above 

bnH's-eye, fell upon the glass of the her bare shoulders, her little naked feet, 

dock, and lighting the spot, made the and her long fair hair all afloat. I 

gieat red seid and the other small ones thought 1 would retire ; but, nonsense ! 

appear like the features of a &ce in said I to myself— an old soldier like 

the nudst of fiie. me, what harm is there ?— «nd so I 

** *■ WouldnH one say, that its eyes remained. 

were coming out of its head T* said I, '' Her husband was seated on a small 

to amuse than. trunk, his head on his hands, watching 

" * Oh ! dearest,* said the girl, shud- her as she prayed. She raised her face 

deting, ' they look like spots of blood !* as though to heayen, and I saw her 

'** Nonsense/ said her husband, taking large blue eyes wet like those of a 

her in his anna« ' you deeeive yourself, Mi^dalen. Whilst she was praying he 

l4mia ; it looks like a wedding inyita* took the ends of her long hair and 

tion. Come and rest yoarself--come ! kissed them without disturbing her. 

Why do you tiouble yourself abont that When she had finished she made the 

letter V sign of the cross, smiling as tluough she 

"'HieyliDmedoffasifaghostwere were just going to Paradise. I saw 

alter them, and went on deck. him also lULke the sign of the cross 

*^ I lemained alone with the big letter, after her, but as if he were ashamed of 

and I remember that, as I smoked my it. And, indeed, for a man, such a 

pipe, I kept my gaze fixed on it as if it thing is a little singular. 

had riTeted my eyes by meeting them, '' She rose, kissed him, and stretched 

like those of a snake. Its great pale herself the first in the hammock, where 

lace — thai third seal, larger than the he threw her in as they put to bed a 

eyes— open, rarenous, like the jaws of child in a cradle. The heat was stifling, 

a w<rff-AiJl that put me in a very bad and she seemed to find pleasure in the 

hmnor. I took my coat and hung it over rocking motion of the yessel. Her 

the clock, that I might see neither the tiny white feet were crossed and raised 

hour nor that d of a letter. to the level of her head, and her whole 

'*' I went to finish my pipe on deck, and person wrapped in her long white dress, 
remained there till night. We were Oh ! she was a perfect little love ! 
then about on a Une with the Cape de '' ' Dearest,' said she, already half 
Teod islands. The Marat cut through asleep, * are you not sleepy T Do you 
the water, wind astern, over ten knots know it is very late.' 
vrith ease. The night was the most ^* He remained still with his head in 
beautiful one I have ever seen near his hands, without answering. This 
the troptc. The moon was just rising made her a Uttle anxious, the sweet 
at the horizon, large as a sun ; the sea child, and she raised her pretty head 
divided it in the middle, and became all out of the hammock, like a bird out of 
white, like a sheet of snow covered its nest, and looked at him with her 
orer with little diamonds. I looked at hps parted, not venturing to speak 
it all from the bench where I sat amok- again. 

io^. The oflker of the vratch and the '' At last he said : * Oh ! dear Lanra! 
sailors did not i^ak ;^and, like me, were the nearer we approach to America, I 
Voicing at the shadow of the brig on eannot help it, but so much the sadder 
the wtter. I was glad to hear notldng ; I become. I know not why it is, but I 
I like silence and order. I had forbid* feel as if this voyage will have been 
dea all noise and all fires. Neverthe* the happiest part of our life.' 
iesB, I pcreeived a amaJH red streak al- *< * And so it seems to me,' said she, 
Most oader my feet. I should immedi- * and I wish we might never arrive.' 
usly have put myself in a passion, bat *' He looked at her, pressing his hands 
u u eame from the cabin of my little together with an expression of feeling 
cwneCty J wiffbed to satisfy myself yoacanaotimagiae. 

78 Laurette, or the Red Seal, U^Si 

" * And yet, my angel, you always work all day and all night, if yon wish. 
weep when you pray to God,^ said he, I am strong ; see — look at my arms ; 
'and that distresses me sadly, for I see, I could almost lift you. Don^t 
well know whom you are thinking of, laugh at me. And besides, I am exp- 
and I fear you are sorry for what you cellent in embroidering, and is there 
have done.' not some city thereabouts where em- 

" ' I sorry !' said she with a look of droiderers are wanted 1 And then I 

much pain, — ' I sorry to hare followed will give lessons in music and drawing, 

you, dearest ! Do you think that be- if they choose ; and if they know how 

cause I had been yours so short a time, to read there, you can write, you know.' 
I loved you the lessl Is one not a '* I remember that the poor fellow was 

woman, and does one not know one's in such despair that a loud cir escaped 

duty, at seventeen ? My mother and him as she spoke thus. * To write !' 

my sisters, did they not say that it was he exclaimed, ' to write !' and he 

my duty to follow you to Guiana? seised his right hand with his left. 

Did they not say I was doing nothing pressing it tightly at the wrist. ' Ah ! 

wonderful ? I am only surprised that to write ! Why have I ever known 

you should have been so touched by it, how to write ! To write ! it is the trade 

dearest ; it was all perfectly natural, of fools. I believed in their liberty of 

And now I do not know how you can the press — where were my senses % 

imagine that I regret anything, when I And, to do what ! To print five or six 

am with you, to help you to Uve, or to poor ideas, common-place enough, read 

die if you die. * only by those who like them, and thrown 

*' She said all this with so sweet a into the fire by those who hate them, 

Toice, one would have thought it was serving no other end but to bring perse* 

music. I was a good deal moved by it, cution upon us. As for me, it is of lit- 

and said to myscB*, — ^ Good little wife tie consequence ; but you, beautiful 

—yes, indeed !' angel, scarcely four days a wife, what 

" The young man sighed with grief as had you done ! Tell me, tell me, I en« 

he stamped on the floor with his foot, treat of you, how I came to suffer you 

and kissed a pretty little hand and a to carry your goodness so far as to fol- 

hare arm which she extended to him. low me here ! Do you know where 

" * Oh, Laurette, my own Laurette !' you are, poor girl ! and whither you are 

said he, ^ when I think, that if we had going ? You will soon, my child, be 

only delayed our marriage for a few sixteen hundred leagues away from 

days, I should have been seized alone, your mother and yonr sisters. And for 

and sent off alone, I cannot forgive me ! — all this for me !' 
myself.' <* She hid her head for a moment in 

"Then the beautiful girl stretched her the hammock, and I from above could 
beautiful white arms, tHire to the shoul- see she was w^eeping ; but he from below 
ders, out of the hammock, and caressed did not perceive it, and when she un* 
his brow, his hair, his eyes, taking his covered her face it was already bright- 
head between her hands as though to ened by a smile, to enliven and cheer 
carry it away and hide it in her b<»om. him. 

She smiled like a child, and said a thou* " * In truth we are not very rich just 

sand sweet little womanly things, such now,' said she, bursting into a laugh ; 

as I, for my part, had never heard an^- * see, here is my purse, I have only one 

thing of the kind before. She shut ms single louis. And you V 
mouth playfully with her fingers, so *' He began also to laugh like a child: 

as to have all the speaking to herself, ' Faith ! I had a crown left, but I gave 

and wiping his eyes with her long hair, it to the little boy who carried your 

as with a handkerchief, she said: — trunk.' 

'And is it not a great deal better to '*' Oh, well! what difference does that 

have a wife with you who loves you — make V said she, snapping her little 

say, dearest 1 I am perfectly content white fingers like castanets ; ' people 

to ff o to Cayenne ; I shall see savages are never so merry as when they have 

and cocoa-nut trees, like those of Paul nothing ; and besides, have I -not yet in 

and Virginia, shan't I ! We will each reserve the two diamond rings that my 

plant our own. We shall see who will mother gave me 1 Those are good every- 

he the best gardener. And we will ndiere, and for everything, are they not t 

make a little hat for us two. I will Whenever yon choose we will sell them. 

1843.] LaureUe^ or the Bed Seal. 79 

And besides, I am sure tbat that dear The fact is, I sleep with only one eve 
old soul, the captain, does not tell us shut, as they say, and as I missed the 
ail his good intentions for us, and that tossing, I opened them both. We had 
he knows very well what is in the letter, got into a dead calm, and it was under 
1 am sore it is a recommendation for us the first degree of north latitude, and 
to the Goremor of Cayenne.' the twentieth of longitude. I put my 
^^ ' Perhaps so,' said he, *• who knows V head on deck ; the sea was as smooth as 
" * And then,' added his little wife, if it were of oil, and the open sails 
^you are so good that I am sure the hung down glued to the masts, like 
gOTcnunent has only exiled you for a empty balloons. I immediately said to 
short time, but has no thought of harm myself, as I gave a sidelong glance at 
against yoa.' the letter — * Very well, I s^U have 
** She had said that so sweetly, when plenty of time to read you,' and waited 
the called me ' that dear old soul the cap- till the evening, till sunset. But it had 
tain,' thai I was quite touched and to be done sooner or Uter, so I uncovered 
melted, and I rejoiced in my very heart the clock, and drew from under it the 
that she had perhaps guessed truly, sealed order. Well, sir, I held it in 
They began anew to embrace one an- my hand for a quarter of an hour, with- 
other; and I stamped loudly on the out being able to open it. At last I 
deck to make them stop. said, this is too bad I — and broke the three 
^^ ^ Eh ! how now, my little friends !' I seals with one movement of my thumb, 
cried, * the order is to put out all the and as for the big red seal, I rubbed it 
lights on board the ship ; blow out your to powder. When I had read it, I rub- 
lamp, if yon i^ease.' bed my eyes, thinking they must have 

" They obeyed, and I heard them deceived me. 

hnghing and talking below, in the dark, ** I read the letter over again from the 

like school-children. I, for mv part, beginning to the end; I rea^ it through; 

relit my pipe and walked the deck by I read it all over again and again. I 

myself. All the tropical stars were at began again at the last line and went 

their poets, large as little moons. I up to the first ; I could not believe it. 

watched them, and breathed an air My legs shook a little under me ; I felt 

which seemed fresh and sweet. I said a peculiar quivering of the skin of my 

to myself that the good little folks had face, and I rubbed my cheeks with rum, 

eertunly guessed the truth, and my and put some in the hollow of my hands. 

^kirits mounted at the thought. I would I was really ashamed of myself for 

have wagered anything that one of the being such a child — ^but it was only the 

five Directors had changed his mind, afiair of a moment. I went on deck to 

and recommended them to my care. I take a little air. 

did not very well explain to myself the ^' Laurette was that day so pretty, that 

how or the why of the matter, because I would not go near her. She had oo 

there are afiairs of state which I for a little 8im]H6 white dress, her arms 

my part never understood ; but I fully bare to her neck, and her long hair 

believed it, and without knowing why, flowing, as she always wore it. She 

I was made happy by it. was amusing herself with dipping her 

'* I tQok my little night lantern and other dress into the sea, from the end 

went to look at the letter under nw old of a cord, and laughed to see that the 

miifoim. It had altogether a difierent ocean was as tranquil and pure as a 

air now ; it seemed to smile, and the spring of which she could see the hot- 

weA% to be the color of roses. I had tom. 

no longer any suspicion of its good in- . '* ' Come and see the sand ! come 

tentiona, and gave it a little nod of quick!' she cried, and her husband 

friendship. leaned upon her and bent over, but did 

** However, notwithstanding all that, not look at the water, for he was look- 

I hung my old coat over it ; I was tired ing at her with a touching air of tender- 

of it. We thought no more of looking ness. I made a sign to the voung man 

at it for some days, and we were very to come to speak to me on the quarter- 

meny. But as we approached the first deck. She turned round, — I don't know 

degree of latitude, we began to leave how I looked, but she let her rope drop, 

off talking. &ad grasped him convulsively by the 

'' Onemie morning I awoke, surpris- arm, saying : ' Oh ! don't go I he is so 

edeaongh to fieel DO motion of the ship, pale!' Ti^ might well be; it was 

80 Laurette, or the Red 8001. [J«dyt 

anotigii to make one turn pale. Still will take her to her own £uidly, on 

he came toward me on the quarter- my return to France, and only leave 

deck. She stood leaning against the her when she wiahee to see me no more. 

main-mast, following us with her eyes. But it strikes me you need not fear that 

as we walked up and down without a she will recoyer from this blow — poor 

word. I tit a cigar, which I found bit- little soul !* 

ter, and spit it out into the water. He *' He took my two hands, jHressed 

watched my eye ; I took him by the them, and said : 

^fin — I was choking'^-iipon my word I ** * My dear captain, you suffer more 

was choking. than I do, from what yet remains to be 

*'* Come, eome,now,' said I at length, done. I feel it indeed, but it cannot 

' my tittle friend, tell me something of be helped. I rely upon you to preserre 

your history. What the d have you for her the little that belongs to me, to 

done to those five hounds of lawyers, watch over her, and to see that she re* 

who are there like five pieces of a lang \ eeives whatever her aged mother may 

They seem to owe youahea^ grudge, leave her, will you not! to gnard her 

It's very queer.' life, her honor ; and that her health is 

'' He shrugged his shoulders, bending also always well taken care of, will yoa 

his head down—* with such a sweet not t Tou see,' he added, in a lower 

smile, poor boy ! — and said : voice, * I must t^l you that she is very 

'** On ! captain, nothing much, depend delicate, and often so much troubled by 

upon it. Three satirical verses upon her breast, as to faint several times a 

the Directory, that is all.' day. She must always keep herself 

^ ' It isnH possible !' said I. well covered. In a word, you wifl 

*^ ^ Oh, yes, indeed ! and the verses take the place, as much as possible, of 

Were not even very good ones. I was her father, her mother, and me, will 

arrested the 15th of Fruetidor, and you not? I should be glad if she could 

taken to La Force ; tried on the 16th, keep the rings her mother gave her. 

and sentenced first to death, then, But, if it is necessary that they should 

through clemency, to transportation.' be sold for her, be it so. My poor 

** 'That's queer,' said I, * these Di- Laurette ! — see how beant^l she is !* 
rectors must be very susceptible fel- ** As this began to be a tittle too ten- 
lows, for that letter you know of, orders der, I became tired of it, and set to 
me to shoot you.' knitting my brows. I had spoken cheer- 

'* He did not answer, and smiled with fully to him so as not to we^cen him, 

a manly fistce enough for a boy of nine- but I could stand it no longer, 

teen. He only looked at his wife, and ^ Enough,' said I, ' we understand 

wiped his forehead, on which stood big each other. Go and speak to her, and 

drops of sweat ; I had as many on my let us make haste.' 

ftice too ; and others in my eyes. I ''I pressed his hand as a friend, and as 

continued : he did not let it go, but kept looking at 

" ' It seems those citizens did not me with a singuUr expression, I added : 

wish to do your business on shore ; they < I'll tell you what it is, if I had any 

thought that at sea it would not be so advice to give you, it would be to say 

much noticed. But it's very hard for nothing to her about that matter. We 

me ! It's all of no use that you are such a wiU arrange the thing without her ex* 

fine fellow, I can't escape from it ; the pecting it, nor ywi either ; make your* 

sentence of death is there complete, self easy— that's my affair.' 

and the order for the execution signed ** ^Yh !' said he, 'I did not know that, 

and sealed ; there's nothing omitted. ' That will certainly be better. Besides, 

" He bowed very potitely, though his those farewells ! — those farewells ! — 

face was crimsoned, and said, with a they weaken one.' 

voice as sweet as usual : ' I ask for no- ** * Yes, yes,' said I, ^ don't make a 

and to entreat you to protect her, in <' I gave him another good grasp of 

case she slumld survive me, — ^whieh^Ido the hand, and left him. Oh! all this 

not think she will.' was very hard for me ! 

'<* Ah! asfor that, it isbutnght, my ** He seemed to me to keep the secret 

boy ; and, if ycm have no objeotiofti I well ; for they walked arm in arm for 

1843.] Lmarellej or the Red Seal. 81 

s quarter of an hoar, and then vetanied Ted. He undid hia coat on hia hreasty 

to the edge of the water to take the and threw it violently open, baring it to 

rope and the dresa which one of the the rain and the wind. 

cabin boya had fiahed up. " I can well understand,'' aaid I, aa 

^ Night came on suddenly. It was the though he had finished his story, '^ how, 

moment I had resoWed to seize. But after so cruel an adyenture, you shoaid 

that moment has laated me till the pre- have taken an abhorrence to your 

sent time,— and I shall drag it along all business." 

my life, like a cannon ball." Here the *'0h ! as for the business, are you 

old commandant was obliged to stop, crazy V said he quickly, ** it b not the 

and I took care not to speak, for fear business. No captain of a vessel will 

of taming his ideas out of their chan- ever be forced to turn executioner, ex» 

nei. He began again, striking his oept when governments of assassins 

breast : and thieves get on foot, who will take 

" That moment, I assore you, I can't advantage of the habit a poor man has 

Qoderstand it yet. I felt the deepest of always obeying, blindly obeying with 

rage seize upon my whole heart, and at a miserable meclutnical compulsion in 

ihe same time something or other, I spite of his very self." 

donH know what, was forcing me to At the same time he drew out of hia 

obey, and pushing me forward. I sum- pocket a red handkerchief, and began 

noned the officers and said to them : to weep like a child. I stopped for a 

^ * Come ! a boat in the water, since moment, as if to arrange my stirrup, 

we are now executioners. Put that and hanging back behind his wagon, 

pii into it, and keep rowing ofifuntil you walked some time after him, for I felt 

hear the report of firing ; you will then that he would be mortified if I perceived 

letum.' too plainly his streaming tears. 

^ The idea of obeying a piece of paper I had judged rightly, for in about a 

that way ! — ^for after aU it was but that, quarter of an hour he also came behind 

There must have been something in the the poor little wagon, and asked me if 

air which forced me on. I caught a I had any razors in my portmanteau ; to 

l^pse of that young man — oh ! it which I simply answered, that, as I had 

was horriMe to see !— *kneeling before no beard yet, they would be very un- 

bis Laurette, and kissing her knees and necessary to me. But he did not care 

her feet. Wasn't it a hard case for about that; it was to speak of something 

me T I ahouted like a madman, ^ Se- else. I soon was glad to see that he 

parate them ! — ^we are all a set of was returning to his story, for he sod* 

vretche»--separate them ! The poor denly said ; 

Republic is a dead body — ^Directors, '* You never have seen a ship, have 

Directsry, vermin all! I quit the youV 

sea for ever ! I'm not afiraid of all ^* I never have," answered I, '' ex* 

your lawyers ! Let them tell them cepting in the Panorama of Paris, and 

what I say — ^what do I care 1' Oh ! I would not trust much to the nautical 

hut I did care for them! I would science I derived from that." 

have wished to have held them in my *' Then you do not know what the cat* 

nasp, and shot them all five, the scoun- heads are ?" 

drels f Oh, yes ! I would have done it. " I have not the least idea," said I. 

I cared for my life about as much as *< They are a kind of beams projecting 

for that water that's pouring there — ^yes, in front from the bows of the vessel, 

indeed — as if I cared for that — a life fi-om which the anchor is thrown off. 

like mine — ah, yes, indeed — ^mere life When a man is to be shot, he is usually 

—bah — ^* placed there," he added in a low tone. 

And the voice of the commandant " Oh ! I understand, so that he then 

gradually went out, and became as in- falls into the water ?" 

distinct as his words ; and be walked He did not answer, but began to de- 

on biting his lips and knitting his brows scribe the small boats of a vessel. And 

in a terrific and fierce abstraction. He then, and without any order in his 

bad little twitching movements, and ideas, he continued his tale, with that 

gave his mule knocks with the scabbard affected air of unconcern, which a long 

of his sword, as if he wished to kill it. service in the army invariably gives, 

And what astonished me waste see the because you must show your inferiors 

yelknr skin of his face flush to a deep your contempt of danger, your contempt 


82 LaureUCf or tlie Red Seal, [July^ 

of men, your contempt of life, your At the moment of the fire, she raiaed 

contempt of death, and even your con- her hand to her forehead, as if a ball 

tempt of yourself. And all this gene* had struck her there, and sat down in 

rally hides, under a rough envelope, the boat without fainting, without 

very deep feelings. The roughness of screaming, and returned to the brig just 

a soldier is like a mask of iron over a when they wanted her, and just as they 

noble face ; like the stone dungeon that wanted her. I went to her, and talked 

encloses a royal prisoner. to her a long time, the best I could. 

^* These boats hold more than eight She seemed to be listening to me, and 

rowers,^^ he continued. *^ They seized looked me in the face, rubbing her fore- 

Laurette and placed her in one, before head with her hands. But she did not 

she had time either to cry or to speak, understand ; and her face was quite pale, 

Ah ! this is a thing which no honest and her forehead red. She trembled 

man can ever find comfort for when it all over, as if she was afraid of every- 

has been his doing. You may talk as body. She has remained so ever since 

you please, one never forgets such an -^in just the same state, poor little soul V 

affair. Ah, what weather this is ! — —-an idiot, or imbecile, as it were, or 

what the d could have possessed crazy, or whatever you please. Nobody 

me to tell you all this ? Whenever I has ever drawn a word out of her, ex- 
begin this, I canH stop. It is a story cept when she asks to have what she 
which makes me fairly drunk like the has in her head taken out. 
Juran^on wine. — Ah, what weather it ** From that hour J became as melan* 
is ! My cloak is soaked through ! choly as herself, and I felt something in 

'^ I was tellinff you, I believe, still me which said : * Stand by her tiU the 
about that little Laurette ! Poor girl ! end of thy days, andtvateh over her. ^ I 
—What clumsy people there are in the have done it. When I returned to- 
world ! My sailors were so stupid as France, I asked leave to pass with my 
to ts^e the boat straight ahead ff the rank into the army, having takenan aver- 
brig. After all, it's true one cannot sion to the sea, ror the innocent blood I 
foresee everything. For my own pait, had cast into it. I sought out Laurette^s 
I had counted on the night to hide the family. Her mother was dead, and her 
matter, and did not think about the flash sisters, to whom I brought her crasy, 
a dozen muskets would make, fired at did not want the troum of her, and 
once. And the fact is, that from the offered to place her at Charanton. I 
boat she saw her husband fall into the turned my back upon them, and kept 

water shot. If there is a God up her with me. k^' A 

there, he only knows how what I am "If you want to see her, comrade, 

goinff to tell you took place ; as for you have only to say the word. Here 

me, I know nothing about it, but it was — hold on. Ho ! — ^ho ! you beast !'' 
seen and heard, as I see and hear you. 


And he stopped his poor mule, who straw, so that only her two knees were 

seemed delighted that I had asked that seen out of it, on which she was play- 

qaestion. At the same time he lifled ing dominoes all by herself. She looked 

me oil-cloth cover of the little wagon, at us for a moment, trembled for a long 

as if to arrange the straw, which nearly time, smiled a little at me, and went on 

filled it, and I saw something very with her game. She seemed to be 

mournful. I saw two blue eyes, of tr3ring to see how her right hand could 

enormous size, indeed, but of admira- beat her left. 

We shape, starting out from a face that " You see, she has been playing that 

was thin and lengthened, covered over game for a month," said the chef-de- 

with waves of loose fiur hair. In fact, batatUonj " to-morrow it will, perhaps, 

I saw nothing but those two eyes, be another game, which will last a long 

which seemed the whole of that poor time. It*8 queer, eh 1" 

woman, for all the rest was dead. Her At the same time he set about 

forehead was red, and her cheeks hoi- arranging the oil-cloth of his shako^ 

low and pale, with a blueish tinge. She which the rain had somewhat dis* 

was bent double in the midst of the ordered. 

1843.] Laurette, or the Red Seal. 83 

" Poor Laarette !^ said I, '* ah, yoa — donH let qs disturb you ; take your 

bare lost the game for ever !" own way, then, Laurette/^ 

I neared my horse to the waffon, and She took hold of the coarse, black 

stretched out my hand to her ; sne gave hand which he rested on her shoulder, 

me hers mechanically, and smiled with and carried it timidly to her lips, like a 

a great deal of sweetness. I observed poor slave. I felt my heart sink at that 

with surprise two diamond rings on her kiss, and turned my bridle quickly 

long, thin fingers. I supposed they away. 

were still her mother's rings, and won- " Shall we not resume our march, 

dered how their poverty had left them conunandant 1" said I, ^* it will be night 

there. For the world I would not have before we reach B^hune.^' 

made a remark upon it to the old com- The commandant carefully scraped 

mandant, but as he followed my eyes, the mud from his boots with the end 

and saw them fixed on Laurette's fin- of his sword ; he then mounted on 

gers, he said with a certain air of pride : the step of the wagon, drew forward 

** They are pretty large diamonds, over Laurette's head the hood of a 

are they not T They miffht bring a little cloak she had on, took oflf his own 

good priee if necessary. But I was black silk cravat, and put it round the 

never willing that she should part from neck of his adopted daughter ; after 

them, poor child ! If you but touch which, he gave a kick to his mule, and 

them she weeps ; and she never leaves saying, ^* Uet along, you lazy beast !'^ 

them off. Otherwise she never com- we continued our journey. 

rkinB ; and now and then she can sew. The rain was still &lling gloomily ; 

have kept my word to her poor young we found on the road only dead horses, 

husband, and, to tell the truth, 1 have abandoned, with their saddles. The 

sever repented it. I have never left grey sky and grey earth stretched out 

her, and have always said she was my without end ; a sort of dead light, a 

eruy daughter. As such she has al- pale wet sun was sinking behind some 

ways been respected. These things farcfe windmills, which did not turui 

are managed better in the army than ana we fell back into a long silence, 

they imagine in Paris. She went I looked at the old commandant ; he 

thiOQgh afi the wars of the Emperor walked on with lon^ strides and untir- 

with me, and I have alwavs kept her ing energy, whilsthis mule could harcUy 

out of harm's way. She has always keep alon^, and even my horse began 

been kept warm ; with straw and a to droop his head. The brave old fel- 

httle wagtm that is never impossible, low took off his shako from time to 

She has had pretty comibrtable things time, to wipe his bald forehead and the 

tbout her; and as I was a chef-de- few grey hairs on his head, or his 

kataiOonj with good pay, my legion of white moustache from which the rain 

honor pension, and the Napoleon was dripping. He did not think any- 

month, the pay of which was double in thing about the effect his recital might 

those times, I was always well off, and have produced on me ; he had made 

she gave me no trouble. On the con- himself out neither better nor worse 

tnry, her pretty childish ways often than he was ; he had not deigned to 

amused the officers of the light 7th." draw himself; he did not think of him- 

He then i^iproached her, and slapped self ; and at the end of a quarter of an 

her gently on the shoulder, as he would hour, he began on the same key a 

have done to his little mule. much lonfer story of a campaign of 

**Well, now! my daughter, talk a Marshal Massena, in which he had 

htde to the lieutenant. Come, let^s formed his battalion in a square against 

see— a little sign of the head !" some cavalry or other. I did not 

She busied herself anew with her listen to him, although he grew quite 

dominoes. warm, in endeavonng to prove to 

'^ 0^ !^ said he, " she is a little cross me the superiority of infantry over 

to-day, because it rains. However, cavalry. 

she never takes cold. Craz^ people Night came on ; we did not get 

sever get sick, yon know ; — ^it is very along fast ; the mud became thicker 

convenient in that respect. At the and deeper. Nothing on the road, and 

Beresina, and through all the retreat nothing at the end of it. We stopped 

fi:om Moscow, she went bare-headed, at the foot of a dead tree, the only tree 

Come, my dear child, ^y on, play on on the road ; he bestowed his first oarea 

84 LauretUf or the Red Seal. [Juiy, 

on bis mule, as 1 4lid on my horse ; he cause of this poor woman ? You see 

then looked into the wagon, as a perfectly well, my boy, that was a 

mother would have done into the cradle duty." And he began to talk again 

of her child. I heard him say : about Massena. 

" Come, my dear, put this overcoat The next mornmg, by daylight, we 

on your feet, and try to sleep. Come, arrived at Bethune, an ugly little forti- 

that is right ! she has not been touched fied town, the ramparts of which, in 

by a drop of rain. Ah, the d ! narrowing their circle, seemed to have 

she has broken my watch, which I had squeezed the houses together upon each 
left round tier neck. Oh, my poor other. All was in confusion ; it was 
silver watch ! Come, come, it's no the moment of an alerte. The inhabit- 
matter, my child, try to sleep. The ants were taking the wliite flags from 
fine weather will soon come back the windows, and sewing the tri-colors 
again. It^s queer, she always has a to their houses ; the arms were beat- 
fever — that^s the way with crazy peo- ing the generate^ and the trumpets 
pie. See, here is some chocolate fox sounded to horse ! by order of the Due 
you, my child." de Berry. The long Picard wagons 

He rested the wagon against the carrying the Hundred-Swiss and their 
tree, and we sat down on the wheels baggage, the cannons of the Body- 
under cover from the everlasting rain, Gusurd hurrying to their ramparts, the 
each with a little loaf, — a poor supper, carriages of the princes, the mustering 

" I am sorry we have nothing but the squadrons of the red companies, 

this," said he, " but it is better than blocked up the town. The sight of 

horseflesh baked under ashes, with the Gens-d'armes of the king, and the 

powder for salt, such as we had in Mousquetaires, made me forget my old 

Russia. The poor little soul, I must travelling companion. I rejoined my 

always give her the best I have ; you company, and lost sight of the little 

see, I put it on one side for her ; she wagon and its poor occupant in the 

cannot bear to suffer the vicinity of a crowd. To my great regret, it was for 

man, since the affair of the letter. I ever that I lost them, 

am old, and she seems to fancy me to It was the first time in my life, tiiat 

be her father ; yet she would strangle I had read the depths of the true heart 

me, if I attempted to kiss her, even of a soldier. This adventure revealed 

upon her forehead. Their early edu- to me an aspect of human nature, 

cation must always leave some impres- which I had not seen before, and which 

sion on them, for I have never seen the nation little knows, and ill rewa^s. 

her once forget to veil herself like a I placed it from that time high in my 

nun. It's queer, eh V^ esteem. I have often since sought 

Whilst he was thus talking to me, around me for a man like that one, and 
we heard her sigh and say : ** Take capable of such an entire and careless 
away this lead ! take auoay this lead /" i^negation of self. Ihuring the four- 
I rose in spite of myself ; he made me teen years I have lived in the army, it 
ait down again. is only there, and above all in the poor 
. " Stay, stay," said he ;" it is no mat- tod despised ranks of the infantry, that 
ter. She says that, all her life, because I have found those men of an antiqae 
she always fancies she feds a ball in stamp carrying out the feeling of duty 
her head. That does not hinder her to all its possible consequences ; know- 
doing all that she is told to, and that ing neither remorse for obedience, nor 
with the greatest sweetness. " shame for poverty ; simple in their man- 

I listened mournfully to him, but ners, and in their spee<m ; proud of tiie 

without any rejdy. I calculated that, glory of the nation, but careless of 

from 1797 to 1815, eighteen years had their own ; shutting themselves up 

thus passed with this man. I remained cheerfully in their own obscurity, to 

a long while in silence by his side, try* divide with the unfortunate the black 

ing to explain to myself such a char- bread they pay for with their blood, 

aeter, and such a fate. I then abruptly I remained long ignorant of what 

gave him an enthusiastic shake of the had become of my poor chef-de-bataU- 

hand ; he did not know what to make loni CG^ecially as he had not told me 

of it. his name, and I had not asked him. 

'* You are a worthy man," said I. One da^r, however, at a coffee-house, I 

^< What fort" he aaaweied. "Be- beUere in ISdd, an old captain cf in* 

1843] The Two Widows. 85 

fiintry to whom I was describing him, to the hospital at Amiens, as we went 

as we were waiting" for parade, said : to the army of the Loire, and who died 

" Eh ! pardieu, I knew that poor there raring mad at the end of three 

devil! He was a brave fellow, — ^he days." 

came down by a ball at Waterloo. " I can readily imagine it," said I, 

And he had, in fact, left a crazy girl ** she had lost her foster-father." 
with the baggage, whom we took 



The following story, the simple and each felt as if whatever consolation her 
domestic incidents of which may be grief admitted, was to be found in the 
deemed scarcely worth relating, afler bosom of the other. They joined their 
sQch a lapse of time, awakened some hearts, and wept together silently, 
degree of interest, a hundred years ago, But after an hour of such indulgence, 
in a principal seaport of the Bay Pro- one of the sisters, all of whose emo- 
vince. The rainy twilight of an au- tions were influenced by her mild, quiet, 
tnmn day ; a parlor on the second floor yet not feeble character, began to re- 
ef a small house, plainly furnished, as collect the precepts of resignation and 
beseemed the middling circumstances of endurance, which piety had taught her, 
its inhabitants, yet decorated with little when she did not think to need them, 
curiosities from beyond the sea, and a Her misfortnne, besides, as earliest 
few delicate specimens of Indian man- known, should earliest cease to inter- 
ufacture, — these are the only particu- fere with her regular course of duties; 
krs to be premised in regard to scene accordingly, having placed the table 
and season. Two young and comely wo- before the Are, and arranged a frugal 
mensattogetherby the fireside, nursing meal, she took the hand of her com- 
their mutual and peeutiarsorrows. They panion. 

were the recent brides of two brothers, ** Come, dearest sister ; you have 

a saikir and a landsman, and two sue- not eaten a morsel to-day," she said, 

cessnre days had brought tidings of the *' Arise, I pray you, and let us ask a 

death of each, by the chances of Cana- blessing on that which is provided for 

diaa warfare, and the tempestuous us." 

Atlantic. The universal sympathy ex- Her sister-in-law was of a lively and 

sited 1^ this berearement, drew nu- irritable temperament, and the first 

merous condoling guests to the habita- pangs of her sorrow had been express^ 

tkm of the widowed sisters. Several, ed by shrieks and passionate lamenta- 

tawng whom was the minister, had re- tion. She now shrunk from Mary's 

min^ till the verge of evening ; when words, like a wounded sufllerer from a 

one by one, whispering many comfort- hand that revives the throb. 

able passages of Scripture, that were "There is no blessing left for me, 

answered l^ more abundant tears, thej neither will I ask it," cried Margaret 

%of^ dieir leave and departed to their with a fresh burst of tears. " Would 

own happier homes. The mourners, it were His will that I might never 

though not insensible to the kindness of taste food more !" 

their fnends, had yearned to be left Yet she trembled at these rebellious 

alone. United, as they had been, by expressions, almost as soon as they 

the relationship of the living, and now were uttered, and, by degrees, Mary 

mote closely so foy that of the dead, succeeded in bringing her sister's mind 

The Two Widows. V^^Tf 

nearer to the situation of her own. her ears to catch a repetition of the 

Time went on, and their usual hour of summons. It is difficult to he con- 

repose arrived. The brothers and vinced of the death of one whom we 

their brides, entering the married state have deemed another self. The knock- 

with no more than the slender means ing was now renewed in slow and regu* 

which then sanctioned such a step, had lar strokes, apparently given with the 

confederated themselves in one house- soA end of a doubled fist, and was ac-> 

hold, with equal rights to the parlor, companied by words, faintly heard 

and claiming exclusive privileges in through several thicknesses of wall, 

two sleeping rooms contiguous to it. Margaret looked to her sister's cham- 

Thither the widowed ones retired, after ber, and beheld her still lying in the 

heaping ashes upon the dying embers depths of sleep. She arose, placed her 

of the fire, and placing a lighted lamp foot upon the floor, and slightly arrayed 

upon the hearth. The doors of both herself, trembling between fear and 

chambers were lefl open, so that a part eagerness as she did so. 

of the interior of each, and the beds " Heaven help me!" sighed she. "I 

with their unclosed curtains, were re- have nothing left to fear, and methinks 

ciprocally visible. Sleep did not steal I am ten times more a coward than 

upon the sisters at one and the same ever.^^ 

time. Mary experienced the effect Seizing the lamp from the hearth, 
often consequent upon grief quietly she hastened to the window that over- 
borne, and soon sunk into temporary looked the street door. It was a lattice, 
forgetfulness, while Margaret became turning upon hinges; and having thrown 
more disturbed and feverish, in proper- it back, she stretched her head a little 
tion as the night advanced with its way into the moist atmosphere. Alan- 
deepest and stillest hours. She lay tern was reddening the front of the 
listening to the drops of rain, that came house, and melting its light in the neigh- 
down in monotonous succession, un- boring puddles, while a deluge of dark- 
swayed by a breath of wind ; and a ness overwhelmed every o^er object, 
nervous impulse continually caused her As the window grated on its hinges, a 
to lift her head from the pillow, and man in a broad-brinuned hat and blanket- 
gaze into Mary's chamber and the in- coat, stepped from under the shelter of 
termediate apartment. The cold light the projecting story, and looked upward 
of the lamp threw the shadows of the to discover whom his application had 
furniture up against the wall, stamping aroused. Margaret knew him as a 
them immoveably there, except when friendly innkeeper of the town, 
they were shaken by a sudden flicker *' What would you have, goodman 
of the flame. Two vacant arm-clmirs Parker ?" cried the widow, 
were in their old positions on opposite " Lack-a-day, is it you, mistress Mar- 
sides of the hearth, where the brothers garetV replied the innkeeper. **I 
had been wont to sit in young and laugh- was afraid it might be your sister Mary ; 
ing dignity, as heads of families ; two for I hate to see a young woman in 
humbler seats were near them, the true trouble, when I haven't a word of com- 
thrones of that little empire, where fort to whisper her.^' 
Mary and herself had exercised in love, '* For Heaven's sake, what news do 
a power that love had won. The cheer- you bring ?" screamed Margaret, 
ful radiance of the fire had shone upon " Why, there has been an express 
the happy circle, and the dead glimmer through the town within this half hour," 
of the lamp might have befitted their said goodman Parker, ^* travelling from 
reunion now. While Margaret groaned the eastern jurisdiction with letters from 
in bitterness, she heard a knock at the the governor and council. He tarried 
street door. at my house to refresh himself with a 

^' How would my heart have leapt at drop and a morsel, and I asked him 
that sound but yesterday !" thought she, what tidings on the frontiers. He tells 
remembering the anxiety with which me we h»l the better in the skirmish 
she had long awaited tidings from her you wot of, and that thirteen men re- 
husband. ^* I care not for it now ; let ported slain, are well and souAd, and 
them begone, for I will not arise." your husband among them. Besides, 

But even while a sort of childish he is appointed of the escort to bring 

fretfiilness made her thus resolve, she the captivated Frenchers and Indians 

was breathing hurriedly, and straining home to the province jail. I judged 

1843.] The TSco Widows, 87 

JOB vouIdsH mind being broke of your to two or three voIleyB of a rwpid and 

rest, and so I step! over to tell yoo. eager knocking ; and fint she deemed 

Good night. '^ the noise a matter of eoarsey like the 

So saying, the honest man departed ; breath she drew ; next, it i^ipeared a 
and bis Untem gleamed along the street, thing in which she had no coneem; 
biinging to view indistinct shapes of and lastly, she became aware that it 
things, and the fragments of a world, was a summons necessary to be obeyed, 
like order glimmering through chaos. At the same moment, the pang of re- 
or memory roaming over the past, collection darted into her mind; the 
But Margaret stayed not to watch these pall of sleep was thrown back from the 
picturesque effects. Joy flashed into face of grief; the dim light of the 
her heart, and lighted it up at once, and chamber, and the objects therein re- 
breathless, and with winged steps, she vealed, had retained ail her suspended 
flew to the bedside of her sister. She ideas, and restored them as soon as she 
paosed, however, at the door of the unclosed her eyes. Again, there was 
chamber, while a thought of pain broke a quick peal upon the street>door. 
in upon her. Fearing that her sister would also be 

^ Poor Mary V^ said she to herself, disturbed, Mary wrapped herself in a 

^ Shall I waken her, to feel her sorrow cloak and hood, took the lamp irom the 

sharpened by my happiness! No; I hearth, and hastened to the window. 

wiU keep it within my own bosom till By some accident, it liad been left un- 

the morrow.*' hasped, and yielded easily to her hand. 

She approached the bed to discover ^^ Who^s there V asked Mary, trem- 

if Mary's sleep were peaceful. Her blioff as she looked forth, 

face was turned partly inward to the The storm was over, and the moon 

pillow, and had been hidden there to was up ; it shone upon broken clouds 

weep ; but a look of motionless content- above, and below upon houses black 

ment was now visible upon it, as if her with moisture, and upon little lakes of 

heart, like a deep lake, had fiprown calm the fallen rain, curling into silver be- 

because its dead had sunk down so far neath the quick enchantment of a 

within. Happy is it, and strange, that breeze. A young man in a sailor's 

the lighter sorrows are those from dress, wet as if he had come out of the 

which dreams are chiefly fabricated, depths of the sea, stood alone under the 

Margaret shrunk from disturbing her window. Mary rseognixed him a« one 

sister-in-law, and felt as if her own whose livelihood was gained by short 

better fortune had rendered her invol- voyages along the coast ; nor did A» 

nntarily un&ithful, and as if altered and forget, that, previous to her marriage, 

dimimshed affection must be the con- he had been an unsuccessful wooer of 

sequence of the disclosure she had to her own. 

make. With a sudden step, she turned " What do you seek here, StejAen 1" 

away. But joy could not long be re- said she. 

prened, even by circumstances that " Cheer up, Mary, for I seek to corn- 
would have excited heavy grief at ano- fort you," answered the rejected lover, 
ther moment. Her nund was thronged '* You must know I got home not ten 
with delightful thoughts, till sleep stole minutes ago, and the first thing my 
OB and transformed them to visions, good mother told me was the news 
more delightful and more wild, like the about your husband. So, without say- 
bmth of winter (but what a cold com- ing a word to the old woman, I clapped 
parison !) working fantastic tracery up- on my hat, and ran out of the house. 
on a wiiidow. I couldnH have slept a wink before 

When the night was far advanced, speaking to you, Mary, for the sake of 

Mary awoke with a sudden start. A old times." 

vivid dream had latterly involved her ** Stephen, I thought better of you !" 

in its unreal life, of which, however, exclaimed the widow, with gushing 

she conld only rem^nber that it had tears, and preparing to close the lat- 

been broken in npon at the most inter- tice ; for she was no whit inclined to 

esting point. For a little time, slumber imitate the first wife of Zadig. 

hung about her like a morning mist, " But stop, and hear my story out," 

hindering her from perceiving the dis- cried the young sailor. " I tell you 

tinct outline of her situation. She we spoke a brig yesterday afternoon, 

hst^ied with imperfect consciousness bound in itoiu old England. And who 

88 Sonnet, [Juljt 

do you think I saw standing on deck, course of the night, though not hitched, 

well and hearty, only a bit thinner than adyanced to the bedside, and was about 

he was fiye months ago ^" to lay her liand upon the slumbererV 

Mary leaned from the window, but shoulder. But then sne remembered 

could not speak. that Margaret would awake to thoughts 

" Why, it was your husband him- of death and woe, rendered not the 

self,'^ continued the generous seaman, less bitter by their contrast with her 

*' He and three others saved them- own felicity. She suffered the rays 

selves on a spar, when the Blessixig of the lamp to fall upon the unoon- 

tumed bottom upwards. The brig will scious form of the bereaved one. 

beat into the bay by daylight, wi£ this Margaret lay in unquiet sleep, and the 

wind, and you'll see him here to-mor- drapery was displaced around her ; her 

TOW. There's the comfort I bring you, young cheek was rosy-tinted, and her 

Mary, and so good night." lips half opened in a vivid smile ; an 

He hurried away, while Mary expression of joy, debarred its passage 
watehed him with a doubt of waking by her sealed eyelids, struggled foith 
reality, that seemed stronger or weaker like incense from the whole counte- 
ss he alternately entered ^e shade of naace. 

the houses, or emerged into the broad '* My poor sister ! you will waken 

streaks of moonlight. Gradually, how- too soon from that happy dream ! " 

ever, a blessed flood of conviction thought Mary. 

swelled into her heart, in strength Before retiring, she set down the 

enough to overwhelm her, had its in- lamp and endeavored to arrange the 

crease been more abrupt. Her first bed-clothes, so that the chill air might 

impulse was to arouse her sister-in- not do harm to the feverish slumberer. 

law, and communicate the new-bom But her hand trembled against Marga- 

gladness. She opened the chamber- ret's neck, a tear also fell upon her 

door, which had been closed in the cheek, and she suddenly awoke. 



Frbvdom ! beneath thy banner I was bom,-^ 

let me share thy full and perfect life ! 
Teach me opinion's slavery to scorn. 

And to be free from Passion's bitter strife ;-^ 
Free of the world, a self-dependent soul, 

Nourished by lofty aims and genial truth, 
And made more free by love's serene control, 

The spell of beauty and the hopes of youth. 
The liberty of nature let me know, 

Caught from the mountains, groves and crystal streams. 
Her starry host, and sunset's purple glow. 

That woo the spirit with celestial breams, 
On Fancy's wing exultingly to soar, 
Till life's harsh fetters ck(g the heart no more ! 


•^~-'-<3t!^r~~~-w ^^pSfSg; 

-^-■^-._ , — , ■; 

-J- >j £ ri 1 » a no r. 

^«^i"i V /;t r/if r .' J/^a.™^ r iHnftr^i. Rrri^ 

1843.] Pennings and PencUlingSt m and about Town. 89 



With lUutiniuau If DmUi^. 

Mo. I. 


Arms have had their day. The age exceeding Bmart, and pagnaeity is 
of steel is past. The thunders of Mont thrown to the dogs. Learning, too, 
St. Jean formed the grand finale to the leayes its solidity in the cloister, and, 
melo-dratna of military exploit, and the no longer frighted by trmnpets and 
curtain fell, never to rise again, upon sulphurous rapors, spreads itself thinly 
the last scene of martial greatness, abroad. Being in haste, the world 
when the laurelled warriors of France reads as it runs, so that heavy books, 
cast aside the baton of command to like heavy artillery, remain in the 
have recourse to their spurs. Bellons arsenals. Man, commercial man, 
then went to boarding-school, and speculating man, financial man — man, 
learned to comb her refractory locks heedless of gory greatness, but eager 
into the ]4iaat graces of the toilet, for cash, must know all that is in 
while Mars obtained a situation in a agitation. Having ceased to kill his 
eoai^ng-house, and, seated upon a neighbor, he is anxious to ascertain 
three-legged stool, still nibs his pen to what his neighbor is about, that he 
gain a livelihood. Romance expired may turn hika and his doings to profit- 
at Waterloo. Chivalry expended itself able account ; and hence, in the place 
when Ney was foiled, and the Belgian of those gaudy banners which used to 
peasant unconsciously depicted the fiout the sky, instead of the orifiamme 
moral of the fall of the empire, when of nations, which once rallied their 
he boiled potatoes in the helmet of the battalia, we gather round the news- 
knight, and cooked his mutton in the paper, not with sword, and shield, and 
breastplate of the ^* Guard.'' The casque, but with ink-stained jacket and 
world is tired of slaughter — ^the poetry with pen in ear. Our clarion now, 
of the shambles is exhausted. We more potent than the Fontarabian horn, 
live as long as we can now, and find is the shrill voice of the news-boy, that 
esisleDce none the worse for having a modem Minerva, who leaped iull-blowit 
lull supply of arms and legs. A body from the o'erfiranght head of journalism ; 
like a colander is not essential to re- and as the news-boy is in some respects 
pntati^m, and death has become so un« the type of the time — an incarnation 
popular that it is onlj by special fitvoi of the spirit of the day — a few words 
that ambition can get itself hanged. devoted to his consideration may not 

New elements prodnee new combi- be deemed amiss, 
nations. When the musket rusts in a As the true Corinthian metal was 

ganet, and glory puscles over the formed from the meltings of the devoted 

■mltiplieatioa-table and retails brown city, thus the news-be^ is the product 

sugar, the restless impulses of humani* of the exigencies of the era. The 

U seek ^citements before unknown, requirements of the age always bring 

Strategy exhibits itself in the marts of fbith that which is wanted. The dra- 

trade. Napoleons are financiers. The gon-teeth of tyranny have often caused 

smi of Auaterlitz busts through the the earth to crop vrith armed men ; and 

cJoods which overhang the stock ex- the nineteenth century, thirsting for 

eha^ge. Bulls and bears constitute the infonnation and excitement, finds its 

Goataxiing hosts of modem times, and Gan3rmede in the news-boy. He is its 

there is no analogy to the " maraud," walking idea, its symbol, its personifi- 

onless we find it in embeizlement and cation. Humanity, in its new shape, 

dedication. We are *^smait" now^- is yet young and full of undefined ea^ 

00 Penning* and Pencilling*^ in and about Town, [Jiily* 

ergies, and so is he. The first genera- thus cnri the nose at him ; for he would 
tion of his race not having outgrown be lost and wearied in such preferment, 
their business, the important part which Observe his frame, so light yet so 
youth thus trained is destined to play strong ; — so pliant, wiry, and enduring, 
in human affairs, is as yet too imper- No ^ debile wretch'* enters the ranks 
fectly developed even for the medita- of these juvenile Praetorians, or if 1»9 
tions of tiie most speculative philosopher should venture on service so far beyond 
that ever extracted glowing sunbeams his capacity, exhaustion soon removes 
from the refreshing cucumber ; but as him. Glance at the expression of that 
nature does nothing in vain, it is but weather-beaten face, prematurely chan- 
fair to infer that the news-boy is des- nelled into line and hardened into 
tined, in one way or another, to fix the muscle. Care, courage, and resolution 
period which gave him birth, in the are in every curve of those compacted 
niche of history. Too many powerful lips. The soft roundness of childhood 
elements combine in him not to be has departed long since. That month 
productive of grand results. What is knows more of the strong word, the 
the news-boy — ^what is necessary to his keen retort, the well-weighed phrases 
original constitution — ^what faculties of the bargainer, of cunning solicitation, 
are involved, cherished, strengthened, and of the fierce wrangle, than of the 
and made, as it were, the preponderat- endearing kisses of affection. It brings 
ing forces of his character, by the no memory of rosebuds. It is no poetic 
calling to which he is devoted 1 Sur- feature for romance to dwell upon, but 
vey the news-boy — extract him from a mouth of plain reality — of confirmed 
the buzzing crowd and place him on a utilitarianism. It wreathes itself more 
pedestal, while you analyze his char- readily into the mould of worldly in- 
acter in its psychological and physical trepidity, than into the gentle dimples 
detaUsy estimating, at the same time, of early life. It is, in the news-boy, 
the past and future operation of cir- as in aU mankind beside, a key to the 
cumstances in educating him for mature individual mysteries of our nature, 
efibrt in the contentions of men. The impulses, the ruling trait, are here 
Anatomize him, and *^ see what breeds developed, and the news-boy offers no 
about his heart.'' A rough study, truly exception to the rule. The glance of 
—soiled garments and patches. The his eye is as cold, but as bright, as the 
youth is not precisely fitted for pre- beaming sun of a frosty mormng, which 
sentation in the drawing-room, evident sparkles on the ice, but melts it not. 
though it be, that his self-possession Still, though self-interest and sordid 
woukl not desert him in the presence calculation dwell in its depths, we find 
of an empress. Valets and body-ser- a laughing devil there, which feasts on 
vants do not trouble themselves about satire, and sports like the chevaliers 
him. Father and mother, brother and of old, a Voutrance, Its jokes bite 
sister, if such there be, have enough to shrewdly, and the lanoe of its wit dis« 
do in struggling for their own existence, plays the point *' unbated," though not 
without attending to the details of his "envenomed." When the news-boy 
costume, and many a repair is the result turns awhile from business to the {dea- 
of his own handiwork in hours stolen sures of companionship, he asks no 
from needful rest. That battered hat, quiet recreation. His raillery and his 
grown foxy by exposure, is picturesque pleasant tricks both deal in heavy 
in its proportions, not so much from blows and rude interchanges. Your 
careless usage as from hard service, nice, nervous sensibility finds no quar- 
and those ox-hide boots, embrowned ter from one whose very existence in 
and cracked, have shamed the feats of all its phases is roughness. Should he 
plan^-walking pedestrians. Sooth to hereafter learn to woo, it will be *' as 
say, our hero is somewhat uncouth in the lion woos his bride." 
his externals. That fair damsel there Such is the physique of the news- 
would scarcely covet him for a parlor boy, and it contains many of the con* 
pet. He would not shine amid carpet stituent points of greatness. Tossed 
knights, nor would Titania weary early into the world, the impediments 
Oberon with prayers to have him for which cause other men to fail, are soon 
her henidmian. The news-b% would surmounted in his path. He has no 
not weep either, if he were to know kindly aim to lean upon, and through 
that pernimed pride and silken delicacy mistaken tenderness, to make lus steps 

1843.] No. L-^Tke News-boy. 91 

oiisteady. Ha is his own staff-^is — most of necessitv prodace something 

own protector. Of diffidence, he nerer — not a little of roguery, mayhap, 

heard the name — ^he does not know its which is often the fungous ^rrowth, the 

nature. Imaginary barriers cannot untrimmed shoot of a certam grade of 

interpose between him and his object ; eleTemess. But we look for more than 

for he recognixes none as worthier than thie — if genius is ever latent, the life 

he, and self-distrust plays no fantastic of the news-boy must bring it forth, 

tricks to defeat the consummation of The blows which fall on him would 

what he may resoWe. He lives in elicit sparks from the flint. In the 

deeds, and not in dreamy speculation — school which boasts of such a pupil, 

he is an actor, not a looker on, and society is the book, adversity the teaeh- 

piactice has given him that estimate of er, and harsh circumstance plays the 

his own powers which rarely falls be- partofrattan and ferula. He is scourged 

low the mark, and which, best of all, into wisdom, almost before others can 

saireonds disappointment with no un- walk alone. 

real terrors. When he falls, he falls In what peculiar way, Tom Tibbs, 
but to rise again with renewed strength, whose admirable portrait graces our 
like the fabled Anteus. And while present number, is likely to distinguish 
continued collision with the world thus himself, remains to be seen. Hisfaeul* 
hardens his intellectual being, his mus- ties are expansive— roaming like sum- 
eular energies, which sustain the spirit, mer bees^-the moment of concentration, 
receive a training of proportionate se- when genius, rallying upon its focus, 
verity. He has no tender years. Let bums its way through all impediments, 
wealthy youth be housed in luxury, and has not yet come to him. But Tibbs 
guarded from the storm. Soft couches is one of whom expectation may be 
and protracted slumbers do not enervate entertained. In fact, he has long been 
the news-boy. Compared to him, the spoken of as a *' hopeful yonth,^' by 
son itself is a sluggard. No morning many of those who know him, and 
ray finds him in bed ; the moon and though the phrase may often be applied 
stars witness his uprisings, and he derisively, as a sort of lucus a non lu^ 
travels forth in darkness to commence cendo^ still this is but the vulgar error 
his daily toil. Let the rain fall in tor* which cannot comprehend the kitten- 
rents — the lightning flash — ^the thun- hood of lionism — ^the unappreciated in- 
ders roar, the news-boy laughs at the fancy of power. No one ever achieved 
elemental strife. Heat and cold are distinction who did not begin by being 
alike indifl^erent to one who has such a nuisance, just as greatness in a sin- 
duties to perform. It is on him that gle walk, of necessity constitutes a 
society waits for its mental aliment, bore; and it may be so with Tibbs. 
and can he £ilter — can he shrink before He has already learned the one great 
winds and showers, before frosts and lesson of success. He looks upon the 
heats, who, more truly than any human community as a collective trout-— a uni- 
beiag, is the ** schoolmaster abroad 1" versal fish, wfaieh must nibble at his 
No--others may crouch around the bait, lie in his basket and fill his frying- 
i^xe^ or shrink beneath their blankets, pan. On this maxim, heroes have 
at the sound of wioter^s threatening overrun the world. It has been the 
Masts, bat the news-boy springs up, foundation, not only of fortunes, but of 
whistling cheerily, to encounter any empires. Why should it not elevate 
hazdahip that may oppose him. Tibbs 1 Especially as his soul has not 
Now, it is contended that whole been whittled down to a single point, 
nasses and classes of youth, thus edu- by the process of acquiring the know- 
cated, thus trained-— who live, as it ledge to which we refer. Tibbs has 
were, by their wits — by their boldness, the affections, the S3rmpathies, the twin- 
thetr address, their perseverance — ing tendrils of the heart, in as great 
whose facttlries are always literally at perfection as can be expected in one 
the grindstone — ^who daily practise en- who has been taught to look upon down- 
duance, fortitude, self-restraint, absti- right fact as the great purpose of ex- 
Bence, and many other virtues ; who istence. The pennies, however, do not 
are pre-eminently frugal and industri- engross him utterly ; but when he is in 
GQs; who learn to understand men and pursuit of the pennies, that pursuit is 
boys, dandies and dandizettes, and are made paramount. He takes his busi- 
•ehooled to emulation and competition ness as Falstafif did his sack, " simple. 

99 Pennings and Pencilling*^ in and about Town. [^^Yj 

of itself," and his pleamresare imbibed overcrowed by the commanding spirit 

** neat,^^ nerer spoiling both by an in« of her mate, she sometimes almost 

fusion and admixture of either. That began to think that Tom must indeed 

soldier is a poor sentinel who nods upon be rather a bad boy to require the neat's 

his post, and would both watch and leather so often ; but Mrs. Tibbs loved 

wink upon a tour of duty. The wink- her children, and did her best to con- 

ings of Tibbs are wisely condensed into sole them, thus preserving a verdant 

a continuous slumber, and when he spot in Tom^s otherwise arid heart ; for 

watches, it is generally found that his as his cuticle was hardened, his spirit 

eyes are quite as widely open as ^e also grew callous, 
eyes of other people. The pressure of the times, however, 

Tom Tibbs had a father, a necessity at last ccrnipeDed the TiMis family to 
from which it is believed the greatest migrate westward, and the father, when 
are not exempt, and in Tom^s case, as two days out from the city, having be- 
indeed in many others, it was a hard come warm with his own eloquence 
necessity, from which it would have upon the difficulties of making a living, 
pleased him to be excused. Tom's called Tom to his side and diverg^ 
father was a disciplinarian — ^that is, he into a personal episode and an individu- 
compounded for his own delinquencies al apostrophe : 

by a compensatory severity upon the ** It is so hard now to get along in 

delinquencies of others. When he had the world that I shouldn't wonder, if 

made a fool of himself abroad, he bal- anything happened to me, if these 

anced the account and atoned for the children were to starve. Tom, Tom, 

folly, by chastising Tom at home, and how often have I told you that you'd 

thus went to bed with a clear conscience never come to good! Tom, Tom! 

and a wearied arm. When he had you'll break my heart ! Where's that 

spent more money upon a recreation strap 1 I don't want to do it, but I 

than precisely suited his circumstances, must !" 

the ramily were put upon short com- Tom, however, could not be prevailed 
mens, and Tom's contingent of shoes upon to *' stay to supper," and escaped, 
and jackets, as well as those of his retracing his steps to the city, and 
brothers and sisters— <<« he was not the dissolving all connection with the strap, 
only scion of Tibbsism — ^were econo- He thought that he had received qaite 
mically retrenched. The elder Tibbs as much *' bringing up" in that respect 
piqued himself much upon his paternal as was necessary, 
kindness in teaching prudence to his Tom felt his destiny strong within 
offspring. *^ You'll bless me for it," him. He threw himself into the bosom 
said he, with tears in his eyes, as he of the news-boys, and through their 
prepared to hammer them all round, kindness, for they are a kindly race 
after having been fined for wheeling his when properly approached, soon be- 
barrow upon the pavement ; *' you'll came one of the most distinguished of 
bless me for it to the longest day you tlie corps. No one can sell more 
have to hve V The elder Tibbs was adroitly than he ; his perseverance is 
patriarchal — ^he made the law as the mingled wi^ tact, and his verbal em- 
necessity arose, and carried it into effect bellishments as to the peculiar interest 
hunself, and its adaptation to circum- of the number of the journal he has to 
stances was wonderftil. Any trouble sell, are founded on fact« He never 
in solving the equity of the case was announces the steamer to be in, before 
instantly obviated by flogging Tom, and she is telegraphed, nor indulges in the 
then old Tibbs would exclaim, " My false pretences which so often derogate 
conscience is easy — ^I cb my best to- from the dignity of the profes^on. He 
wards these naughty children — my duty esdmates its importance, and nroceeds 
is fttlfiUed — ^if they come to bad ends, upon principle. The traveller who 
they can't blame me for it. I have tnides with Tibbs, at the cars, or oa 
spared no pains to bring 'em up proper- board the steamboat, may safely boy 
ly," and he had not, so far as the strap under the ringing of the last bell, 
was concerned. without finding too late, that his pennies 

Mrs. Tibbs was a tender-hearted have been exchanged for newspapers 
woman, who did not exactly understand stale as an addled egg, and nreehly 
narsntal duties as they were received pumped upon, to give them an appear- 
by her husband; yet, being somewhat ance of juvenility. Nor does Tom 

1843.] No. L—Tke News-hoy. 93 

ever arail himself of hasty departures nal, cares nothing for the current of 
to be oblivious in the niatter of returning eyents, and entertains a perfect horror 
change. He does not, under such of the modem style of newspapers, and 
circomstances, " as some ungracious of all concerned in their dis^bution. 
pastors do/^ put your quarter in one In fact, he attributes much of the erils 
pocket, and fumble for sixpences in the of the time to cheap journalism, and he 
other, until the train darts away ; nor has not been sparing of an expression 
would he, if tempted to the performance of his Tiews of the subject, whenever 
of this unworthy feat, add insult to the opportunity was afforded. On some 
injury by holding up the cash when one of these occasions, it was his hick 
distance had made its reception im- to wound the feelings of Thomas Tibbs, 
possible, or by assuming that burlesque and Tibbs accordingly marked him for 
expression of hjrpocritical astonishment a sufferer. 

vith which some paper- venders, in a Incessantly was Mr. Sappington Sa« 
similar catastrophe, outrage your feel- pid assailed. Not a news-boy passed 
ings, besides wronging your purse, his door wi^out ringing the bell to 
As Tom of^en justly remarks to such ascertain whether a paper was not re- 
of his colleagues as are habituated to quired — ^he never walked the streets 
these practices, *' This ^ere chiselling without perpetuid and ridiculoos soli- 
system won't do. Nobody likes to be citations. When he appeared, all cus- 
chiselled, and when you have chiselled tomers were left for his special annoy- 
CTeiybody, why then they'll get a law ance, and, in consequence of failing m 
passed, and chisel us all to chips. A the attaint one day, when he directed 
joke to-<lay is often a licking to-morrow, an indignant kick at the provoking 
Blind I teU you.'' Tibbs — ^unpractised individuals should 

Tom's philosophy was, at once, never essay the rapid and extempo- 
Fianklxnian and indisputable. He felt raneous application of the foot-^Mr. 
the necessity of obviating all danger of Sappington Sapid sat suddenly and un- 
a war of races. He knew tliat nothing expecteidly down in a puddle of water, 
but mischief was to be anticipated, if in full sight of a legion of his torment- 
ali the rest of the human famUy were ors, who never forgot the incident, but 
to be '^ chiselled" into a hostility against would rehearse it^ to the delight of their 
the news-boys ; for the minority always fellows, whenever the unfortunate man 
stand in the predicament of being pre- happened to present himself, and Tibbs 
seated and suppressed as a nuisance, was especially dexterous in giving the 
whenever the stronger party think fit broadest effect to the incident, 
to exerciae the power of numbers, and. What a vitality there is in our worst 
as a natoral consequence, Tom was mishaps! It would be nothing, eompaia^ 
•pposed to the practice of elustering tively,ifdisaster were circumscribed by 
a£ont a corner and selling newspapers its inunediate consequences, and it would 
in a flock. " A sprinkling of news* have made but little figure in Mr. 8a- 
boys, one ot two in every square," pid's memoirs had he only eanght cold 
thought he, '^ is well enough. It's by the operation referred to ; but when 
good for trade, and makes things lively; a personal sorrow is transmuted into a 
but to be cutting up, so fashion, all in a general joke, it becomes, wso facto^ 
jam, why people go on t'other side of a living piece of attendant biography, 
the way, an^ retailing's done for. I a walking companionship, which even 
vote for scatteration. Folks hate being smiles over a man's last resting-place, 
obligated to fight their way through the Death itself affords no refuge to the 
literary circles." hero of a " ridicule." " Poor fellow !" 

But Tibbe, with all his good sense, say his dearest friends, '* perhaps it's 
has a weakness. Huere is a forte and wrong to mention it now, but, liy-the- 
a foMe to every blade, and even such way, did you ever hear how, — ^ha ! ha ! 
a blade as a news-boy cannot escape ho !---how he made such a fool of him- 
the eonunon lot of humanity. Sound self at Mrs. Dunover's pic-nic ? Ho ! 
upon the general principle of not annoy- ho ! ha ! Poor soul ! !" 
ing others, yet, in the indulgence of his Rob a church, or lay logs on a rail- 
hunior, he sometimes makes an excep- road, and there is a ohance that the last 
tion. He especially dislikes Mr. Sap- may be heard of it ; but if a drollery, 
pington Sapid, a starched gentleman of no matter how sad in its essence, be ere- 
the ol4 sch^l, who never reads a jour- ated at any one's expense, he and it are 

94 Pennings and PeneiUingSy in and about Tawn. [^^Jj 

8o far married that they cling together purpose. His coat was buttoned up to 
through life, while the jest is a '* relict," Uie chin to prevent the evaporation of 
to move post mortem mirth, autopsical his stem resolve ; his lips were drawn 
grins ana necrological merriment. A together, as if to obviate all danger of 
dear departed is much more likely to evasion by word of mouth ; his hat had 
be resurrectionised by a surviving joke, settled martially down, almost to the 
than by the most intrepid of body- bridge of his nose, while his heels sa- 
snatchers, and the best of portraits is luted mother earth so determinedly, 
not so good a memento as being im> that his whole frame-work jarred at 
plicated in an anecdote which is sure to the shock. If ever a man displayed 
create laughter. Under an inkling of outward symptoms of having his mind 
this truth, Mr. Sapid always denies made up in the most compact kind of 
that he is the person who ** shook his a parcel, it was Sappington Sapid, on 
foot " at the news-boy. this memorable occasion. No beggar 

But there are bounds to patience, would have dared to ask charity from 
A man is but a bottle before the fire of him, under such an aspect. He was 
mischance, and when the heat becomes safe from being solicited to take a cab. 
insupportable, he must of necessi^ They who met him, made way instinct- 
explode, no matter how tightly corked ively, for their '^ genius felt rebuked by 
by fortitude, or wired down by philoso- his, as Mark Antony's was by Cesar's,'' a 
phy. " The grief that will not speak," psychological phenomenon often mani- 
IS a deadly iniwd fermentation. They fest when even inferior men are screw- 
who survive sorrow, are those who ed up to the sublime by the force of an 
" exteriorize " sorrow, and give sorrow emergency, just as valor's self shrinks 
a free channel. To scold is the vital abashed from the angry presence of a 
principle of practical hygiene for the cornered cat. 

ladies, and grumbling humanity rare- But whither wandered Sapid ? No 
]y needs the doctor. The inference one knew. He had taken breakfast 
therefore is, that the avenge of exist- without a word, and had wandered forth 
ence would be at a higher rate, if the in equal silence. Counsel he sougtit 
admirable counter-irritant of round not — sympathy he did not require, 
swearing were not proscribed in refined When we are girded up, of our own 
society, thus killing pec^le by the sup- impulse, to pull the trigger of a eata* 
pressed perspiration of an indignant strophe, advice is felt to be an imperii- 
spirit. nence, and no spur is needed to prick 

Sapid, however, was none of these, the sides of our intent. We are a 
Patience might sit upon a monument, sufficiency unto ourselves. Legions 
if she liked, but there was nothing of could not make us stronger, and there- 
the marble-mason in his composition, fore Sapid disdained companionship or 
nor did he at ail affect the " statuesque," an interchange of thought. He, Sapid, 
when vexation chafed his heart. If was enough to fill the canvass for the 
preyed upon in this way, though he, contemplated picture. He was the 
never indulged in Commodore Trun- tableau, all alone, so far as his share in 
nion's expletives, nor *' shotted his dis- the incident was to be concerned, 
course" like that worthy commander, Some clue to his state of mind may 
yet he did not by any means pray in be afforded, when it is known that he 
return, as Dinah had often reason to was visited by a night-mare, a journal- 
acknowledge, when the chamber pitch- istic incubus, on the previous night, 
er was left vacant of water, or when An immense Tom Tibbs sat upon his 
forgetful Boots failed in the perform- breast, and tried to feed him with penny 
ance of his resplendent office. No ! papers. His head seemed to grow to 
Sappington Sapid makes people hear the size of a huge type*foundry, and 
of it when he is offended, justly think- each of hia ears roared like a power* 
ing it better that their ears should be press. Then, again, he was flattened 
annoyed, than that he should pine into an immense sheet, and they print- 
away of an unexpressed inflammation, ed him as a " Double Brother J ona- 

It was a bright forenoon, such as liian," with pictorial embellishments, 
elicits snakes in the country, and He was expanded into whole acres of 
evolves the fashionables in cities, when reading for the people, and did not 
Mr. Sapi»ngton Sapid walked firmly awake until he was folded, pasted np 
along the street^ filled with a settled and thrust into the mail-bag, when^ 

1843.] No. I.—Thc News-hoy. 96 

protesting against the ignominy of being oiT, Mr. Sockdolager threw himaelf 

charged ^' at the usual rate of news- back in his chair, with a smile of 

paper postage," he sprang up convul- triumph. 

sively, and I'ound that his night-cap had " Tickletoby !^^ said be, rumpling his 

got over his noee. hair into heroic expansiTcnesa. 

"WhatV exclaimed Sapid, rather 

^ Is this the office of the ' National nervously. 

Pop-gun and Universal Valve Trum- " My dear sir, I didnH see you — a 

pet?'" inquired Sapid, in sepulchral thousand pardons ! Pray, what can be 

tones. done for you in our line V 

"Hey — ^what 1 Oh ! — ^yes," gruffly " Sir, there is a nuisance ^" 

replied the clerk, as he scrutinized the " Glad of it, sir ; the * Gun ^ is death 

applicant. on a nuisance. We circulate ten 

" It is, is it V was the response. thousand deaths to any sort of a nui- 

" H-ompse ; '^ being a porcine afiir- sance every day, besides the weekly 

native, much in use in the city of and the country edition. We are a 

brotherly love. regular smash-pipes in that line — sor- 

*' 1 am here to see the editor, on gical, surgical to this community — ^we 

business of importance,*^ slowly and are at once the knife and the sarsapa^^ 

soiemniy articulated Sapid. rilla to human ills, whether financial^ 

There must have been something political or social." 

professionally alarming in this an- "Sir, the nuisance I complain of 

nouneement, if an opinion mav be lies in the circulation — in its mode and 

formed from the effect it produced. manner.'^ 

'* Editor's not come down yet, is he, " Bless me !" said Sockdolager, with 

Spry V inquired the clerk, with a cau- a look of suspicion ; " you are too 

tionary wink at the paste-boy. literal in your interpretation. If your 

" Guess he ainH more nor up yet,** circulation is deranged, you had better 

aid Spry ; " the mails was late last try Brandreth, or the Fluid Extract of 

night*^ Quizembob." 

"in take a seat till he does come,** " It is not my circulation, but your* 

observed Sapid, gloomily. which makes all the trouble. I never 

Spry and the clerk laid their heads circulate, — I can't, without being ia- 

togelher, in the most distant comer of suited." 

the little oflice. "Really, mister, I can*t say that 
"Has he got a stick 1'* whispered this is clearly comprehensible to per- 
oae. ception. Not circulate! Are you 
" No, and he isa*t remarkable big, below par in the * money article,* or in 
onther." what particular do you find yourself in 
" Any bit of paper in his hand — the condition of being ' no go V Ex- 
does he look like State House V* cuse my facetis and be brief, for 
" Not muchy and as we didn't have thought comes tumbling, bumping, 
any scroger in the Pop-gun yesterday, booming ;— **and Sockdolager dipped 
perhaps he wants to luive somebody his pen in the ink. 
tickled up himself. Send him in.** Mr. Sappington Sapid unravelled the 
St Sebastian Sockdolager, Esq., the web of his miseries. " I wish you, 
editor of "The National rop-Gun and sir, to control your boys — to dismiss 
Universal Valve Trumpet,' sat at a the saucy, and to write an article which 
green table, elucidating an idea by the shall make *em ashamed of them- 
aid of a steel pen and whitey-brown selves. I shall call on every editor in 
paper, and, therefore, St. Sebastian the city, sir, and ask the same — a com- 
ScMrkdolager did not look up when Mr. bined expression for the suppression of 
Sapid entered the sanctum. The ab- iniquity. We must be emancipated 
straction may, perhaps, have been a from this new and growing evil, or our 
^ample of literary stage effect, but it liberties become a farce, and we are 
is certain that the pen pursued the idea squashed and crushed in a way worse 
vith the speed and directness of a than fifty tea-taxes.'* 
8teeple-chaj9e, straight across the pa- " Pardon me, Mr. Whatcheecallem; 
per, and direful was the scratching it can't be done — it would be suicidal, 
thereof. The luckless idea being at with the sharpest kind of a knife, 
iait fairly run down, and its brush cut Whatcheecallem, you don't understand 

iHi Pennings and PendOings^ in and about Town. [ Jolji 

the grand moremeiit of the niDeteenth safely be crossed, or eren spoken to. 
century — ^you are not up to snuff sjb to It is not wise to eaXi him to dinner, ex- 
the vital principle of human progres- cept through the key-hole, and to ask 
sion — the propulsive force has not yet for ^' more copy,** in genera] a privi- 
been demonstrated to your benighted leged demand, is a risk too feaiiiil to 
optics. The sun is up, sir ; the hill- be encountered. St. Sebastian's eye 
tops of intellect glow with its bright- became fixed, his brow corrugated, his 
ness, and even the level plain of the mouth intellectually ajar, 
world's collective mediocrity is gilded '* But, sir, the nuisance'' — said Sap- 
by its beams ; but you, sir, arc yet in pington. 

the foggy valley of exploded prejudice, " Don't bother !" was the impatient 

poking along with a tupenny — ^ha'pen- reply, and the brow of St. Sebastiau 

ny candle — a mere dip. Suppress Sockdolager grew black as his own 

sauciness! why, my dear bungletonian, ink. 

sauciness is the discovery of the age— '* The boys, sir, the boys !-~em I to 
the secret of advancement ! We are be worried out of my life and soul T" 
saucy now, sir, not by the accident of The right hand of St. Sebastian 
constitution — ^temperament has nothing Sockdolager fell heavily upon the huge 
to 60 with it. We are saucy by cal- pewter ii£stand — the concatenation of 
culation, by intention, by design. It his ideas had been broken— he half- 
is cultivated, like our whiskers, as a raised himself from his chair, and 
superadded energy to our other gifts, glanced significantly from his visitor 
Without sauciness, what is a news- to the door. 

boy 1 what is an editor 1 what are '' Mizzle !" said he, in a hoarse, 
revolutions 1 what are people ? Sauce suppressed whisper, 
is power, sauce is spirit, independence. The language itself was unintelligible 
victory, everything. It is, in fact, — — ^the word might have been Chaldaic, 
this sauce, or ' sass,' as the vulgar for aU that Sapid knew to the contrary ; 
have it — steam to the great locomotive but there are situations in which an 
of afiairs. Suppress, indeed ! No, interpreter is not needed, and this ap- 
sir; you should regard it as a part of pearedtobeoneof them. Sapid never 
your duty as a philanthropist and as a before made a movement so swiftly 
patriot, to encourage this essence of extemporaneous, 
superiority in all your countr3rmen, and He intends shortly to try whether 
I've a great mind to write you an the Grand Jury is a convert to the new 
article on that subject, instead of the doctrine of sauciness. 
other, for this conversation has wanned Tibbs, in the mean time, grows in 
up my ideas so completely, that justice means and expands in ambition. Pro- 
will not be done to the community till gress is in his soul, like a reel in a 
they, like you, are enlightened on thia bottle. He aspires already to a '^ lite- 
important point." rary agency," and often feels as if he 
St. Sebastian Sockdolager, now were destined to publish more maga- 
having a leading article for " The Na- zines at a single swoop than there are 
tional Pop-Gun and Universal Valve now in existence, each of which shall 
Trumpet," clearly in his mind, was not have upon its cover a picture of the 
a creature to be trified with. An edi- ^ News-Boy," while the same device 
dor in this paroxysm, however gentle shall gleam upon the panels of his 
in his less inspired moments, cannot coach. 

3843.] Passages from a Politician's Note-Book. 97 



BusciESS, they say, is beginning to the cooimencement of a new Volume, 
leTive, — so are Politics. All the great from the refreshing repose of the past 
etemenis of the latter have for a consi* year, let as begin by casting a bird^s-eye 
derable interval been lying in a state glance over the Lay of the Land. 
o( qaiescence, almost of stagnation. The spectacle presented at Wash- 
There have been but two points, over ington is certainly — (we hate the coarse 
the expanse of the political field, where word, but it must out !) — is certainly 
any disturbance of its dormant dust has the noost disgusting ever yet exhibited 
indicated the presence of waking life by an administration of our federal 
sad motion, — the one, the convulsive government. It is almost enough to 
struggle of Uiat smallest and worst of turn the stomach of an honest man, be 
the wns the country has yet known, he Democrat or Whig. Such hnbecil- 
Tylerism, to make some sort of a little ity and such conceit — such feebleness 
figure in the world ; the other, the and such petty activity of small intrigue 
rivalry between the friends of the two — such pretension oi purity and such 
leading candidates of our own party for shamelessness of political venality- 
its Presidential nomination. The for- such affectation of independent dignity, 
mer, though its insignificance might and such fawning for the scornfully 
occasionally attract the notice of a refused favor of a great and noble party, 
^ent smile, yet neither contained nor whose smiles are never to be propitiated 
portended anything worth the trouble by such men and such means — 
of nibbing a pen to write about it. The 

latter was a matter to be lei\ to the " take it for all in all, 

^ponuneous movement of the popular We ne'er shall look upon its like again P' 
iostiiicts, firom which, whatever might 

be both the right and the duty of the The inmiediate provocation to the 
Bore local newspaper press, it oehoved utterance of this opinion and this feeling 
and became this Review to stand im- in relation to that miserable concern of a 
partially aloof; perfectly content as we government, at Washington, is derived 
could not fail to be with any of the from the manner in which the country 
ahemative results of which the future has of late had to witness the nnblush- 
moBt soon hring the solution. For a con- ing corruption of its attempt to build up 
■siderabie period, therefore, the subject a Party on the basis of Patronage. In 
of Politics, in its more immediate and common with the Democratic Party at 
practical party bearings, has engaged large, we were at one time disposed to 
but little of our time and few of our look with an inclination of generous 
pages, — ^perhaps to the discontent of liberality toward Mr. Tyler. When a 
4ome portion of our readers, with whom sudden and solemn act of the Providence 
BO degree of merit is the treatment of of God brought him into his present 
a countless number of other topics^ of position, he had it in his power to adopt 
general literature, philosophy, criticism, a course that would have secured him 
art, poetry, fancy, and useful instruc- a warm and triumphant support from 
tioQ, would competisate for the absence the Democratic Party and from an 
of this one subject of perpetual Ameri- overwhelming majority of the country. 
can interest. But PoUtics, we repeat, That course was earnestly, patriotical- 
like business, are beginning now to ly, kindly, and hopefully pointed out to 
revive ; and as we approach the assem- him and urged upon him. But he was 
biing of a new Democratic Congress, not the Man for the Occasion. After 
and the canvass of a new Presidentisd all, perhaps, if he had been, he could 
eiectiont it is time to replenish that never have thus found himself there, in 
compartment of our editorial inkstand, that precise and peculiar position which 
I ow almost dry and mouldy from dis- created it. He was totally unequal to 
i-se. Reawakening, theiefore, with the strong cfibrt of any bold and manly 

TOI*. XIII. NO. l.XI. 7 

98 Passages from a Poliitcian's NoU^Book. [JQljr 

course, in either or in any direction, his portrait in this Review, as a subject 

He tried to shuffle shabbily along, a of current interest at the time, not un- 

middle way between the two parties, acceptable probably even to those of 

He certainly did his best to remain a our readers least disposed to fraternize 

Wliig. Ho clung to them till Clay politically with him, we added a distinct 

shook him roughly off and drummed him disclaimer of responsibility for the 

out of camp. We all remember how accompanying article which a personal 

he whined about their unkind injustice and political friend of the Vice-President 

to him, when he had signed all their was permitted to write ; and the fol- 

bills but one, sund had done his best to lowing was the language in which was 

arrange a compromise with them upon then expressed the wavering but hoping 

that one, by which he might retain his uncertainty of the opinion with which 

hold upon them. And now that the we regarded his position and course : 
progress of subsequent development has 

shed its light upon the motives and wpor Mr. Tyler's recent important 

spirit ofprior events, we see but slender vetoefi, we sincerely thank him — at the 

title to credit that he can claim at the same time that we feel bound to say, that 

hands of the Democratic Party, even the general coarse of his administration 

for his Bank vetoes. He had been in other respects has by no means been 

placed on the Whig ticket for the very what we hoped at the ouUet it might 

purpose — as we have heard it frankly possibly be. He leaves us yet in no slight 

acknowledged by an active member of de?«e of doubt as to the spirit in which 

the Harrisburg Convention itself, who jj^^^^s bad its origin and simiulus. Con* 

was in no snmll degree influential in fifence is a plant of slow growth mother, 

.....»:^» u;« »r^».;».«f^» fi»» tu^ ,r«-,r *lso, than aged bosoms. If Mr. Tyler 

causing hiB »^"^fji*»«»--:^^^ has now doni well for one year, he had 

purpose of conciliating the anti-Bank before done very ill for ten. If his recent 

feeling, together with the anti-Tariff ^^^^ ^^^^ ^[^^ g^^at, great also was 

and anti-Abohtion feeling of the South. ^11 he had to atone for. An ancient sage 

The Whig ConvenUons of Southern would pronounce no man happy in his 

Stages, and of Virginia in particular, life, tiU death had set its seal upon his 

had emphatically repudiated the charge mortal fate and career. So too do we 

Of National-Bank-ism. Mr. Tyler, await a further development of Mr. Ty- 

when interrogated on this very point ler's administration, before deciding on 

in advance of the election, had publicly the judgment which should be recorded 

committed himself, in a way entirely opposite to his name in the annals of the 

unequivocal, against a Bank. He 8»^«^ ^^^ imposed upon him, by that 

could not sign any such bill as they same fatality of accident which seems to 

presented him ; and none but that su- ^*v« attended his whole poUtical career." 
perbly imperious dictator who then 

ruled the counsels of the party with a The doubts then entertained with 

sceptre sterner than any iron, would regret have been since very elTectaally 

have undertaken thus to force it upon dissipated by Mr. Tyler himself. His 

him. He tried hard to evade the bitter recent course in the particular above 

necessity of that veto to which he felt alluded to — this systematized applica- 

impelled and compelled by the very tion of all the enginery of official power 

extremest considerations of pc^itical at his command toward the futile ab* 

decency and personal honor ; and if Mr. surdity of his hope for a Democratic 

Clay had only been willing to yield a nomination — ^this meretricioua boldness 

mere inch or two of the position on with which the smiles and the more 

which he had planted himself and the substantial favors of office, are not only 

party, Mr. Tyler was still willing to granted but tendered to any Democrat 

sign a Bank Bill which would bave of decent party standing, who can be 

been, after all, but little less obnoxious found willing to contaminate himself 

to us, and worse than those which — with the disgustfiilness of sach political 

little thanks to him — ^he vetoed. prostitntion — this wholesale and retail 

With a man thus forced on them* te venality of patronage, not only bestowed 

Democratic Party can have no sympa- at the central depdt in ^e higher dip- 

thies. We, for a long time, tried to lomatic bribes for Congressional sup- 

believe him honest, uid were ingenious port and devotion, but peddled around 

in charitable constructions and supposi- the country wherever a little viUage 

tions in his favor. When we inserted postinaater can be found suspected of 

im.] The Lay of the Land. 99 

beiog sadpicioos aa to the zeal and which interested adulators about your 
siocerity of his attachment to the Ad- person at Washington had before suc- 
miaistration— all this, we say, following ceeded in warding off — the conyiction 
80 closdy as it did on the heels of Mr. of the hopeless impossibility^ now^ of 
Tyler's own recent professions on these your adoption by the Democratic Party 
Teiy identical points of political princi- or by any party. Abandon this worse 
pie, not only necessarUy inspires us than idle attempt to bribe our favor, in 
with an utter disgust for his present which sinister counsels and malign 
course of administration, and distrust influences perhaps have involved you. 
for anything that can come out of it Keep your offices, or rather let their 
mthrn the period for which the country incumbents keep them — ^be their party 
has yet to tolerate it ; but also, reflect- preferences, avowed and acted upon^ 
ing back upon the past the light of its or only cherished '^ at heart," what they 
il/ustration of the political character may. Before you began upon this 
of the man who could be capable of it, system we protested against it, and 
exhibits him in an aspect, which com- forewarned you of the certain result, 
peb us to assent to the Justice of the in the united contempt of both and of 
least flattering of the portraits recently all parties. It is rumored that a more 
drawn of him by all the orators and extended application of it is shortly to 
editors of his own qttandam party. If be made. Depend upon it, that at 
our language is strong, we confess that erery step you pursue in this path, this 
we have lost all patience with the sub- result will only the more and more 
jeet of which it speaks. irreparably develope itself. 

The doctrine was bad enough, hea- So much, for the present, for Mr. 
Ten ioDows, in itself and in its conse- Tyler and his administration ; in which 
quenees, that ^* to the victors belong there are to be found two or three es- 
the spoils.'^ It never met with favor timable gentleman whom, however 
or justification w^ith us ; and we deeply they may confine themselves to the 
deplore and condemn the practical ap- special duties of their offices, without 
plicatioo we have to witness of it, m personal participation in all this cor- 
aO, or very nearly all of the States of ruption for the reprobation of which 
the Union, at eTcry revolution of the our words have been only too weak, we 
vbeel of party politics. But all that, sincerely regret to behold giving to it 
88 a political miaehief and wrong, sinks the countenance of their presence and 
into insignifieance in comparison with permission. The organs of Tylerism 
tloBone, of the application of patronage are loud in their complaint when the 
to the formation of a party, and to the Democratic press would seem disposed 
venal and corrupt purchase of support to exclude the name of the Vicer 
from ail adverse J^rty by a seceder President from the privilege of candi- 
from his own. The celebrated im- dateahip before the approaching con- 
peaefament ^ree of Botts was only vention of the Democratic Party. We 
ridiculous; but we do confess that if have no such desire, — ^he is perfectly 
BDch a ponifihinent for Presidential welcome, as is also Mr. Clay himself 
nuifeamice were practicable, we to such chance as awaits him in that 
riioaU rejoice to see it applied, in the body. If required, however, to choosQ 
present ease, for the Vice-President's between the probability of its prefer- 
oatrageoos aJbuse and misuse of the ence as between the two, we could 
P^mnage Power of his office. have but little hesitation in the se- 

lf it is not yet too late to retriere a lection, 
politieat eharaeter mined we fear be- If we have spoken with what may 
yond the reach of redemption, we would seem to some an undue and uncharita- 
again address to Mr. Tyler the vraming ble degree of harshness, it has been 
and even the entreaty we have more because the severest reprobation has 
tltto ooee urged upon him. Awake appeared alike just and necessary, of 
fitim this £atal dream in which your what we cannot but regard as the most 
Beaaes have been bopped by the insidi- abominable piece of political profligacy 
0Q8 narcotics of flattery. Surely, recorded in the annals of our govern- 
sorely, the coldness of your reception ment. It is a fitting sequel and fruit 
everywhere by the Peojde^ on your of the whole grand whig fraud of the 
J»esent pilgTiniage, most have struck last election. Mr Tyler could not have 
hn&e to yoa laat chilly eonriction becm honest in his course and position 

100 Passages from a Politician's Note-Book. [July, 

in the Whig party ; the Whig party points on which had arisen a discussion 

was grossly dishonest in the whole threatening to become a formidable dis- 

scheme of that election of which Mr. sension, the District Delegation, and 

Tyler was an essential element. As is the individual voting in the Contention, 

so often the result of similar iniquitous a general harmony of sentiment has 

combmations, the two parties who com- already been restored, by that pervad- 

menccd by cheating the public have ing instinctive spirit of union, in which 

ended by cheating each other, — and the none can fail to read the prophetic as- 

completion of the whole will soon be, surance of a glorious common triumph, 

according to the good old rule of pro- The former of these points will be left 

vidential justice, that " the honest men to the free choice of the respective 

will ^et tlieir own again." States ; the latter, according to the 

Otthe actual position of the Whig established usage of the case, to the 

Party little need be said. The main decision c^the Convention itself. There 

majority of them will undoubtedly rally is wide room for honest and perfectly 

to the Presidential contest under Mr. amicable difference of views upon both 

Clay, with Tariff Protection as their of them. On the one side a regard to 

only distinctive idea of party doctrine, that numerical national majority which. 

To be sure the contest is a hopeless with the Democratic Party cannot but 

one for them, but it will probably be be a consideration of deserved weight, 

gallanUy fought. Mr. Webster is op- would recommend the one coarse ; 

ning, as strongly as in his power, the while on the other side, the opposite 
)le inHuenee which, despite of his one has the advantage of the indirect 
great order of ability, he is able to sanction of the Constitution itself, added 
wield, against the union of the party to the force of all those arguments 
on Clay ;'-hut vainly. Sink or swim, which address themselves peculiarly 
live or die, all the more generous to the extreme State-Rights school* of 
spirit of the party is warmly devoted politics, assertins for each State the 
to the latter, and no treacherous argu- right to judge independently for itself 
ments of availability will be again al- in the exercise of this high and im- 
low^ to postpone his right to the portant duty. The course of the Geor- 
highest honor in their power to bestow gia convention, wiiich, while in the 
on him, that of being their chosen act of nominating Mr. Calhoun, at 
chief to fall at the head of their party the same time, in opposition to the 
array, in the fated field ci defeat wluoh South Carolina recommendation, adopt- 
so soon awaits them. ed the plan of a general ticket dele- 
In our ranks all is now well. At gation to the Convention, alone suffices 
one period, indeed, indications seemed to remove from this question every- 
to exist of a spirit that portended a thing calculated to engender misunder- 
aerious danger of discord. Some of standing and ill feeling between any of 
the peculiar friends of one of the can- the sections of our party. We should 
didaSes for the Presidential nomination, be glad to see New York meet the 
wiUi hs greater xeal than discretion, same question in a spirit of perhaps 
appeared disposed to assume an atti- even cMvalrio generosity, for Uie sake 
tuae and a tone that could scarcely of magnanimity and cordial friendship, 
have been other than fatal to the har- Thou^ the natural interest of a large 
mony and union of the party. This State is to retain its whole nmnerical 
has of late entirely ceased. It grew weight unbroken by division, yet 
out of a distrust of their own truest womd it be well in various points of 
friends which was alike ungeneroos view — ^well in itself, and well in its 
and unjust. It has been efiectually re- moral influence — ^if the New Yoftk. 
moved by the frank readiness with convention should adopt for that State 
which Mr. Van Buren^s friends have the single district mode as urged by 
met the wishes of those of Mr. Cal- South Carolina. The chief ol^ectioa 
houn and some of the other candidates, to it is derived from the difficulty of 
on the point of the time for the as^ determining the cases of disputed elec- 
sembling of the Convention, — ^together tion which might probably arise in the 
with the entirely satisfactory ground separate voting of so large a nnmber 
taken by the former on the main topic of districts, and which it would be 
of interest now involved in the ^ec- highly embarrassmg to carry into tJhe 
tioo— the Tariff* Upon the ether two organisation of such a body as tiie pro^ 

1843.] Monthly Financial and Commercial Article, 101 

posed Convention. This objection ness of the prospect before us. The 

could, however, be obviated fay pro- action of the Convention in May ¥rill 

Tiding in advance some snitable au- be cheerful, cordial, and harmonious ; 

thority for the decision of any such and whoever may be its selection, from 

question within the limits of the State among the several worthy names now 

—such as either a committee of the prominently before the country, he will 

State convention itself, or else the most assuredly be supported with an 

JDemocratic members of the Legisia- united energy and enthusiasm which 

ture which will be in session at the make his election already perfectly as> 

proper season for the purpose. sured, by a massiveness of popular 

On the whole, we conclude with majority that will iully atone for all 

joyfdly congratulating our political the disaster and disgrace of the yet 

friends upon the now cloudless clear- unforgotten 1840. 


At (he date of our last, the speculation perceptible, some backwardness to 

in stocks, caused by the abundance of continue their loans on stocks was 

money, was running high, and we evinced by the Banks here, 
pointed out indications that the channels As the money aiFairs of England 

of regular business would soon feel the appear now to be taking a turn, after a 

impulse which stock securities Iiad felt, long-continued current in one direction, 

From that time up to the arrival of the it may be well in this place to glance 

steamer from England, on the second at their position, with a view to their 

of June, prices continued to rise. The effect upon American interests. The 

adTices brought by that conveyance Bank of England is the great centre of 

were, however, of a nature which gave the money power in England. Each 

a momentary check to operations. It contraction or expansion of tliat insti- 

was the first steamer for many months tution is felt by those merchants and 

that had little or no specie on board, brokers who come in their transactions 

showing that the state of the exchange immediately in contact with it. The 

parket was in a position to stop further impulse then gradually spreads through 

imports of the precious metals, and all grades, until the most remote in the 

therefore that the supply for the year islands, and even in distant countries, 

hadheen received. Money, which had feel the vibration. The Bank of Eng- 

been constantly decreasing in value in land is surrounded, for a circle of sixty 

Enghnd for a length of tmie, had be- miles, with merchants, bill-brokers, and 

gnn to improve. Sanguine expectations joint-stock banks, that issue no bills, 

had been entertamed here that the long but derive their supplies from the Great 

continuance of extreme low rates for Bank. These are the parties that first 

money, which was scarcely 1 f per feel the contraction, and again are first 

cent, per annum, would sooner or later glutted with money, when it suits the 

induce investment in the sound Ameri- Imperial Monster to spread its web. 

can stocks, and thereby relieve this Next to these, come the bill-brokers 

norketof considerable amounts, thus and joint-stock banks of Lancashire, 

affording an oatlet or market for the which issue no notes, but re-discount 

Blocks now held by the Banks, when the bills they take from the manuiac- 

feviving trade should create a legiti- turers with the Bank of England* 

mate demand for their funds. When, These accommodations of the lAnca- 

therefore, the late steamer brought shire banks to the manufacturers are, 

advices criT an advance in the discount of course, dependent upon the disposi- 

rateof money in London to 2 per cent., tion of the Bank of England, with 

wiUiout any such disposition being which their arrangement for money 


Monthly Financial and Cammereial Article. 


exiMs. This arrangement is generally 
permanent, the Lancashire l»nks re- 
ceiving the Bank of England money at 
something less than the market rate. 
Hence it is that the manufacturing 
districts of Lancashire first feel the 
stimulus of renewed loans. The Scotch 

and other porincial hanks, that issue 
their own bills, then follow the cue thus 
given, and trade revives accordingly. 
Thus premising, we will give the 
English currency for the last two 
years, down to the latest date : 

PAPEE cnaaERCT or ] 



Bank of 



Scotch and 

BnUton in 

of Int. 





Irish Bankii. 






X 6.575,838 

X 3,796^155 



X 3316,000 














































































































































































This table commences when the 
Bank began to recover * from the diffi- 
culties incident npon the short crop of 
1839-40. Its rigorous contractions 
ruined banks and merchants by hun- 
dreds, and forced up the rate of money 
to 6 per cent, in January, 1842 ; a rate 
hip-her than had been known since the 
reign of queen Anne. The Bank then 
began to push out its paper with an 
nnsparing hand, and by August had 
increased its issues twenty-five per ct., 
reducing the rate of discount in liondon 
from 6 to 2 J per cent., while in the 
interior Of the country the distress was 
terrible. In all that time, the country 
banks had been diminishing their issues, 
so that in August the whole quantity 
of money was no greater than in the 
previous October. The national dis- 
tress, caused by these fluctuations, is 
painfully indicated in the fact that the 
revenue from consumable goods fell off 
dEr7,000,000 in the year, leaving a defi- 
cit of ir2,000,000 above the i:6,000,000 
derived from the new Income Tax. 
The same general process was con- 

tinued, the Bank expanding, and the 
country institutions cnrtauing, until 
May ; during all which time the rate 
of money continued to fall, until at that 
time a demand for money for business 
purposes sprung up in London and in 
jLancashire, which raised the rate of 
money to 2 per cent., notwithstanding 
that the volume of the currency i^ras 
nearly as full as at any period embraced 
within the table. We observe that the 
country banks also show an increase 
in their circulation, giving some evi- 
dence of an improved demand for money 
in their several districts. In Lanca- 
shire, the effect was evinced in the 
renewed purchases and improved prices 
of cotton, notwithstanding that the full 
extent of the crop, 2,200,000 bales, was 
known . A merican provisions were al so 
better. The continental exchanges 
continued largely in favor of England, 
and there was every prospect that, "vi-ith 
continued political quiet, business would 
rapidly revive, much to the advantage 
of the United States, because the rapid 
rise of prices under an inflated currency- 

1643.] Monthly Financial and Commercial Article, 103 

iriil greatly &Tor the sale of prodiiee eratie aaeendaaey lemamed unshaken 
ezponed from the United States, where through all the vacillations of eurrency 
happily the hanks are not in a situation and commerce. Prices of domestic 
to letard the operation hy a correspond- produce had ruled at very high rates— 
xng mfbtion. Apart from politieal far too high for a healthy state of afiairs. 
coDsiderationSf there are at present no They indicated rather the depreciation 
groonds to fear an immediate contrac- of the general mixed currency than the 
tioBonthepartof the Bank of England, actual value of the commocuties. In 
and therefore the impulse now eommu- the early part of 1840, a general and 
nicated to business is likely to develope rigid curtailment in the amount of cur- 
its effects through a long and prosperous rency took place, and, of course, a 
season. heavy fall in the money value of agri- 

The English commercial affairs seem cultural produce ensued, which fall was 
thus to have taken a decided turn for enhanced by the increased production, 
the better, and the extreme low point which the improved industry of the 
of the value of money passed without previous year had rendered enormous, 
having produced any desire, in those Taking advantage of the genfral un- 
who seek to employ it, to avail them- easiness created by that fall, the Oppo- 
selves of the high dividends made on sition, with the most barefaced and 
Ameriean stocks. The benefits to be wholesale promises of reform, succeed- 
derived from renewed con£dence in ed in making the cry of "change^* 
stocks, and the advance of money on popular. In our article of April, we 
jsuch security, are, however, at best, of endeavored to show how utterly the 
very doabtfid utility. The advance of party failed in redeeming their promi- 
pnces and improved demand for the ses, particularly in regard to finance 
proceeds of American industry are, on and the exchanges. W e will now trace 
the contrary, solid and unequivocal ad- the present stagnation in all trade, the 
vantages. This is universidly admitted ruinously low prices with which the 
when the return for the sales is specie ; fanner is rewarded for his toil, the 
bat when the return is made in goods, scarcity of freight among the ship^ung, 
it is considered as a disadvantage by a and the idleness of the mechanic and 
portion of the community. Hence, laboring man, to the disastrous inter- 
strong efforts have been made, and, meddling of the 87th Congress with 
nnfortnnately, with the 27th Congress trade, and compare it with the state of 
successfully, to hamper trade by the affairs when the reckless and unprinci- 
imposition of enormous duties. To pled promises of politicians fomented 
this circumstance may be ascribed 4he destructive desire for '^change." 
the disastrous stagnation which has There is no surer indication of the 
prevailed in all channels of trade since condition of the great agricultural 
the influence of the 27th Congress upon classes, than the relative money values 
affairs was first fejt. of the produce of their labor. We 

In looking back at the events of the have, therefore, compiled an elaborate 

last few years, and tracing effects to table of the prices of the leading arti- 

the causes which produced them, we cles of domestic produce, at several 

are particularly struck with the disas- periods, commencing in 1840, when 

trous results of the measures of the the low rang:e of affairs gave ef!ect to 

party which arrived at power through political artifice, and at succeeding 

the revolution of 1840. For twelve periods down to the present moment, 

jears prior to that event, the Demo- as follows : 


McnUdy Financial and Cammereial Artidt, 




Dec 1841. 

July, 1843. 

Dt. 1843. 

June. 1813. 

J^bJub per cwt 



6 — a 

5 19 a 5 85 

5 31 a 5 37 





5 50a 

588a 6 — 


BeeMwax. per lb. 



— 50« — 55 

— 48a — 56 

•48a — 56 

— 38a — 40 


— 87a — 28 

— aHa — 3U 

— 88 a — 3ii 

-20a — 30 

— 39 0-30 

Bread, Pilot, per lb. 


- 41a-- 

— 5 tt 


= $zi 


- 3o 


- 3a- 3« 

- 24a-- 


DiyCod, pcrcwt. 
Picktcd Cod. pr.bbl. 

8 — a 3 184 

8 134a 8 85 

885a 865 

1 87a 

2 78 8 75 

8 374a 8 5U 

a 8 75 

885 a 

2 50 2 75 

2750 3- 

8inok*a Salmon, lb. 

— 14 a — 16 

•^ — a — '— 

— 14 a — 16 

— 12 a — 13 

— 10 o — 13 

M»ck\ Mo. 1, bbl. 

11 — a 11 85 

13 85 a 18 50 

11 50 a 12 — 

a — « 

9 — a 

No. 2. 

— a 9 85 

10 85 a 10 50 

8 — a 9 — 

6 — a 

7 — a 

•* No. 3, 

4 — a 485 

a 6 — 

4 50 a 4 75 


5 75 a 

8liiid,^nn., mesi, 
»• ^ucluport, ** 

18 — « 14 — 

18 50 a 13 — 

• — a 685 

6 — a 685 

5 — a 

in — a 11 — 

10 — a 10 50 

n — _ 

— a 10 50 

9 50 

7^. per bbl. 

1 SO a 1 56 

1 68 a 1 87 

1 50a 1 62 

1 37 a 1 50 

1 85 1 31 


a a — 

a 1 68 

185a 1 37 

185a 1 37 

1 85 a 1 31 

1 50a 1 624 

1 18ia 1 56i 

lQ6a I 50 

— 87a 350 



N. C, Soft, 

850a 8684 

3 — « 

869a 887 

809 • 9 75 


Wilm.. *' 

350 a 

a 3 374 

8 50 a 8 68 

3 — a 

885a 850 

SpCB. of, SOQ., fmll. 

— 85a — 86 

-37a — 38 

— 38a — 36 

— 48a — 44 


CMLm, Upland, fair. 

— 9a— n 

- 9o— 91 

- 8a— 9 

- 8a- 84 

- 740-74 

JLead, per lb 


- 3la- 4i 

- 44a- 44 


— 34a — ^ 




- Ha 

— 5a 

z ^izz 

- 44o-- 


- 5)a— 6 

- 5}a 

— 5a 

- 4;a-- 

Be«f. per bbl. 

14 — a 14 25 

7 50 a 8 25 

7 — a 750 

6 — a 650 

7 50 o 8— 


9 75 a 10 — 

4 50 a 5 35 

2 SO a 3 50 

2 75 o 3 85 

5 50o 6 — 


6 — a 6 51) 

A — _ 

1 75 a 8 — 

1 75 a 2 — 

3 50a 450 

P^rkt Mees, 

14 75 a 15 25 

9 85 a 10 — 

7 75 a 9 — 

8 50 o 9 — 

9 25 10 SO 


13 — a 13 50 

7 — a 8 — 

5 25 a 6 50 

5 50 o 6 — 

7 50 7G3 

/.Ard per lb. 

— lU a — 104 

— 64a— 8 

- Oia- 74 

- 6|a 7 — 

— 5^0-6 



Prime Dairy, 


— 15 a — 17 

— 10 a — U 

— 10 o — 13 

— 7o- 9 


- 7 a— 10 

— 10 a — 14 

- 6 a— 7 

— 5a— 64 

— 5 a — 6 

CAMfff, Amer. (new) 

- 6a— 64 

- 64a- 74 

- 6ia- 74 

_ ..^ _ -^ 

— 5a- 6 

Nnms, Mioked. 

— 10 a — 11 

— 6a— 9 

— 4 a— 5 

- 7 a — 94 

— 6 a— 7 

FUfur. per bbl. 

Wertcm Cnnul, 

4 .SO a 4 084 


594a 6 — 

488 5 — 

4 75 o 4 81 

Ohio and MichiKna, 

4 25 a 4 374 

6 18 a «6 85 

5 75 a 5 88 

488 a 5 — 

462o 469 

Baliimore, How. sl 

4 874o 5 — 
4 87la 

6 50 a 6 62 


488a 5 — 

4 44 a 


6 50 a 62 

6 — a 6 19 

4 88 o 5 — 

4 44 o 4 SO 

Rfe Fiovr^ 

a 250 

a 4 35 

3 50 a 3 75 

38Sa 350 

8 81 o 3 13 

Indian Meal, 

a 8 874 

3 12 a 3 35 

2 81 a 3 — 

3 56a 868 

8 75 o 3 — 

Wheat, per bush. 

- 95 tt I — 

I 30a 1 35 

1 25a 1 28 

— 90o 1 — 

— 90a — 95 

Bye^ Northern, 

— 51 a — 58 

— 80a — 82 

— 67a — 63 

— 64 a —65 

-58a — 60 


Yellow Nortbem, 

— 53a — 55 

— 68a — 70 

-53a — 60 

-50a — 54 



— 50 a — 51 

— 45 a — 47 

- 53 o — 60 

— 50a — 54 

— 53 o — 55 


— 85a — 35 

-45a — 50 

— 89 a — 35 

— 30 a — 31 


Oil per gall. 


Linseed, American, 

— 68 a — 65 

-90a — 93 

-820 — 88 

— 80 o — 85 

— 80 o — 85 


— 30 a — 31 

— 39a 

-. 33 « 

— 350 — 36 

— 324a -33 

Sperm, crude. 


— 90a — 92 

— 6840^65 

— 60 a — 63 

— SSa — 56 

Wool. per lb. 

Am. Snzony, ileeee, 

— 39 a — 33 

— «8a — 45 

— 35 a — 45 

— 30 a — 37 

— 30a— 37 


— 30 a — 33 

— 35a — 38 

— 28a — 37 

— 87a — 30 

— 87a-30 

Am. 4 and } '* 

— 85a — 30 

— 30a — 33 

-85a- 33 

— 83a — 86 

— 82a-26 


- 80 a — 83 

-90a — 84 

- 18 a — 25 

— 18 a — 22 

— 18 a - 28 

Am No. 1, pulled. 

-28a — 30 

-32a — 35 

— 35 a — 32 

— 85a — 30 

— 98a — 85 

Am. No. 8, '• 

- 18 a — 90 

-25a — 97 

— 184a — 35 

— 15 a — 18 

— 18 a — 90 

T9baeea. per lb. 


- 4 a— 9 

— 4 a — 8 

— 84a— 6 

— 3 a— 5 

— 3a— 5 


L- 4 a — 10 

— 5a— 9 

- 3a— 64 

— 24a— 5 

— 84a— 5 

Manufact'd., No. 1, 

^ 11 a — 15 

— 18 a — 15 

— 18 a — 16 

— 10 a — 18 

— 10 a — 18 

No. 9, 

n- 8a— 11 

— 10 a — 11 

— 6 a — 10 

— 5 o — 10 

— 5 a — 10 

Biee, per tierce, 
JMMtfM.N.O., ([all. 

3 -If 3 3U 

325a 337 

250a 3 — 

850a 325 

8 18 o 3 — 

— 83a — 25 

^aOa — 88 

— 16 o — 17 

— 83 a — 94 

-aOa — 91 

Smgar^K.O^ per lb. 

— 44a — 6 I— 4ia — 7 

— 3a— 5 I— 5«— 6 1 

- 4ja- 5i 


Monthly Pmanciai and 



In 1840, owing as much to the 
abufidant production as the contraction 
of the circulating medinm, flour and 
wheat fell Tery low. In the same 
year, the crop of England being short, 
a good export demand grew up, which 
was favored hy the low prices here. 
Tiie export of wheat and flour, there- 
fore, reached to S,350,000 barrels of 
iloQr, eqoiralent to 11,350,000 busheia 
of wheat. The census gare as the 
prodaction of that year, 84,000,000 
bushels. Consequently, near 10 per 
cent, was exported. The consequence 
of 80 large an export was, that in the 
socceeding year prices averaged fully 
one dollar per barrel higher, when 
equivalent to 8^61,000 bushels were 
exported. The rise in the price of flour 

during that year, when all other articles 
fell, is very conclusive proof that the 
full surplus was exported, and that the 
farmers received full money value un- 
der the circumstances. If we consider 
the crop of 1841 as 90,000,000 busheia 
only, 6,000/M)0 in excess of 1840, the 
rise in price consequent upon the large 
export made a difference of 920,000,000 
in finvor of the fiirmera, and laid the 
foundation of a speedy return of pros- 
perity. The effects of this were at 
once observable in the state of the im- 
ports, which for the three last years 
ending December 31st, have been 
quarterly as follows, showing the 
quantity free of duty, and the total 
dutiable and free. 





Fini Qaarter, 
6caand Quarter, 
Third auarter, 
f ottjih Quarter, 












954,537,309 ^103,088,840 





The increased means of the masses 
o( the people, consequent upon the 
large sales of 1840, produced a rapid 
return of business in 1841 ; and al- 
thoagh banking discredit had advanced 
in that year, and paper money was 
further curtailed, the import business 
swelled 25 per cent, for the year ending 
December 3 let, 1841, and at that time 
the prices of American produce stood 
very high in comparison with present 
rates, tiverylhing indicated a rapid re- 
corery of general trade. That the import 
for 1641 was not too large, is proved 
conclusively by the fact, that, although 
they continued nearly as high through 
the first two quarters of 1842, exchanges 
fell in favor of this country at the time, 
and that influx of specie commenced, 
vhieh has resulted in adding $20,000,- 
000 to our stock. Now, through the 
extra session of Congress, commercial 
affairs were not meddled with, and the 
natural vigor and energy of the people 
vere rapidly restoring a high degree 
of prosperity. At the commencement 
of the first regular session of the 27th 
Congress, however, it became apparent 
that the just spirit of compromise, out 
of which grew the tariff of 1832, would 

be violated at the expiration of the act 
in July, 1842. Instantly, commerce 
felt the blighting effect of uncertainty. 
The merchant became conscious tliat 
his property was at the mercy of reck- 
less politicians, and he became cautious 
in his purchases of domestic produce 
to send abroad, because Congress was 
threatening the value of the returns. 
In the above table of prices it wiU be 
observed that almost every article sunk 
in value. The imports of free goods 
in the second quarter of 1842, fell off 
$9,000,000 as compared with the same 
quarter of 1741, and $4,000,000 as 
compared with 1840, The total im- 
ports of the first six months of 1842, 
were $8,000,000, less than in the same 
period of 1841, showing how heavily 
government interference with individual 
business preyed upon commerce. Du- 
ring two months of the third quarter of 
1842, there was no tariff; in the third 
month a highly protective tariff was put 
in operation ; that quarter gives a decline 
of more than $20,000,000 in business, 
as compared with the same quarter of 
1841. In the fourth quarter the im- 
ports were still less and those for the first 
quarter of 1843, although not yet offi- 

106 Monthly Financial and Conmtereial Artide. [July, 

eiftHy made np, will e^iibit a still The sm^ amoant of money obtained 

farther decline. Thas the last six for most descriptions of produce would 

months of 1843, with the first quarter scarcely pay the transport to market, 

of 1843, give a decline in imports, as leaving no surplus in the hands of the 

compared with the same periods of the producers to make his purchases, 

year, equal to $51,000,000. This decline Hence the great source of internal 

took place during that period of the pre- trade was dried up, and the rebound 

ceding year when the hurge crops, cotton, upon the manufacturer was so great 

tobacco and rice go forward to market, that be couM not maintain his markets 

Those crops form 70 per cent, of the even at a reduction of 25 per cent, in 

whole exports in usual years. Thus prices, which was the decline on the 

in 1841, the exports were made up as the same species of goods between July 

follows : 184S, and May, 1843. The disastrous 

Tt 3 . /. .. ^ tariff here sunk goods even below the 

Products of the sea, forest starvation prices of Manchester, and 

and agriculture, $23,942,606 ^.«„ ^—^5 ^^ tsi-^«, ir*.Mo»j J^^^^^^^ 

Cotton, tobacco, rice, 68 917 151 ""^^^ ""^^ ""^ J^^^ England ccttons 

Domestic manufactures, &c. 10 776 586 were sent hereto r^iae upon. Thua 

every circle of busmess has felt the 

Tola! exports, 108,363,805 weight of ^e mischief engendered by 

** imports, 128,362,222 *h® twenty-seventh Congress. The 

shipping interest has thus far been pret- 

After the cotton rice and tobacco were ty well sustained by the enormous crop 
paid for, there were over $50,000,000 of cotton, which has employed near 50 
<^ imports which were sold here, and per cent, more tonnage in its transport 
the proceeds remitted to Europe in to Europe than in the previous year, 
i^icultural and manufactured goods. That has nearly all gone forward, and 
This business was rapidiy growing until for the remainder of the fiscal year the 
the twenty-seventh Congress ruthlessly marine interests will feel the want of 
blocked up all those channels of trade, the homeward freights, 
causing the imports to fall off, as above, The great abundance of money which 
$50,000,000 in three months, during at once produced a great stock specula- 
which time $35,000,000 in specie came tion here, lias failed to produce its wont- 
here, as the proceeds of cotton and ed effects upon general business, be- 
tobacco, which England must have on cause of the unwise restrictions im- 
any terms. There was, however, no posed upon our foreign relations. The 
necessity to send specie for agricultu- pretence for the present tariff has been 
ral produce, and when their goods were *^ protection," but its projectors seem to 
prevented from coming in, the demand have been well aware, that unaccom- 
for that produce, as a means of remitt- panied by a paper bank, its effects 
ing the returns, ceased, and the result would be " destructive." With a 
is the great fall in money values, which National Bank and paper machinery in 
the above table evinces. This great full play, the first effects of the unnatu- 
depression in prices is the more remark- ral and sudden repletion of coin would 
able, when we consider that the decline be to stimulate a corresponding enor- 
has mostly taken place since July, 1842, mous infiation and rise in prices, during 
during which time money has been be- which manufacturers and others would 
coming hourly more plenty, and has dispose of their stocks on hand at high 
fallen firom seven per cent, last year, rates, and largo fortunes would be ma3e 
to loans, in some cases, as low as two- by the juggle. This was the case in 
and-a-half per cent. This proves in- 1832, and the bubble then created rolled 
controvertibly that it was not the vrant on until it burst in 1836-7. Now, how- 
of means to purchase, but the unwar- ever, there is no National Bank, and 
rantable interference of the Govern- several large States are comparatively 
ment with the course of trade, that without banks. Hence the scheme is 
Miral3rzed business all over the country, in danger of complete failure. 
The usual winter demand for produce The large sums of money in the At- 
on the seaboard for export, had not lantic banks are wanted in the interior 
taken place, and the opening spring of the country for circulation, but it can 
found stocks still good and prices so reach there only through the activity of 
low as to afford but little inducement the produce markets. In the stock 
to send forward further supplies from market activity is immediately pro- 
the interior. duced, because the banks, loaning to 

1841] New Books of the Month. Wt 

Mato money on pledl||[e of them, tarded in an eminent degree by the me 

ereite a great and c^ectiTe demand, certainty attending legudatiye action. 

Tbe stoel^ are taken out of the handa The indomitable energies of the Ame- 

<if needy owners and deposited in the rican people may be checked, tmt can- 

lAnkt. The money thus drawn out of not be controlled for any length of 

the Vanks finds its way rery slowly into time. The internal navigation presents 

other branches of business. When there already a degree of activity scarcely 

JB no adequate foreign vent for agricul- ever before equalled, and the tolls on 

tuni produce, a similar effect can be all the great public works present a 

brou^ about only very slowlv. As great excess over those for the same 

soon as a rise is effected on the sea- period last year. With a permanent re- 

boud, the impulse runs through the turn to the republican principle of a 

whole ootmtry, carrying with it large purely revenue tariff, without restrio- 

sums of money, which becomes di»- tions or special privileges, the swelling 

tnbated in aU the channels of circula- volume of American wealth would soon 

tion. This natural result has been re- overshadow that of assembled Europe. 


Clauieal Estays o» yincient Literaiurt and combined lights we may discern more 

Jrtf wiih the Siogrephy and CorreapotuU clearly our way into the future, for it is 

eace of Eminent PhiJohguit, By Ba- the future the Americans are always 

MAI SsARS, President of Newton looking, not enough perhaps to the past. 

Theological Institution ; B. B. £i>« and certainly not enough to the present. 

WAsns, Professor in Andover Theo- Herodotus somewhere tells of a people of 

logical Seminary ; C. C. Felton, Pro- Asia, who promised the crown to him who 

fessor in Harvard University. Boston : should first behold the break of day. All 

Gould, Kendall, and Lincoln, 59 Wash- looked towards the East. One, how- 

iagton-street. 1843. ever, more sagacious than the rest, fixed 

his eyes in the opposite direction, and 

This work appears to have been pre- while the East was all buried in utter 

pared primarily with a view of quicken- darkness, he discerns in the western 

isg the taste of the American public for horizon the first rays of the harbinger of 

elasiical studies, and indirectly to show day lighting up the summit of a distant 

the tendency of the German mind, and the tower. 

habits it has adopted in the culture of an- We conceive that if we should turn to 

cient learning during the last half cen- the past for its instruction and advice, for 

tnry. For the first end, this work is the same purposes that this shrewd 

vritten too much in the spirit of idolatry. Asiatic turned to the western tower. 

There has been no proper transmutation we may be assisted by it in anticipat- 

of the classic life and strength into ing the future. We should look at an» 

loodem formulas, no discrimination of the cient institutions and ancient literature, 

beauties from the deformities of ancient not to imitate, but more frequently to 

specolation, but the whole pagan dispen- avoid. To see by the fact of ancient 

Mtion of the classic era is made the bur- errors, ways and means of preventing 

den of an unconditional panegyric. The their re-appearance. Unless approached 

days of such advocacy arc past. Who in that spirit, the popularity of ancient 

would now advance the cause of classi- writers is a curse rather than a benedio- 

eal learning must show some practical tion. 

and definite advantage to accrue from This is, we believe, substantially the 

their study, some result that can be public feeling with us, and until the habit 

weighed and ^measured. Such relation- of advocating dassicai studies by indis- 

sfaip between the past and the present eriminate praise of what the ancients 

ihcMild be estaUiihed, that from their said and did is abandoned, the public 

166 New Books of the Month. [^uly> 

feeling will not undergo any raaterinl renders the letters of gmt men the nioet 

change in their favor. So entirely practi- fascinating portion of their works* la 

cal, and we think sensible, are the opi- addition to this correspondence^ which 

nions of Americans getting to be, that we occupies aboat one-third of the volume^ 

are confident no defence of the ancients we have the Inaugural Discourse deliv- 

can ever again elevate them, among the ered by Jacobs on entering, we presume, 

American people, to the dignity of exam- npon bis professorship at Munich. The 

pies or of authorities upon any of the subject is " The Study of Classical Jin- 

more important questions that imitate tiqnity.*' From the same illustrious critic 

modem society. For this reason we do not we have three other very valuable essays, 

believe that the work before us, which is One upon the " Weatik of the Qrctke in 

conceived throughout in an idolatrous Woiiis of Plasiie JtrtV Another vpoa 

spirit^ will materially elevate the eon* ** The SuperiorUy of ^ Ondc Langtu/gt 

dilion of classical learning among us. in the Uh of its Diolects,'* and third, and 

Who, for instance, that has any idea of far the most interesting of them all, upon 

its true vocation, would think of asking the ** EdmciUiofii of the Moral Seniimemi 

the following question which is presented mmong the Jneient Ortdcs,*^ We have 

in the Introduction, with the view of also here a very profound analytical his- 

showing the importance of reading the tory of the Latin language by Hand, who 

ancients in the original instead of a trans- ranks among the first Latin scholars in 

lation : — <* So of law and political science. Germany, and soceeeded Passon at Wei- 

Who has laid the best foundation for mar, and was afterwards appointed to & 

statesmanship, the man that has patiently professorship in Jena, 

studied Demosthenes, Thucydides, and These comprehend all the translations 

Polybius, in the original, or he whose in the present volume, bnt by no means 

knowledge is made up from Langhorne's all of its valuable contents. Besides the 

Plutarch, and Mitfonl's jaundiced His- notes, which give brief but very im- 

tory V* portant biosrraphical notices of all the 

The idea of an American of the nine- distini^uisbed scholars whose works and 
teenth century studying statesmanship whose letters have been extracted by the 
either in Thucydides, or Langhorne's editors of this volume, we have two ex- 
Plutarch, is almost as grotesque, as if he ceedin^Iy useful historic dissertations, one 
were to set about studying astronomy upon the " Schools of German Philology,* 
in Ptolemy's "Great Construction," or by President Sears, and the other upon 
boUny in the " History of Plants,'' of the « Schools of Philology in Holland,'* 
Theophrastus. by Professor Edwards. We have no 

It is not, then, its direct advocacy of doubt these dissertations will prove to 
classic learning which gives this book its most of the readers of this book, as it has 
value, bnt as showing the achievements of to us, its most instructive and most con- 
modern German scholarship in that di- Tenient portion. They have made us for 
reetion, and as presenting some of its the first time personally acquainted with 
most valaable observation and criticism men whom we have hitherto found It ex- 
in a language to which we all have ac- ceeding difficult to invest with any of the 
cess, we welcome this book with our ordinary attributes of humanity, 
warmest acknowledgments. It is com- In conclusion, we must say that we 
posed chiefly of dissertations and essays have not seen any book of miscellany in 
upon ancient literature and art, by Jacobs a long time, the perusal of which has 
and Haad, and what is to us far more in- yielded ns so much pleasure. We com- 
teresting, of a large mass of correspond- mend it earnestly to the attention of every 
ence npon philological subjects, between man of elevated taste and liberal culture, 
some of the greatest philologists probably though we know full well that no recom- 
that the world has ever seen. Among mendation of ours should add currency to 
which we may enumerate Rhvnken, any work which comes endorsed by the 
RrrrcR, Ernesti, Heyive, Kant, Ttr- elegant and accomplished scho'ars to 
WHiTT, Voss, Wolf, LARCitER, Witten- whose taste, to whose learning, and to 
BACK, Beck, Creozer, Matthiae, Bek- whose industry, the public are indebted 
KER, ScfTOTz, Hermann, Passow, and a for the preparation of this. Our only 
multitude of others equally distinguished, wonder is that they could have permitted 
We are presented with over a hundred of such a puerile, unreasonable, trashy ** In- 
these letters, which have been translated troduction," to be bound up with the rest 
from various collections of their authors' of the work. It has no one conceivable 
correspondence, and which abound not claim for a place in such society, 
only in valuable snsrgestions upon differ- • 
ent points of literary interest, but also in — — 
all that personal incident which nsnally 

1843.] Nfw Books of the Month. 100 

Itcinm m Mngdtdtmtm; tte Noinre, £». PtydiologffyOrlhtEmbodiminicfThomghii 

tetU^ Efecity Guilty CauHt and JUmed^ with am jSnaiyns of Phreno-Mugneiism, 

By Bev. Ralph W ajidi^aw, D.D. Be- ** Neurologyy" and Mental Huilucihaiivn, 

livered aad published by special request indudhag liui€$ to goterm and jitodmc* 

of forty minislers of the Gospel, and the Magnetic State. By Robert H. 

eleTca hundred feilow-Chrisiians. First Coixtjer, M. D., Member of Massa- 

American from seeond Glasgow edition. chusetts Medical Society, Ice. Zieber 

New York : J. S. Reddeld, Clinton Hall. &, Co. Philadelphia. 
Boston: Saxtoo, Peirce k, Co. 1843. 

l^mo. pp. 172. This pamphlet, in the form of a letter 

to Dr.WinslowLcwiP. of Boston, has been 

We looked into a few of the pages of elicited by the articles that have appeared 

the earlier chapters of thia most painfully i„ Hjig Review in relation to " Neurology/* 

interesting htUe work, tUl in very sickness ^c. Its author, well known as a lect urer 

ofheart, at the portraunre there drawn of ^n Animal Magnetism, denies to either 

tlie nature, exteotandeflecu of that hide- Dr. Buchanan, or to the Rev. La Roy 

cos and awful naUonal disease, we tuned Si»nderland, the merit of having been the 

&om them and sought soaoe relief la that fi„t to discover the separate excitability 

portioa which purport* to treat of iu of the different phrenological orgnnp of the 

-remedy." Alas, there is but HtUe com- ,>rai„. Dr Coll v er sh6ws that he per- 

fort to be found there, in the miserably forced similar experiments, on raf ientf 

petty expedients of alienation, which are i^ the mesmeric state, as early ns May 

aU it has to suggest I Of what avail your jsn,^ ,g4,^ before lanre public audiences 

charitable projects and establishment^ i„ Boston, the idea having been suei^ested 

year FeoMleReAiges, and manifold Moral by Dr. Shatiuck of that city. Mr. Sun- 

Keform iastitations, while the great root <|erlnnd*s discovery of the same fact was 

oftbeeviire«ain9 untouched, in that false not till August 6th. Dr. Collyer states, 

•rganisatioii of society which is for ever however, that he has subsequently aban- 

keepiag down in the dust of degradation, ^oned that srround, being satisfied that the 

aod the starvatioii of vainly toiling des- effects are produced me^merically bv the 

titation, Bot only the great majoniy of the operalwn of the will of the person ncting. 

whde human family, but, with a peculiar He therefore attacks Dr. Buchanan's pe- 

weighl of oppression. Us weaker and ten- gullar theorv of *• Neurology," as iTrafJi- 

derer hsIH What avail they all I To in- B^rv and false. He states a number of 

dividual eases the)' may doubtless bring suikini? mesmeric effects produced by him 

iaealealable good; and for the sake of before larj?e audiences ; dwelline particu- 

those iadividiial eases they are well wor- larly on that of the injection cf the thought 

thy of all the time, labor and money that of one biain into that of another person 

beoevoleDce can bestow npon them. But \^ a manner similar to some of the well- 

as a « remedy" for the great disease itself if^wn peribrmonces tf oriental magic. 

—as well undertake the task of emptying Those interested in these curious subjects 

the oeeu through a goose-quill. How- of inquiry will do well to k)ok at his pam- 

ever, we have no doubt that a remedy is phiet, which may be had at the office cf 

yet to be bnmgbt about, m the develop- the Sun, in New York, and of Redding & 

ineal of that Providence whose combined (^o. Boston, 
prophecy and instrumentation are found 

in Christianity ; but it will be incidentally *^~' 
aMendant opon other social changes, much 

more than the immediate effect of any of Bankrupt SioriH. Edited by Hakrt 

those partial and petty palliatives about Fsanco. Parts land 2. The Haunted 

which these worthy and pious men busy Merchant. New York : Published by 

themselves so zealously. God speed the John Allen, 139 Nassau street. 1843. 
day on 1 — and the publication of this work, 

superficial as it is, as well as of several This very clever tale, by one of our 

others of the same general character, cleverest tale writers, which originally 

within a recent period, (of which that of appeared in the Knickerbocker, is now 

Parent*Dacbatelet is the most remarka- republished in numbers, as the commence- 

ble), is one of the influences calculated to ment of a series desicned to extend to 

advance it, by forcing thousands to that eisht or ten other stories, under a general 

painful and reluctant necessity to which title which is certainly calculated to ccm- 

so few yield, namely, to open their eyes mend them to a very nuirerrus class > f 

and ears, aod see and hear a little of all readers, at the same time that it will 

that sorrouada every step cf their own afford a wide range fcr materials of the 

daily life of comlbrt and content. most exciting interest. One recrmmend- 

— — ation they have, in addition to their owa 

110 New Books of the MorUL [July, 

intrinsic merits wbich In these latter days anxious to indnlge the beantifal taste and 

is worthy of particular mention,— that healthful CDJoyment to whieh, as its title 

while very cheap in price, they are well imports, it is designed to minister, yet 

printed, in a large clear type and fair white sadly deficient in that practical combined 

paper; so that when a few years hence with scientific knowledge, necessary to 

every third person to be met will be make its labors at once successful and 

soffering from disease in the eyes, their agreeable. In the preface, it is planned 

publisher at least will feel bis conscience and arranged precisely for those who know 

free from the responsibility of having but little if anything on the subject, yet 

contributed to the national ophthalmia. would desire both to know and to do a 

great deal, — the author having herself 

found herself in that exact situation, on 

The Pomological Magazine. ByCHABLXS ||ermarriagevnthagentiemanwellkno^ 

W.Elliott. Ciicinmiti : Published }V J»8 Publications to be mainly absorb^ 

by U. P. James. June, 1843. H" -^xl'L.^^ .1''^^ pursuits. It 

' ' IS illustrated with a great number of in- 

This is the first number of a bi-montfaly stmctive drawings; and its American 

periodical which can scarcely fail to prove Editor, by thus bringing it oat, has added 

highly acceptable to all who interest laigely to the pablic gratitude to which 

themselves in the cultivation of fruits. It his own former works had so well entitled 

is to be devoted exclusively to the culture him. 
of choice fruits, each number containing 

five engravings of such, with descriptions^ """"^ 

and two pages of other matter, consisting ^, r_, ^ rr ^ r^rr n ^ 

of short essays upon the history, culture, ^^. ^^"^jLP^fT ^^"^^ "^ 

and diseases of fruit trees, drawn from tb^ ^ ^^ ^«* -^"^^ f ^^t.v ? J 

best experience. The fruito contained in Z' . Jewell, &c.,Ilc. With 23 

the present number are the Beurre D'- lUustrations by J. Leech. I^w York s 

Aremberg Pear, the Washington Plum, J/.A^vf?'^ ^S^'> ^ Broadway, 

the Baldwin Apple,the Elton Cherry, and ?]*i*?i^P^** L ^^'^?a.^ Appleton, 

the Detroit Apple. Its editor is a gentle- 148 Chestnut street. 1843, 8vo. pp. 
man of fine intelligence and accomplish- 

ment, whom the more congenial attractions -nr i. v /• *• j ^i.. 

of country life have withdrawn from the f^ ^^* }^^^ noticed this amusing 

crowd of cities, to the cultivation of those and exciting Insh story, on the appearuee 

pursuits which have peculUrly quaUfied ^ «ts monthly parts. It is now issued m 

him for the editorship of the present its complete form, in a handwineocUiYO, 

publication. The agetfU of the work in T^}'^ """^ ""^ ^^^ "^"^ wadaUc books of 

New York are WDey & Putnam ; and we "* ^**^ 

feel fully assured that it will well repay ""^ 

work of thiB character. w'/A^^J^'^.'Slie 

bing. A, M, ; to wkich is pnfixed JOr^ 

— ~" Channing't Essay on Uie Poetical Creakta 

^ , . ^ _ , , of Milton. New York : D. Appleton 

Gardening for Ladies ; and Companion to & Co., 200 Broadway. Philadelphia t 

the Flower-Garden. By Mrs. Loudon. George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut-iit, 

First American, from the third London 1843. 12mo. pp. 662. 
Edition. Edited by A. J. Downing^ 

Author of A Treatise on Landscape The Appletons have here added Milton 

Gardening, Cottage Residences, &c. to their cheap series of the Classic Poets, 

New York: Wiley & Putnam. 1843. in the same neat and compendious form 

]2mo. pp. 347. with those already before the public^ 

Cowper, Scott, and Bums. We can only 

This is just the book that was wanted bid them go on and ^'be not weary ia 

by many thousands of fhir horticulturists, well doing." 


lAlerary BuUelin. 




Literary news for the month k compara- 
tirelf nnicD portant ; the foUowing corn- 
prise its principal items: — ^The new 
prodaction by Mrs. EUis, announced in 
o<ar preTious number, has just appeared, 
printed uniformly with the beautiful 
library edition of this popular writer's 
former works, by the Langleys. It is 
entitled, <' A Voice from the Vintage, 
OB the Foree of Example, addressed to 
those who think and feel." No person 
we suppose will have failed to possess 
himself of a copy of this charming 
little work, and we need only say, that 
the Publishers have added to its charms 
by the elegant garb in which it is 
ushered foith to the American public. 
The same firm have also just publishedy 
uniform with the other works of this 
favorite writer, "Poetry of Life,*' 
a work of great beauty, and that 
which first laid the foundation 
for the great popularity which has 
attended all her after productions 
Hie forthcoming work by Dr. Pereira, 
on «'Food and Diet, Jtc./' edited by 
Br. C. A. Lee, is progressing, and will 
probably be completed before we issue 
oar next Number. This book, about 
which we hear considerable speculation 
in the scientific world, is said to be one 
of high expectations and interest. The 
nme firm are printing this work in 
dcgant style; they are also on the eve 
of issuing the First Number of a New 
Medical Periodical, to be styled *< The 
New York Journal of Medicine, &c.,'' 
edited by Samuel Forry, M.B., a 
writer who has rendered himself em- 
inent among his professional brethren 
by his elaborated philosophical produc- 
tions on the laws of climates, &c. One 
of the most unique and attractive forth- 
eomiiig productions will be the Life of 
the oelogenarian chief, General Jack- 
son, by Amos Kendall. The work is 
to be compiled under the supervision 
and inspection of the General, who will 
impart much important elucidation to 
documents of value to the nation, 
which would otherwise possiUy fall to 
interest the reader. 

AdamsPs beautifully illuminated Bible 

is toon to appear ; 150 of the 

I^les have be«fn banded in to the 

Fttbiisherk, (Harper fc Brothers), and 

ahfaoagh we think it questionable taste 

to print' the edition in the obso- 
lete form of folio, as well as to incor- 
porate the ^jncrtfphtiy it will certainly 
notwithstanding prove a a magnificent 
work of art, from the specimens we 
have seen of the designs of Chapman 
and Adams. It is certes a*great day for 
Biblical embellishments. Two other 
works of a kindred class are on the 
topit. One is Redfield's edition of the 
"London Pictorial Bible," which is to be 
completed in 16 Numbers, price twenty- 
five cents each. This will be the 
cheapest illustrated Bible ever ofiered 
to the American public; and as the 
embellishments which number some- 
thing over a thousand, are fac-similies 
of the celebrated London edition, which 
cost about four times the sum, we sup- 
pose few will disregard such an oppor- 
tunity for securing a copy of the work. 
The other work to which we allude is, 
Sears' «New and Complete History of 
the Bible," deduced from the labors of 
the most renowned biblical scholars of 
all countries, incorporated with numer- 
ous original and curious embellldi- 
ments, engraved by the first artists. 
This work will be peculiar and highly 
attractive ; it will not only form an ad- 
mirably illustrated Commentary of the 
sacred text-^he quintessence of the 
ablest writers on the subjects extant, 
but it will also present one of the most 
valuable contributions to religious lit- 
erature which has perhaps ever ap- 
peared. It is to be comprised in about 
lOOO pages, 8vo., and wiU be ready 
during the present month. Sears' 
excellent "Family Magazine," still 
progresses with signal succen; its 
pages are rife with the best cuUings 
from the best writers on every variety 
of useful and instructive reading. 
Riker of this city has just produced a 
very a dmirable little manual, entitled 
"A School Dictionary of Roots and 
Derivatives, designed to train Child- 
ren in Tracing the Origin of Words," 
by Theodore Dwight, Jr. We com- 
mend this work to the especial notice 
of teachers generally, who will find in 
it much that is curious and labor-saving 
in the instruction of youth. The same 
publisher has nearly ready, a new and 
elegant Annual, called Tht Opal, to be 
embellished with nine Plates, and the 
contributions by the ablest American 


LUerary BiUletm. 


Messrs, Wiley and Putnam (New York 
and London), have in press and will 
publish in a few days, Mr. Folsom's 
translations of the *< Despatches of 
Hernando Cortes to the Eipperor 
Charles V., containing A Narrative of 
the Conquest of Mexico, &.c." This 
is the first appearance of this highly 
interesting work in the English Ian 
gunge, and coming in a most authentic 
shape, it cannot fail to excite great at- 
lenl ion . The h istories of Span ish dis- 
covery and conquest in America have 
been generally written by Englishmen ; 
this work is from the hands of the con- 
queror himself, who, like Julius Caesar, 
desaibes his own campaigns, and nar- 
rates the romantic incidents of a con- 
quest which seems to have been effect- 
ed by almost miraculous means. We 
look with impatience for the appear- 
ance of this important and interesting 

''The Christian Lady's Magazine," edited 
by the celebrated Charlotte Elizabeth, 
is to appear July 1, from the periodical 
press of Mr. Mason, whose popular re- 
prints of the English Reviews a/Tord a 
sulhcient assurance of his judicious 
selection of the above named new work 
as an addition to his series. 

Carey & Hart have in press the following 
valuable works: — "The Life of Sir 
David Wilkie,'* by Allan Cunningham. 
<« Cbilde Harold,'' splendklly illustrated. 
** Operative Surgery, or a Description 
and Demonstration of the various pro- 
cesses of the Art, including all the new 
Operations, and exhibiting the state of 
Surgical Science in its present advanced 
condition, with upwards of seventy 
Plates, containing more than one hun- 
dred and fiAy separate Illnstrations," 
by Joseph Pancoast. — ** The Anatomy, 
Physiology, and Diseases of the Teeth 
and Gums, with the most approved 
methods of Treatment, including Opera- 
tions, and a General Account of the 
method of making and setting Artificial 
Teeth," by Pan! Beck Goddard, in one 
quarto volume, with thirty beautifully 
executed Plates. — " The Principles and 
Practice of Medicine," by John Elliot- 
son, M D., greatly enlarged, and adapted 
to the United States —" Wagner's Phy- 
siology," with Notes and Additions.— 
'*A New and Complete French and 
English, and English and French Dic- 
tionary, on the basis of the Royal Dic- 
tionary, English and French and French 
and Eni^lisb ; compiled from the Diction- 
aries of Johnson, Todd, Ash, Webster, 
and Crabbe, from the last edition of 
Chambattd,Garner,and J. Descarrieres, 
the sixth edition of the Academy, the 

supplement to the Academy, the Gram- 
matical Dictionary of Laveaux, the 
Universal Lexicon of Buiste, and the 
standard Technological Works in either 
Language," by Professors 1* leming and 
Tibbins, with additions by Charles 
Picot, Esq. — *' Critical and Miscellane- 
ous Writings of James Stephen, Esq.," 
containing his articles on *' Port Royal/' 
" Ignatius Loyola," &,c. — " Critical and 
Miscellaneous Writings of the Rev. 
Sydney bmith " 
Barringiun & Haswell have in press: — 
Aran's " Practical Manual on Diseases 
of the Heart and Great Vessels;" 
Spellman "On Insanity;" Culler's 
" Surgeon's," with one hundred 
cuts ; Smith " On Bandaging ;" Lee's 
" Midwifery," with two huMlred cuts; 
Gait's "Practical Medicine;" Dr. 
Williams's "Principles of Meuicine;" 
Guthrie " On Urinary Organs ;" Hall 
"On Diseases of the Eyej" Taytoi's 
<' Medical Jurisprudence." 


Murray's announcements are as follows : 

^ " The Life and Adventures of Admiral 
Sir Francis Drake," by John Barron; 
" The Closing Events of the Campaign 
in India," by Captain Loch j " Australia 
and the East," by J. Hoodj " Memoir 
of the late Lord Sydenham, comprisiog 
his administration in Canada," Jtc; 
" Catholic Safeguards against the Er- 
rors, Corroplions, and Novelties of the 
Church ) " Modern Egypt and Thebes," 
by W. Atkinson; "Letters from the 
Bye- ways of Italy $" " Memoire of Dr. 
William Smith," the Geologist. Also, 
a volume under the promising title of 
" Results of Reading," by J. S. Caki- 

Several new volumes of the popalar series 
of " Hand-Books," indudiiig Loudon's 
" England, Wales, Spain, IiaJy,'» kjc ; 
also, two or three new works by Mrs. 
X«ottdon, " Farming for Ladies," " Ve- 
getable Physiology for Ladiea," and the 
"Natural History of SheUs. — Two 
books of travel are just published: 
" Letters from Madras during a three 
years' Residence," and " Letters tnm 
the Pyrenees," by T. C. Paris. 

A'new book has just appeared, by Lady 
Mary Fox, entiUed "The Country 
House." Another is entiUed, "The 
Influence of A ristocraeies on the Revo- 
lutions of Nations, considered with 
reference to ihe Present Circumstances 
of the British Empire," by J. J. Mack- 
intosh.— A new tragedy, aJ«o, entitled 
"John of Hapsburg." by Kichard 



•) . 



• I 





You Xm. AUGUST, 1843. No. IXIL 


Thi moTement now so deeply agitating which it is either to graze in triumph- 
Ireland is, in sereral of its features, ant safety or to strew with the shattered 
too remarkable a passage of contem- fragments of its wreck, — ^we behold 
poraaeous history, not to arrest strongly it approaching the crisis of its fate. It 
the notice and interest of the general seems scarcely worth while to specu- 
obfierrer, independent of its peculiar late upon the doubtful issue to which 
claim upon the sympathies of the Ame- so brief a period must now bring the 
rican democrat. Such a spectacle has solution. We can but hold our breath 
certainly neTer been exhibited before, as we strain the eager eye, awaiting 
as that afforded at this moment by that the imminent moment that is to decide 
noble and long-suffering people. We whether the pent voice shall burst forth 
bare heard a great deal of the power in a shout of exulting joy, or find an 
of Public Opinion in the present age, — utterance only in the mournful accents 
this morement appears the most com- of lament, nut possibly meanwhile, 
plete instance yet witnessed of its em- distant and feeble though it may be, a 
bodiment, expression, and application cheer of encouragement may not be 
to a particular point of action, as an wholly useless to strengthen the hearts 
actual practical force, sufficient to itself of the gallant crew ; nor should the 
and to its object, and fearlessly confi- yoice of any American freeman be 
dent in that sa€iciency . If it is carried wanting from that swelling acclamation 
out to the end as it has been begun, as of sympathy whose peal already bur- 
it has thus fax proceeded, — above all, thensevery western breeae that sweeps 
if it sbaU achieve successfully the great across the Atlantic, 
national triumph to which it aspires, God save and speed them! What 
preserving still the white robe of its should any of us care though their 
pore moral purpose unstained with the great leader should so little understand 
desecrating defiement of blood, — it will all the'bearings of a difficult local ^63« 
exhibit one of the most beautiful, as tion of our own, growing out of the 
wen as sublime spectacles the world peculiar institution respecting which 
baa yet had to witness, in all the history those States possessing it are so nerv- 
of the perpetual struggle of Man against ously sensitive T What if O'Conaell, 
bis Chains. in common with the general sentiment 
We watch its course with a deep of his country and time, views from his 
and anxious interest. Faster and faster, trans- Atlantic distance the subject of 
nearer and nearer, — ^like some noble American slavery in a light leadinff him 

a, land-locked on an iron coast, to speak of it in a manner simuar to 

swe^ing on towards the breakers that in whidi he is at the same time 

116 The Irish Repeal Question. [Auguat, 

denouncing the wrongs of England idea, as on all occasions declared by its 
towards hi^ own native land t His abo- head and representative, is its character 
litionism liJ^s nothing to do with the of Peacefulnesa. It is purely a moral 
wrongs of Irpland, nor with the remedy agitation. Even while it finds one mode 
for them wljich she and he are alike of its expression in the collection of the 
struggling afler. With all respect to physical masses, on a scale so stupendous 
the gentleijien concerned, the demon- as to be scarcely conceivable even to our 
strations recently made in some of our American imaginations, familiar as we 
StrtJthern cities on this point of offence, are with vast popular assemblages, it 
by dissolving their Repeal Associations, at the same time emphatically discoun- 
and withdrawing from the movement of tenances the idea of applying them to 
Irish Repeal, all their expressions of any other use, than an intense concen- 
sympathy and contributions of more tration of that moral power which 
practical aid, for the sole and simple asserts its own full ability to effeot its 
reason of Mr. O'ConnelPs sentiments whole aim ; together with a sublime 
and language on this subject, strike us exhibition of the force and unanimity 
as absurd in the extreme ; and as in of a national sentiment. If a lion is 
truth far more injurious to ourselves, introduced upon the scene of action, it 
than to those against whom, as an act is by a little child that it is led. No- 
of resentment and hostility, they are thing in the nature of rebellion is 
directed. spoken of, thought of. On the con- 

The American reader needs perhaps trary, O'Connell has assumed ground 
to be made to understand rather better of even extreme Quakerism. He has 
than is generally the case, the true declared that could he obtain all that 
meaning and merits of this movement, he aims at for his country at the ex* 
which have indeed been more obscured pense of a drop of human blood, he 
than illustrated by the speeches and would not pay that awful price for it. 
proceedings of some of the recent The military array of the ministry, 
meetings held in various parts of the against the great moral might of a 
country, by its enthusiastic, but rather peacefully determined people, he laughs 
hasty and hot-headed friends. On some at as no less absurd than brutal. No 
of these occasions we have heard little attempt is made at any kind of organi- 
else than the language of blood and zation of a similar character on tlie 
war, as though it were a revolution of popular side, such as have not been un- 
violence which was appealing to our familiar to the fomncr history of the 
sympathies. Donations have been same unhappy country. On the con- 
given for buying " powder and liall," trary, he is constant in his cautions to 
and the prospect held out of a " hun- the people to beware of affording to 
dred thousand volunteers" ready and their adversaries the slightest pretext 
eager to follow their pecuniary contri- to charge upon them any violation of 
butions, to take part in the anticipated tlie law or disturbance of the peace, 
struggle of civil war, — with the inti- That O'Connell is himself sincere in 
mation hinted, that aflcr crossing an this position, is doubted by few, we be- 
ocean it would not be worth while to lieve, even of those to whom he and all ho 
stop short at a petty channel, while the does are most obnoxious — though whe- 
three million Chartists of England's ther it will be possible for him to carry 
own tear-bedewed island await hut such out such a system to the end, with all 
a signal to rise too against their op- the inflammable materials with which 
pression. Against all this, while we he has to deal, is a very different ques- 
desire to express the sinceie and tion. It is one consistent with his 
earnest sympathy of American demo- declarations and his conduct for many 
cracy with the cause of Irish emanci- years back, anterior to the present 
pation, we cannot omit to record at the occasion, for which it might otherwise 
same time its e<mal!y sincere and be supposed to have been assumed as a 
earnest protest. Indeed those who mask for a different design, like a quaker 
thus deal with the subject, prove their garb cloaking a cuirass. As a powerful 
own total and gross misconception of opponent of the punishment of death, 
the true spirit of the whole movement, he has made strong expressions of his 
to which their misdirected zeal cannot sense of the sacre^'alue of human life, 
fail to do much more harm than good. — ^which may welff perhaps, have had 

Its highest, its peculiarly ennobling its origin in the bitter hour when he 

1843.J The Irish Repeal Question. 1 17 


himself beheld an enemy stretched at with that instalment of right, if not 

his feet by the act of his hand. And found to work satisfactorily, 

at the period of the Canada rebellion, / The catalogue of grievances of which 

iie was on frecpient occasions severe the Irisli have to complain under the 

against what he denounced as the folly Union, is a longer one than we have 

as well sls crime of the insurgents in space, or than there is any occasion for 

having recourbe to arms, and launching us to detail. For this purpose, it is 

their cause on a sea of blood, instead unnecessary to go back to the antiqui- 

of the purer waters of peaceful and ties of the subject, though they too have 

legal agitation. There can be no their bearing upon even the actual pre- 

doubt, we repeat, of his sincerity, sent state of the question, from the con- 

Whethcr even his unparalleled degree sistent uniformity of ruthlessness, in 

of power over his countrymen, whose every form of plunder and oppression, 

heaving millions he seems to sway as by which, from the earliest period, the 

the moon the tides of the ocean, will English government of Ireland was 

suffice to restrain them from all the characterized; and of which some of the 

natural impulses of their brave spirits fruits, to the present day, are to be found 

and quick hands, remains yet to be in that bitter hatred of English domina- 

seen. God grant that he may! But tion rankling yet bo deeply in the 

if he does, it will be in spite of the Irish heart. This national /ef/m^, even 

difficulties created, or at least increased, though its earlier roots may have to be 

by those intemperate friends, here or sought centuries and centuries ago, in 

elsewhere, who, in direct opposition to periods whose longrburied atxocities it 

him and his efforts, send to the Irish is a worse than idle task to dig up now, 

people such suggestions and such out of the catacombs of the past to the 

stimulations as those above alluded to. horror and disgust of the present, yet 

The object in view is not, as so many constitutes a living and practical politi- 

seem to suppose, a dismemberment of cal fact, which the wise statesman can- 

the empire, the erection of a distinct not cast out of the account as an im- 

BStioDal independence for Ireland. In portant element in the present question, 

pointof population and revenue, indeed. And the period is, indeed, so recent 

that beautiful island, which has been down to which the tyrannical rule of 

not more adorned by the loveliness of Ireland by the ** English Ascendency" 

her daughters than the genius of her continued animated by a spirit little 

sons, would be fully competent to main- better than that of its worst and bloodi- 

tain a national position of dignity and est day — the forced relaxation of the 

importance in the European scale : chain of oppression, link afler link, has 

after the first-rate powers of France, been at once so reluctant and so ungra- 

Anstria, Russia ana Prussia, the only cious — ^the remnants and results of the 

ones that would be entitled to rank on . old treatment, with that relation of 
the same level with her being Spain' conquered subjection and degradation 

and Turkey. But it is merely a legis- on which it was based, are yet so 

lative separation that is sought, and not many and so galling — ^that it cannot be 

a disjunction from the British empire any subject of surprise that the heredi- 

aod crown. The right of local self- tary transmission of this feeling, still 

legislation, by a domestic parliament, perpetually, in greater or less degree, 

in connection still with a common renewed and refreshed, should nave 

executive, is what is demanded, such thus kept it alive, and so deeply and 

as, indeed, existed in Ireland, in full thoroughly woven it into the texture of 

force, for a period of nearly twenty the national character, 

years anterior to 1800, the date of that The history of the Act of Union itself, 

act of union of which the abrogation is too, while so recent as to be within the 

now sought. And, in fact, O Connell memory of many who can relate the 

has even declared himself willing to recollections of those dark and dis- 

accept of an inferior local legislature, astrous days, and traditionally familiar 

subject to the paramount control of an to the whole people, presents such a 

imperial parliament, if unable to obtain mass of abomination and atrocity, of 

the full restoration of an equal and which that act was the object and the 

independent parliament, — though with- result, that it may be said itself alone 

oat any pledge of final contentment to constitute the sufficient motive for 

118 The Irish Repeal Question, [August, 

its own repeal. It should be undone, argument that it constitutes in itself 

if for no other, because it was so foully the sufficient reason for its own repeal ? 

done. This is a point which no one It is no wonder that the Irish should 

now pretends seriously to controvert ; — continue to cherish an inextinguishable 

the utmost extent to which even the hostility to that legislative union which 

least scrupulous hireling advocacy can rested on such an origin for its basis, 

proceed, is to palliate or doubt some of and be eager and resolute to seize upon 

the worst of its worst features. The the first opportunity for its abrogation, 

advantage taken of the exhausted and It was too deeply, too radically tainted 

broken condition of the country when with immorality to live. If there is 

it lay prostrate after the rebellion as such a principle of divine retribution in 

after a fresh conquest — ^the reign of politics as in every other department 

terror of that period, with all its mas- of human afiairs, by which great wrongs 

sacres, military and judicial, and its entail their own punishment and redrew, 

fearful decimation of all that was best, by an inevitable reaction issuing out of 

bravest and most patriotic in Ireland — themselves, it would seem impossible, 

the cold-blooded art with which that it would seem a violation of all natural 

nnhappy event had been even fomented justice and right, that the eventual tri- 

by the government, through its agents umph of successful permanency should 

and spies in the councils of the Imited crown and consummate such an act as 

Irishmen, suffering it to mature to the this. 

point of enlosion, instead of arresting To these considerations should more- 
it at an earlier stage, for the purpose of over be added that of the essential in- 
flecuring the more victims the more competency of the Irish parliament 
effectuuly within the halter's noose, a thus to give away their country — to 
policy attended with frightful fruits of surrender up its nationality — to extin* 
bloodshed that might have been avoided, guish the political existence of their 
— and then the mingled fraud and force own body, and, indeed, the constitntion 
applied to cram the act of union down of which they constituted the main 
the throats of the Irish parliament — vital element. Even had that parlia- 
the undenied application of about five ment been a true representative of the 
millions ofdollarsto the work pf bribery, nation, instead of its mere landed and 
and six millions to that of the purchase Protestant interest, to the exclusion of 
of boroughs (money which Ireland was the great bulk of the people, it could 
herself afterwards made to pay !), in never possess such a power or faculty, 
addition to an indefinite distribution of This point was thus eloquently urged 
offices and honors — ^the armed prohibi- in that body itself by the celebrated Mr. 
tion of all public meetings for protest Plunket, afterwards Lord Plunket : 
against the measure, and the variety .,o r • «l • « ' .■ 
•Tmodea resorted to, to punUh thow ''8ni-V»<he most express terms, deny 
. ^ J ^v V r**""*" "»"«^ thg competency of parliament to do this 
who exerted themselves m getting up ^^^^ j ^„ vou, donot dare t<|lay your 
petitions against It—the modem which, hands on the constitalion^ I tell you that 
when the first tnal of even aU this jf^ circumstanced as you arc, you pass this 
giganUc machinery of wholesale cor- act, it will be a mere nullity, and no man 
Tuption and intimidation failed in secur- in Ireland will be bound to obey it. I 
ing the requisite majority, many whom make the assertion deliberately. I repeat 
government had been unaUe to bring to it. I call on any man who hears me to 
tiie point of selling outright their votes take down my words. Tou hnve not been 
against their country, were at least elected for this purpose. You are ap- 
bought to resign their seats, which pointed to make laws, and not legislatures; 
were then filled by aliens, many of you are appointed to execute the funcUoas 
whom were its naval and military of legislators, and not to transfer them; you 
officers, and all its creatures ; so that ^ appointed to act under the consUtu- 
when the measure was at last carried, l^^f !1 Zn !!tfnn'af 
the number of these, exceeded that of ^, ^^^^T^:^!:;^ toVo^iSi;: 
the majority by which the mfamous ^^^^.^ ^^^ ^^ man in the land is bound to 
policy of Castlereagh and Pitt was at obey you. Sir, I stale doctrines that are 
last forced through to Us foul triumph— not merely founded on the immouble laws 
who, who can rise from the perusal of ©f truth and reason; I stale not merely 
this revolting chapter of the histor y of the opinions of the ablest and wisest men 
the Union, without assenting to the who have written on the science of gorecn- 

1843.] The Irish Repeal Question. 119 

*veot; batlstttte thepntGtieeofoiircon- though the pethion from the eotrnty of 

slitQtioQ as settled at the era of the revo- Down was signed by 17,000, the eonnter 

totioD, and I state the doctrine under petition was signed onljr by 415. Thoof^ 

Bihich the house of Hanover derives its there were 707,000 who had signed peti- 

title to the throne. Has the King a right tions against the measure, the total num- 

to transfer his crown 7 Is he competent ber of those who declared themselves ia 

to annex it to the crown of Spain, or any favor of it did not exceed 3/X)0, and manj 

other country ? No; but he may abdicate even of these only prayed that the mea- 

iC, and every man who knows the consti- sure might be discussed. If the facts I 

tntioa knows the consequence — the right state are true (and I challenge any man 

reverts to the next in succession. If they to falsify them), could a nation in more 

all abdicate it reverts to the people. The direct terms express its disapprobation of 

man who questions this doctrine, in the a political measure than Ireland has done 

same breath must denounce I he sovereign of a legislative union with Great Britain 7 

on the throne as an usurper. Are you In fact, the nation is nearly unanimons, 

competent to transfer your legislative and this great majority is composed, not 

rights to the French Council of Five Hun- of bigots, fanatics, or jacobins, but of the 

dred? Are you competent to transfer most respectable of every class ia the 

them to the British parliament f I an- eommunity.'' 
swer— No ! if you transfer you abdicate, 

and the great original trust reverts to the fQne point alone remains which it is 

p«|ile, from whom it issued. Yomrselves ^orth while to add, to complete this 

you may extinguish, but Parliament you evidence of the fact that the union was 

cannot extingu«h. It is enthroned in the ^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^y^^ j^sh people, and that 

.h?2^1^ S?^Si^ll^^^^ it was perfecUy underiToJd by tho^s 

toe suBCtoary 01 tne constitution—- it is as ■ f • • \-x i*^j j 

iinmorta] as the island which it protects. ^^P^^ atrocious cruninality of fraud ud 

As weU mi^it the frantic suicide hope violence succeeded in riveting its fet- 

that the act which destroys his miserable t^s upon their necks. It is, that in 

body should extinguish his eternal soul ! 1707, when the country was threatened 

Again, I therefore warn you — Do not dare with a rebellion, the military force in 

tohiyyonr hands on the constitution J it is Ireland was but 78,995; in 1798, it 

above your powers.'' was 91,905 ; in 1799, it was 114,059 ; 

and in 1800, two years after the rebel- 

And how flagrantly, how openly in lion, when tlie union was carried, it 
contempt of the will of the people, thus increased to 199,358 soldiers, — as 
betrayed and sold by those who l»d no O^Connell styles them, quoting from 
constitutional authority even for their Lord Stafford's celebrated phrase, 
own act of corrupt treachery, was this << good lookers-on/' ^ 
meaaure carried, is manifest enough But does Ireland possess under the 
from the following extract from a speech union such advantages as should con- 
-oi Lord Grey, in 1800. It should be stitute practical present reason for for- 
borne m miiMl how much the force of giving and forgetting the past, and 
its testimony is increased b^ the consi- acquiescing in a result for the origin of 
deration of all the difficulties opposed which there is no living generation now 
by the government to the popular peti- to be held responsible t The answer 
tioning against the union, dispersing to this question is easily found, in the 
with the military all public meetings present wretched state of her people, 
convened for the purpose : one-third of whom are kept down at or 

close to the very starving point ; in the 

'< Twenty-seven countijes have petition- almost total decay of the commerce and 

cd against the measure. The petition manufactures which, during the period 

from the county of Down is signed by ^f her independent legialation, from 

upwards of 17,000 respectable mdepend- j^gg ^^ jgOO, were active and prosper- 

«imen,andall thejrthcrsai^inasimi. ^^ ^^ ^^e discrhnination constantly 

cor^rations in it foltoi^ed the example. i^^'S'^!?^?*^^?!*''''"!^ -^r^^ 

Bragheda petitioned against the union, ^nd Scotland, m the extension of mea^ 

aad ahnost every other town in the king- »«re» of popular reform, and other im- 

dom, in like manner, testified ito disappro- portant acts of legislation ; in the m- 

baUoo. Those in favor of the measure, feriority of influence always accorded 

professing great influence in the conntry, to Irish members by the British mttiis- 

obtaiaed a &w counter petitions. Tct, tries and parliament, in comparisoa 

120 The Irish Repeal Question. [August,. 

with that exercised by those of English ary representation should be based — 
eonstitaencies ; in the offensive and namely population, exports, imports,, 
injurious reluctance habitual to parlia- revenue, and rental, estimated com- 
ment to giving the proper time and paratively with England — Ireland was 
attention to Irish legislation, so as to entitled to at least 170 members, 
make it not unfrequently necessary to whereas the number actually allowed 
appeal to their shame to gain their ear her was only 105. In his recent speech 
at all ; in the insignificant proportion in the debate on this subject in the 
in which Irishmen are to be found ad- Corporation of Dublin, some state- 
mitted within the whole range of the ments were exhibited of the effect of 
public employments and offices, from this gross inequality of representation 
the hiehest to the lowest, the cases of in particular localities, from which we 
exception being often those earned only derive the following. Wales, with a 
by infidelity to the cause of their coun- population of 800,000, has 28 mem- 
try ; in the enormous drain, perpetually hers ; in the coun^ of Cork the rural 
flowing like a wasting issue of blood, population is 713,716, who are repre- 
eonsequent on the absenteeism, caused sented by only two members. So like- 
mainly by the withdrawal of the legis- wise the county Mayo, with half the 
lature, and the entire provincial charac- population of Wales, has only two. 
ter thus fastened on the country ; in The following table compares five 
the juggling oppression by which, in English with the same number of Irish 
spite of the most solemn pledges at the counties, the latter being printed la 
union, the English debt, by the consoli- italic : 
dation of the two exchequers in 1817, 
was saddled also upon Ireland ; by the _ .Coonfle*.^ 
slowness with which even such a mca- jL#eicester8hire, 
sure of justice as the Catholic Emanci- V^^^i 
pation Act was extorted from English ^^^T™^ ' 
legislation, which would have been Worcestershire 
long before granted by any local parlia- Galway ^ 
ment of even Protestants ; in the con- Wiltshire 
tinned maintainance of the Church Es- Tyrone^ 
tablishment, a most galling as well as 
oppressive badge of conquest, at enor- Aggregate English^ 
mous national expense, and in spite of jSggregate Irishf 
the conscientious and profound hostility 
of seven-eighths of the people ; and — That is to say, where one member is 
to pause in 3ie unending enumeration — allotted to less than 48,000 of English 
in the yast disparity existing between population, the same only is allott^ to 
Ireland and the " sister island" in the upward of 211,000 of ^^tnere /mV' 
proportionate numbers of represents- making one of the former equivalent 
lives in parliament, as well as in the to about /our and a hcdfoi the latter, 
extension of the franchise among the And the following exhibits the disparity 
people. We will not lengthen this in the numbers- of electors in the two 
Article by going into the illustrations countries, which ought to bear in both 
of all these various points, which lie a similar ratio to the numbers of the- 
ready enough at hand, with only the rural population. It is for three coun- 
embarras de richesses. The last one, ties in each country similarly arranged' 
however, is one likely to be peculiarly as above : 
appreciated by the Ameriean reader, 
accustomed as he is to feel the right to ,^ Counti«. 
a fair and equal participation in his Westmoreland, 
own representative self-government, a B^forf 
right so precious and so prized as to be ji^jiffi ' 
secondary to no considerations of ex- Hereford 
Pediency. Gnlway, ' 

During the debates on the English 

Reform Bill in 1830, it was unanswera- Aggregate English, 

bly shown by Mr. O'Connell, that on Aggregate Irish, 
a just computation of the elements on 

which it was admitted that parliament- That is to say, the elective franchise 























Rural pop. 

Beg. tieci 

















1843.] The Irish Repeal Question. I2U 

U so arranged that while in the above ^* Head of the Revenue Police is an 

English counties (and we have no £nglishman. 

means at hand for a more extended " Second in command is a Scotchman, 
comparison), it is possessed by one in " Persons employed in the colieclionof 
every seventeen of the rural popula- ^^^ customs, &.C., are English and Scotch- 
lion, in the Irish counties it is possessed njen-^in the proportion of thirty-five to 
by only one in every 136-making one ?."^ ^T'J^IH Commissioners-Eng- 
of the former equivalent to eight of ^*i^"' 3-Irishmen. 
the latter "We presume these facts show that 
T Ml \ *• r *t. 11 • u ^be natives of the three kingdoms are all 
In dlnstrauon of the aUusion above pj^^ed upon an equal footing, the chances 
made to the disfavor shown by English of access to preferments to an Englishman 
government to Ireland and the Irish m or Scotchman in Ireland, being, in the 
all the patronage of public employ- ftw instances that have occurred to us 
ment, we are indnced to quote the fol- while writing, as 6 to ; while the pro- 
lowing article from a recent number of babllity of an Irishman obtaining place 
the "Dublin Mail : ^ in England appears, from an analogous 

calculation, to be in the proportion of 

** SNGUSH PATRONAGE OF IBISHMEN. 491 tO 10, Or aS I tO 50." 

" We need not persevere in re stating 

our own crude views, opposed as they /A few figures, which we derive from 

evidently are to those of a ' heaven-born the very able and ample debate in the 

minister,' but we may just mention that, corporation of Dublin, above referred 

"The Archbishop ofDublin is an Eng- to, will exhibit in a strong light the 

H.^.-Chi.f Administrator of the Irish ^-r^ fe^sfthf t 7^^- 

'^-^P.jl^^'o^Zl-CWa Service. !«'"" 'T liiV^ *'" ''tT"' *"' 

is a Scotchman *"® other under the Union. The nura- 

«*Tbe Chief Commissioner of Irish ^^ of tradesmen in Dublin in 1800^ 

PuWic Works is an Englishman. ^as 61,075 ; the number existmg in 

" The Teller of the Irish Exchequer is 1 834 was 14,446, — of whom there were 

an Englishman. then idle 4,412, showing a decrease of 

"The Chief Officer of the Irish Con- 51,041. The reports of the Repeal 

itabulary is a Scotchman. ost- Association abound with evidence 

** The Chief Officer of the Irish P respecting the decay of manufactures, 

Office is an Englishman. not in Dublin alone, but in all parts 6f 

"But the Times may perhaps observe, the island, and afford unequivocal proof 

'True, but all this is only the clucidaUon ^hat the main sources of occupation 

of oar plan for unbarring the gales of ^^ ^^^ ^g. ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^y^^ 

r^^^?^ ^^T^""^^* ''!i^'^''^^i!!:f people. The exports of live cattle and 

honestly.' Scotchmen and Englishmen i^f u- - -i • ^ ^ -j ^ j *i. * • 

areplaLd in office in Ireland, aSd Irish- corn »ia^e ^'^^ITfu ' ^"^ ^^"V" r 
men, in retnrn, in Scotland and England, P;^* ^^^^^' ^^'^^ t^« aggregate of 
In ordcrto draw closer the bonds of Union *" ei^orta remains about the same, 
between the three united nations. Again ^^re has been a large increase of the 
let ns see how facts actually stand, population, and the nature of the ex- 
There are — ports has in a great degree changed, 

'* Cabinet Ministers— Englishmen, 10, from articles representing industry and 

Seotdmam, 3 — Irishmen, 0. profitable employment for large masses, 

"Lords of the Treasury — Englishmen, to live provisions, representing but 

4-~Scotehman, 1 — Irishman, 1. little of such employment, and now 

"Secretaries of the Treasury—Eng- withdrawn from the sustenance or 

"*^°\^ ~;^*^m"*"* ^* T, 1. V those who produce them, to minister 

-Clerks of the Treasury-Englishmen to the foreign luxuries of their absentee 

cr&otchnien,ll-2Mr. Fitzgerald [quere landlords. The returns of one of the 

"" MemWl' of the Lord Steward's and «J^»^ ^*"^** ^^^f «T ^^^ ^^l"*- ""T 

I/wJ Chamberlain's departments of the strikingly. At Ballynaeloe Fair the 

Royal Household — EnRlishmen and quantities of sheep and horned cattl© 

Scotchmen, 225— Irishmen, 4. for two several years were as follows : 
"British Ministers to Foreign Courts „ ^^ . 

—Englishmen and Scotchmen, 13 1— Irish- Year. Sheep. Horned Cttle 

Bn/4. 1799 77,900 9,900 

" CoSeetor of Exeijse is a Seotehman. 1835 62^400 8,50a 


The Irish Repeal Questum. 


Taking Ballynasloe as an index, Ire- 
land had for sale in 1799 more cattle 
than in 1835. A statement of the ex- 
ports of cattle in those same years 
shows the following enormous increase : 



Homed Cattle 







So that the great bulk of what was 
consumed by the Irish people them- 
selves in 1799, was exported in 1835. 
Let the reader put together for himself 
these three elements of computation, 
Great decrease of export of products 

representing industry ; 
Great increase in export of live pro- 
visions before consumed at home; 
Great increase of the population, 
simultaneous with so much less em- 
ployment and so much less food ; — 
and he will need no further commen- 
tary on the awful fact disclosed by the 

Poor Law Commissioners that one- 
third of the people were starving or 
subsisting on charity. 

The blowing comparative state- 
ments respecting the two countries, 
(which we put together , from tables 
derived from Mr. Spring Rice's Irish 
Poor report, the testimony of an ene- 
my), exhibit strikingly the fruits of 
domestic and of foreign legislation on 
the general prosperity of a country, as 
shown in the consumption of the com- 
forts of life. The large increase in 
all these articles, corresponds with 
abundant other conclusive evidence of 
its rapidly rising prosperity within the 
period in question, on which it is unne- 
cessary to dwell, it being a point un- 
disputed from any quarter. The rela- 
tive increase in the two countries upon 
the consumption of tea, coffee, su^r, 
tobacco, wine, from 1785 to the Union, 
and acain from the Union to 1827, was 
as follows : 




Tea.— England 

. 45] 

. 84 

per cent. 


per cent. 

Coffee.— ^England 

. 75 
. 600 


Sugar. — England 

. 53 
. 57 

4i * 


Tobacco. — England 

. 64 
. 100 





Wine. — ^England 

. 22 

. 74 




Upon all these articles the relative 
increase is greater in Ireland than in 
England within the first period ; while 
wiUiin the second the reverse- is the 
case, — in the two last articles the de- 
crease in Ireland, notwithstanding the 
increase in population, points signifi- 
cantly to the increasing poverty of 
alike the middle and lower classes ; and 
the whole table suggests a salutary 
lesson to all those who would regard 
alien legislation as more favorable to 
the prosperity and growth of a country 
than independent s^-government. 

On the shameful waj in which Ire- 
land has been cheated m the matter of 
the public debt, we will not pause to 
dwell. She has been saddled with a 

Sarticipation in upwards of four hun- 
red nullions of Lngland^s old debt, in 
violation of the solemn agpreement of 
the act of union, besides being involved 
in all the extravagance of England^s 
iiabseqaent wars a^ debts — ^in which 

she would never have plunged of her 
own accord. But for the union, the 
comparatively small debt she brought 
to it would have been long ago paid 
from the surplus of her own revenues, 
inferior as the latter have been to what 
a continuance of her former prosperity 
would have made them ; — independent 
of the terrible drain of absenteeism, 
which has increased, from Jive millions 
of dollars, to twenty-five millions per 

But enough of all this. It has, per- 
haps, been unnecessary to our object 
of satisfying and convincing the Ameri> 
can mind of the rightfulness of the pre- 
sent movement of the Irish people, yet 
it will not have been wholly useless. 
Great as is the value we Americans 
attach to abstract political principles, 
yet the love of order and repose, the 
conservative spirit, is so strong with 
us, that we always require something 
more — actoul, practical gnevances ana 

1843.] The Irish Repeal Question, ld3 

witmgs, lieaTy to be borne and hopeless bridged by the sad analogy — ^the two 
of redress — ^to justify popular move- widely separated pages of history blend 
ments partaking of a revolntionaTy cha- together in a sickening identity of hor- 
raeter, or at least to excite any very ror. It is like the constant recurrence 
warm sympathy in their behalf. We from time to time, throughout a long 
often boast of onr own Revolution as and intricate piece of music, of the 
based on a mere principle ,—« principle same original theme that constitutes the 
contained, if not in a nut-shell, at least pervading basis, the common animating 
in a tea-cup, — ^yet it may be more than idea, of the whole ; take it up when- 
doobted whether exactly the same his- ever we will, amid a vast variety of 
tory would have had to be written of mingled sounds that peal upon the ear, 
the Rerolution if that principle had been we can always, alas ! distingui^ the 
the sole point of issue, instead of crown- same moan of starving agony, the same 
ing, as the apex of a pyramid, the curse of despairing hate ; the same, 
long accamnlation of wrongs and re- except that~--God help poor Ireland ! — 
sentments of which the enumeration they would almost seem to be worse in 
swells the greater part of the Declara- our day than ever before. 
tion of fiidependence. We trust The principal obstacle existing among 
that we have said enough, and shown us, to that earnest and cordial sympathy 
enoQgh, to commend the cause of Irish which we desire to stimulate, with the 
repeal to the heartiest sympathy of noble effort she is now making for the 
every reader, whether regarding it in vindication of the first and simplest of 
the theoretical point of view of a prin- a people*s natural rights, is the idea 
ciple, or under the more practical aspect that its success would be followed by 
of a substantial and intolerable griev- the erection of a Catholic Church £s- 
ance, from which a nation claims most tablishment. The main bulk of our 
iostly the right to be relieved. The population being Protestant, among 
ligfat in which all these results of foreign whom the number is not small whose 
rnJe must be regarded by the native primary religious passion is simply 
eye, the feeling they must awaken in " no-popery, — ^this idea arises natur- 
the natiye heart, it cannot need a word ally enough from the fact of the vast 
of onn to make more obvious or strik- popular predominance of that religion 
ing. Conneeting themselves as they in Ireland ; and is stimulated to a poei- 
natnrally do with all the traditions of tive degree of dread and distrust from 
the earlier atrocities of the English the great zeal with which the Catholic 
domination, in one unbroken cham of clergy have entered into the present 
consistency in oppression — an oppres- movement, as well among the higher 
sion modifying only its forms and modes ranks of its hierarchy as throughout 
under the moulding influences of vary- the common mass of the parish priest- 
ing circumstances, yet ever essentially hood. But every such design or desire 
the same, the same in that hostile rapa- is repudiated in the most emphatic man- 
city of the spirit in which it has its ner. The spirit of native patriotism, 
oiigifl, the same in that result of na- involving naturally a corresponding 
tional desolation in which its true nature hostility to the foreign rule, which is so 
stands reyealed — they serve to give a deep-seated a sentiment in the Irish 
pertinency and an uninterrupted modem heart, pervades the priesthood no less 
application to even the worst and the old- strongly than any other portion of the 
est of the past records of English tyranny population, — and for the best of seasons, 
and Irish suffering. The sentiment, obyious enough. Accustomed, too, as 
therefore, above spoken, the feeling they are to habits of close intercourse 
—of national hostility of English rule, and sympathy with their flocks, they 
which tradition taught from the days could scarcely be expected to escape a 
when the highways were strewn with close participation in a popular feeling 
the dead green in the mouth from the at once so general and so strongs— a 
grass on which perishing hunger sought course both natural and honorable, 
to prolong life, experience confirms and rather than justifying either censure 
renews when it points to the fact of for its own impropriety or distrust of 
one-third of the nation still starving on its purity of purpose. As ministers 
charity in our own day. Like causes, they do not cease to be men, as priests 
like effects— like eflfects, like causes, to be patriots. And if more is needed 
The two distent points of time become in their defence against this piejudioe 

194 The Irish Repeal Question. [August, 

— of which the expression is frequently " I know there are objections raised 
to be heard — it is contained in the against the Repeal. It is said that there 
ground on which Mr. O'Connell met "^ouW be a Popish ascendency, and that 
the imputation in the case of an Irish y^^ ^^^ ^raid of that ascendency taking 
bishop who was censured in the course P**^®. But it is admitted, though the 
of the debate above referred to : ^^^^ ? endeavored to be explained va- 

riously, that the Catholics of Ireland 
stand in the position of having in the 
" I also regret that Mr. Guinness should midst of persecution been three times 
have thrown out censure against a revered restored to power j and I defy any man 
and dignified friend of mine, the Right *^ tell the name of a single individual 
Rev. Dr. Feeny. He was certainly guilty whom they persecuted in their turn. I 
of no harshness in his censure, but he will give up the Repeal cause if any one 
thought it would have been better to have names a single individual who was perse- 
avoided it, at least as he confessedly had cuted by them [hear, hear]. How well 
not read the speech of that venerated pre- has a modern historian said in speaking 
late. He showed his reasons in it for of the Irish Catholics : — ' They have ex- 
coming forward. He stated that he was bibited the strange instance unknown to 
driven to act as he had done from the po- any people on the face of the earth— of 
verty and distress that surrounded him, having never been accused of persecuting 
and from his knowledge that that distress a single individual. I belong to those 
was gradually and daily increasing and people. I am a descendant of them, 
augmenting. He saw no hope of remed)'. Their feelings live in me, and I pronounce 
and no prospect save increasing absentee- their voices from the grave. I pronounce 
ism and misery; and as a Christian pre- the declaration to be contemptible, the 
late, desirous to relieve that distress, to assertion that they ever shall or would 
clothe the naked, to feed the hungry*, to persecute [cheers j. But you have another 
banish sickness, and to open the prison- and a still stronger objection. I have 
house, by giving the means of employment been pressed with the argument, that if 
to the poor by the restoration of the Irish the Union be repealed it wonld re-estab- 
gentry, and obliging them to spend their lish Catholic ascendency. But before I 
rents in Ireland, he felt bound to come go to that I would ask, wonld you not 
forward for the Repeal. These were his have the House of Lords to protect yoor 
reasons for coming forward to support and interests ? Wonld not nine-tenths of the 
countenance the repeal agitation; and it members oftbe House of Lords be Protest- 
was somewhat symptomatic of the times ants, or I should rather say nineteen-twen- 
to see an Irish prelate presiding at such a tieths of ihem ? You would then have a 
meeting. He knows little of human na- vast Protestant majority in the House of 
ture who does not know how the gale Lords to meet any attempt made to estab- 
blows when, not a feather, but a flag of lish Catholic ascendancy, and you would 
that kind, is held up to show its bearing also have the strong arm of being right, 
and its strength." and of your enemies having the wicked- 

ness of being degradingly wrong, and l 

And 80 far as concerns the danger «f i!^Z ^i^^rfl^^i" '?'"»'"i^« *»» o*" 

the institution of a Catholic connfction fe"*^,te ^^'^r • ?"* T"^*" '*^ 
u«*™-^- nu u J cs-L i. ^*'»"«*'«'*"" nave no protection m an Irish parliament T 

between Church and State, on the ru™ Have we in this city shown any indil 

of that Protestant one which it would, position to elect Protestants? On the 

of course, be one of the first, as it would contrary, we have sought them out and 

be one of the best, acts of an Irish par- requested that they would consent to be 

liament to destroy, Catholicism in Ire- put in nomination [hear, hear]. We 

land is so strongly committed, as well looked for Protestants high in character 

as wedded, to the principle of religious ^^^ station, and we felt proud in haviiftf 

freedom, for which it has so long been *^*°* elected. We offered the seleetioa 

contending, that there is nothing to be ^ ™^"y ™o'® Protestants than those who 

apprehended, in this age of the world, ^^^^. ^^f^^ enousfh to accept it; but 

from that ground of alarm. On this "Asides, from the Protestant parts of 

• . <^t^->f 114 . -r^ . .. . land Vnil irnillH nrAt crroof- ctrAn(»lli 


point, O'Connell's great DubUn speech ^r^ '^''.^*'^ ^^^ ^^^^ strength. You 

furnishes two passages, so emphatic in rn^jl^^T^ '"^ """"l ^""^"^ a^ considerable 

their pledges M^sofinel them. 1':^^: ^^l^i^^Jr^^^^^^^ 

selves, that, notwithstandmg their would not the eloquence of the honor We 

length, we are mduced toquote them— and learned gentleman opposite [ AWer. 

cha-ractensuc as they also are of his man Butt] declaim a^inst it. I would 

Btyle of eloquenee : go far to hear his vivid eloquence bam- 

i84d.J The Irish Repeal Quettum, 195 

iB^ «Dd scathing those who proclaimed peaded. I avow it [hear, hearj. Re- 
liberality and afterwards violated their membei- that I respect vested rights. 
professions [hear and cheers]. This is There is no man shall, with my consent, 
the band that drew up a petition in favor or with the consent of the Irish people, 
of the Protestant Dissenters of £ngland. lose one particle of that which he now 
That petition was twice passed nnani- enjoys. I claim but the reversion. Bot 
moosly on the private committee. It was you may tell me that Protestantism wants 
passed unanimously in the Catholic Asso- that reversion for its support. Is that to 
elation, and it was afterwards carried be your argument, that reason, scripture, 
nnanimously at an aggregate meeting and authority, are insnflicient for its 
of Catholics held in the Clarendon^treet support, but that it must have money to 
chapel, where its adoption was proposed maintain its existence i I will not say a 
by a Capuchin friar. That petition wa^ single word that could irritate the slightest 
presented to Parliament with 800,000 religious feelings; but I will merely ob- 
signatares attached to it, and within three serve that if that be yoar argument, I 
weeks aAer its presentation the Protestant trust I will be permitted to exult in the 
Dissenters of England were liberated religion that I myself profess. You tock 
[load cheers]. You would, I repeat, have away Oom my religion the money and the 
a strong Protestant minority in Parlia- temporalities; you deprived us of our 
ment, and you would also have a power- churches ; you prostrated our monaste- 
fol Protestant population out of doors, ries and temples ; and yet religion sor- 
Bat the age of persecution is gone by. vived. It took shelter in hovels and 
Look to Belgium, where at one time the caverns. The wealth, the lands, and the 
most atrocious persecutions were carried temporalities, were taken away ; but was 
on— where the sanguinary Alva slangh- the Catholic religion pot down by it ? 
tered the Protestants, and where the Its hierarchy survived [hear, hear]. It 
equally sanguinary Desonoy and Vander- has still its four archbishops and its 
merk slaughtered the Catholics with no twenty-three bishops. It has its deans, 
less fury on the other side. But what is vicars-general, priests, friars, monks, and 
her present condition 7 With no more ouns in thousands* You may liken it to 
than TOOfiOO Protestants, out of a popu- a column of Palmyra in the desert. 
lstk>n of four millions, has she enacted Tempests howl around it — the elements 
any persecuting law, or made any re- discharge their fnry against it — its orna- 
li^oos distinctions 7 If there be a peo- ments, its polish, and its gold may be 
pie on the face of the earth attached to taken away, but still it stands a noble 
religions observances, or absorbed in re- monument of lasting greatness, unshaken 
ligious duties, they are the Belgians. In in its solid foundation [great cheering], 
(act, a people more entirely devoted to No; do justice to your own Protestantism 
religious observances than the Belgians — say that Popery has survived, being 
does not exist ; and yet have they injured stripped of its temporalities — say that 
a single Protestant ? Have they destroyed truth must surely be equally vivacious 
any of the rights of their Protestant and equally long-lived. Do yourselves 
fellow-countrymen 7 No; blessed be God! justice^ or else concede to me manfully 
they have, on the other hand, established that you want the assistance of state 
the most perfect religious equality. In power and the support of state wealth* 
their Parliament there were four priests, Avow that, and the argument is at an end, 
and when M. Du Thieux, the Minister but it will still be not the less conclusive 
for Home Affairs^ proposed a grant for on the necessity of Repeal.'' 
building a Protestant place of worship, 

it was carried by a majority of forty to And the following is the other ex- 
loar; while three out of the four priests tract, being the conclusion of his 
voted for the grant, and only one of them speech : 
sgaiost it — showing, that though he had 

iadividual prejudices, they did not reflect « i am not here for sectarian purposes, 
on those who took a different view from j have at my side a Church of England 
bun. Yes— the time for prejudices is gentleman. Alderman O'NeUl; I have 
gone by; and the man who wants the also at my side a Presbyterian friend, Mr. 
bayonet and the law to enforce his opi- McClelland j here we stand together, 
nions, admits, fVora by-gone conclusion, Protestant, Presbyterian, and Catholic, 
that bis ailments are not m themselves the evidence of our social condition— the 
snfficient to enforce conviction. It is evidence of our future unanimity. If I 
alleged, as an argument against the Ke- thought that I was so lost to all feelings 
peal, that we vwMild seek to appropnatc of propriety and decorum as to be capable 
the church revenues in a different manner ©f saying one word in disparagement of 
from that la which they are at present ex- the religions convicUons of any nan in 

196 The Irish Repeal Question, [Aagvst, 

the commanUy— howerer widely his doc* up in oar hearts, and the day has arrired 
trines might differ from my own — ^I would when we may all combine, as of one ac- 
give up for e?er the struggle in which I cord, for the benefit of oar lovely country, 
am engaged [hear, hear, and cheers]. The sun in his travels shines not upon a 
But intolerance and bigotry are hourly land more picturesque in its features, 
disappearing under the influence of in* more beautiful in its scenery, more un« 
creased enlightenment, and sure I am that bounded in the richness of its natural 
happier days for the cause of true religion endowments. * The purest of crystal, the 
are in store for all the nations of the brightest of green,' are lavished on her 
earth. There is scarcely a country in the fair domain. Who is he that can con- 
world where a man is now persecuted for template without emotions of the most 
conscience sake. Indeed, I believe, that profound admiration her splendid harbors^ 
with the exception of two Protestant her noble estuaries, her fertile plains, her 
states, there is not a spot in the civilized verdant valleys, her majestic mountains, 
universe where a difference of religious over whose ragged sides gosh vivid waters 
belief is regarded as a justification for with a constancy which almost resembles 
oppression. I allude to Sweden and eternity, and a power and impetus which 
Denmark. In Denmark, some Baptist (but how the thought falls in the phrase !) 
missionaries have, as I am informed, been are capable of turning the machinery of 
cruelly persecuted; but I know of no the world. Blessed with a climate the 
other place where such practices of ty- most genial and benign, and inhabited by 
ranny are permitted. I do most firmly a people the most gallant, hardy, generous^ 
believe that, according as irritating topics virtuous, and temperate of any on the face 
of religious discrepancies are passing ol' the earth, what is there too splendid, 
away, a spirit of true, unalloyed devotion what too magnificent to be achieved by 
IS springing up in the hearts of men — an such a country 7 Heaven is my witness, 
evidence to the truth of this assertion nwy that in looking for this mighty boon, I 
be found in the fact, that more attention seek it not for the benefit of any particular 
is now paid to the performance of religious class or section of my fellow-countrymen, 
duties than in by-gone times. The ordi* but in the name and for the sake of aU 
nances of religion are more uaiversally Irishmen [cries of hear, hear, hear]. I 
respected than of old. Chief Justice would not accept of the Repeal, fondly 
Doherty expressed this sentiment a few though I aspire to it, unless I got it with 
days since in the Court of Common Pleas, the co-operation and approbation of the 
if his words be rightly represented, and I great mass of my countrymen, for I never 
have no doubt that he was warranted in set my heart upon a party triumph ; and 
advancing that assertion. If you go into 1 am alone incited to the present contest 
any house of worship in the city, you will by my devotion to the cause of liberty and 
find it more crowded than in former days, my indomitable love of fatherland [im- 
I have the words of Chief Justice Doherty mense cheering]. Oh ! m; heart bounds 
fbr alleging that this is the case with and my spirit exults when I contemplate 
respect to your Protestant places of wor- the joys whidh are in store for my country, 
ship ; and in my own church this happy Yes — 
revolution is so conspicuous that the . ^ 

faithful who now throng around the altar ' ^« "Jj;! ^'^^^ ^''"^' ^^ ^"^ ^ «*" 

rails to receive communion on the Sabbath Thy twi is but^riatof , while othera am sec, 

day are greater in number than the whole And thou^ siaveiy'f gloom o*er thy moniiiig 

congreg.tion nsed fortnerly to be. Thi. The fiuinL^Tft«*« .«»».«» ™a.d 
proves mcontestably that a greater atten- tkte yet.*" 
tion is paid in modem days to the cere- 
monials of religion than it was formerly The repeal in Ireland is generally, 
our wont to concede; and indeed I am though not uniyeraaUy, opposed by the 
glad of this, for I hold it that outward landed nobility and gcntVy. This ib 

fhl?l•T.^5^°''^ '/".^^^^^ ^ ^« ""^ cWefly caused by the object openly 

that we should enlist the heart as well as «„«„,Xj k* /\yr*^^t^n -.r^. -*-n- *l 

the head in the cause of religion [hear, Z / ?k T i\' ^J^"'*^"'? ^® 

hear, aad cheers from all sides]. Yes {^^^^ ""{ ^^. >n<«ord8 over their 

bigotry has Tanished from the land, and ^panj^^ by giving to the latter a cer- 

intolennce, persecution, and oppression, ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^«^8 ^^ 

its hateftil attendanto, have also disap. *««« f^rmsy on terms to be equitably 

peared from amongst us. We no longer adjusted by law. This would certainly 

detest each other in consideration of oor be a bold and powerful blow against 

respective tenets ; bat, under the sovereign the aristocracy of the countiy ; and one 

influence of enlightenment and Christian of which it cannot be denied that it pro- 

eharity^afeUowshipoffeelingisspringiog poses to trench in some degree upon 

1843.] n€ Irish Repeml Question, 137 

the Bsnetfty of the priaeiple of property, which it speaks on that point for itself, 
It would curtail the present right and implies an assurance of the means for 
powerofthelandlordtodoas he pleases its own accomplishment, from which 
with his own. When we reflect that we derive a hope going beyond, as 
there is no country in the world in we must confess, any distinct percep- 
which the land is held in larger masses tion of our own, as the mode in which 
in fewer hands — that in a population of this is to be wrought out, — so long at 
nine millions there are not probably least as the present ministry and the 
twenty thousand owners of a square foot present parliament continue in power, 
oftfaeearth^ssuriace — ^that this power of By going on with his present system 
the landlords over the tenantry has been of agitation, till it shall include the 
used with great severity as a means of zealous and avowed adhesion of the 
extortion and oppression, — and that large majority of the people — (at the last ^ 
the period is yet comparatively recent date the number of enrolled repealers^ 
when at least four-fifths of all this title was upward of two millions) — and by 
was acquired by the grossest spoliation conciliating and uniting all parties ami 
of mingled force and fraud, so as to rest sects upon it as a measure of common 
on a very rotten foundation of original nationality, O^Connell iftay indeed be 
nMual right — these apprehensions of the able, in conjunction with the accumu- 
landloids, of an agrarian tendency of do- lating domestic difficulties of the Tory 
mestic legislation, are scarcely surpris- government, to oust the ministry and 
ing. O'Coiwell is at heart — nay, as dissolve the parliament. In a new 
openly as any British politician can be— parliament, and from a libera), perhaps 
a republican. The repeal movement, as a Radical ministry, ^e main body <^ 
represented in the person of its great the Irish members, united on this point 
leader, combines with its one primary as their first sine qua nan of party co- 
object other principles also, which tend operation, might indeed obtain the re- 
to introduce the dennocratic element peal, on the federative principle, — ^that 
into government, through the parlia- is to say, vnth a domestic parliament 
meatary representation, in full purity for local legislation, and a superior im- 
and vigor, — namely, the ballot, universal perial one for the government of for- 
safiage, equality of representation, and eign affairs and those of a common 
the absence of property qualification for national concern. This latter, indeed, 
membership of parliament. With none would seem to be the most probable 
of the Irish landlord's fears that a truly direction of the movement. Obviating 
popular Irish parliament would disgrace as it would the objection of the dis- 
Itself by even retorting upon him any memberment of the empire, or the de- 
similar process of spoliation like that to nationalization of any portion of the 
which he himself owes his possession, United Kingdom, it would afford a 
yet such a change in the agricultural basis on which the whole Irish people 
policy of the country as that of the might be brought together ; while it 
proposed ** fixity of tenure," adjusted would present nothing very seriously 
on wise and equitable principles, we objectionable to the people of England 
would joyfully hail, as not less clearly and Scotland. We should be glad to 
within the rightful competency of see such a first introduction of the prin- 
government, than beneficial to the ciple of which our own constitution 
country at large. And certainly the affords so admirable a model ; and 
prospect which the success of the re- should take it as an earnest of the pro- 
peal movement would open, of a much gross it is destined to make, until the 
earlier and more energetic progress to system of great confederations of small 
the cause of republican reform, not democracies, with distinct distribution 
only in Ireland, but, under the contagi- of powers, shall be generally adopted 
003 inihience of her example, in Uie as the mode of national organization 
rest of the United Kingdom, adds no throughout republicanized Europe — 
slight force to the other reasons which satis&d as we are that it affords the 
already so powerfully address American best, if not the only permanent mode of 
sympathy in its behalf. combining widely-diffused individual 
Of the probability of its present sue- liberty with central power and energy 
eeas, without recourae to physical force, for the management of foreign relations, 
it is not easy for na to judge. The O^Connell's theory of the mode in 
xeaolate and eonfident language in which repeal is to be earned into efifect 

138 [ Sonnet, [August, 

— assuming the impossibility of its ever cation ; and eyen tliough Peel and Wei- 
being conceded by the British parlia- lington should be able now to keep it un- 
ment, and especially by the House of der for the present, beneath the pressure 
Lords — is this. It would not, he argues, of the military force they have been 
require the action of parliament at all. pouring in upon it, the day cannot be 
The right to a parliament on the part distant when no English ministry will 
of the Irish people is an inherent con- hare its hands free to interfere with the 
stitutional right, of which they could not Irish people in doing whatsoever may 
be deprived by the flagitious and uncon- seem good to themselves in the pre- 
stitutional fraud of the Act of Union, mises. It is possible that some at- 
It is like the imperishable sacredness tempt will be made, like Wellington's 
of the hereditary right of the crown, sudden concession of the Catholic 
which may be held in abeyance for a Emancipation in 1839, to still the 
season by successful usurpation, but mounting waves of the popular excite- 
which rises again in full vigor on the ment by concession on some of the ex- 
removal of that pressure. Nothing isting grievances of which Ireland corn- 
more would be necessary than that the plains. There are indications that tend 
crown should issue writs for the election to make it not impossible that the Irish 
of members, whose assemblage would Church may be thrown overboard, like 
constitute the Irish parliament, and its Jonah, to still their rage — ^though there 
own first legislation would ciure all is but faint probability of its ever in that 
technical defects. Such peers as case making its reappearance again 
should meet on the summons of the out ofthejawsofthe destruction already 
crown would constitute the house of gaping for it. Such a course, together 
lords. A repeal ministry, together with some extension of the representa- 
with a favorable disposition on the part tion in parliament and of the electoral 
of the Queen, would afford the means frauchise, would go far to paralyse the 
of carrying this scheme into effect, — arm with which O'Connell is thundering 
though we confess it has a very vision- so formidably at the gates of the ^ Eng- 
ary and improbable air. lish Ascendency." At any rate, events 
Sooner or later, however, without are marching very rapidly, and even be- 
radical changes in the system of govern- fore the passage of this Article through 
ment of England towards Ireland, it the press important additions may be 
must come. Independent of all their made to the stock of facts on which all 
many substantial reasons for desiring it, present speculation must be based. And 
the idea seems now to have too strongly all we can now say is the heart-felt 
seized upon the people's mind to make prayer, that God be with that noble 
them ever consent to forego its gratifi- people in their noble cause ! 



CouRAOB and patience ! elements whereby 

My soul i^iall yet her citadel maintain, 
Baffled, perplexed, and struggling oft to fly, 

Far, far above this realm of wasting pain, — 
Come with your still and banded vigor now, 

Fill my sad breast with energy divine, 
Stamp a firm thought upon my aching brow, 

Make my impulsive visions wholly thine ! 
Freeze my pent tears, chill all my tender dreams, 

Brace my weak heart in panoply sublime. 
Till dwelling only on thy martyr themes, 

And turning from the richest lores of time, 
Ijoye,Uke an iceberg of the polar deep, 
In adamantine rest is laid asleep ! 

1843.] Origin and Ground of Government. 199 



Notwithstanding the very general are Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu and 

and even absorbing interest which the Rousseau, whose lessons we rarely 

great mass of American citizens take fail in some degree to reproduce, when- 

io political matters, and the confidence ever it happens that we leave the prac- 

with which almost every one utters his tical question to consider the principles 

opinionB on the abstrusest problems, it involves. 

politics as a science is almost entirely This statement will not be received 
unknown and unheeded among us. with much favor ; there is nothing in 
Some few of our politicians have ex- it flattering to our national vanity ; 
smined with considerable care and nothing that goes to justify our very 
with tolerable profoundness, the gen- general conviction, that we stand in 
eral principles of our Federal Consti- the very front rank of the more en- 
tutton, and certain questions of practi- lightened nations of Christendom ; but 
cal legislation ; but, setting aside Mr. I make it, because I sincerely believe 
Calhoun of South Carolma, we are it to be true, and because I would 
not aware of a single American citi- provoke my countr3rmen, especially 
sen who gives any public demonstra- those whose leisure and education 
tion of his having ever studied, pro- qualify them for such studies, to turn 
foandly and scientifically, the great their attention from mere questions of 
problems relating to the origin, ground, practice, of detail, to the study of the 
and constitution of the State. No great, fundamental problems of the 
work on politics, of the slightest scien- State ; and by so doing, relieve the 
tiiic value, written by an American country of the reproach and the curse 
citizen, has ever, so far as our know- of the present political empiricism 
ledge extends, issued from the Ameri- which obtains in all departments of our 
can press. This all but universal several governments whether State or 
neglect of politics as a science, is Federal. It is time that we should 
deeply to be lamented, and at first cease to flatter ourselves that politics 
view is truly astonishing ; but we are is a science which we have finished, 
so engrossed with questions of prac- Never yet was there a people enabled 
tice, that it is rare that we ever dream of to commence their national existence 
recurring to first principles. under so favorable circumstances as 
We, as American citizens, should we were, and never yet was there a 
look upon this fact as a source not only people who knew so little how to avail 
of regret, but of shame ; especially themselves of the advantages of their 
since we boast of having opened a position. A little more delay, a little 
new school of politics for the world, longer continued imitation of foreign 
and hold ourselves up as worthy of all political quackery, reinforced by our 
imitation. But, after all, this boast is own inventive genius, and all our ad- 
vain. We have opened no new school, vantages are sacrificed, and we are in 
The American school of politics is no better condition for working out the 
among the things that are to be, but as social problem, than are- the most cor- 
yet are not. I am not aware of a rupt nations of the Old World, 
single contribution that we have made j3ut the evil does not rest here. I 
to political science ; and the political guard myself, indeed, as I have pro- 
theory or theories we are laboring to mised to do, against impeaching the 
redace to practice, did not originate virtue and intelligence of the people ; 
with us, but were put forth by political but it cannot be denied that our poli- 
philosophers in the old world, before ticians not only disregard all questions 
we even began to exist as an inde- relating to the origin and ground of the 
pendeot nation. Our principal masters State, but they sneer at all such ques- 

* It is perhaps scarcely necessary to remark, that many of the views stated in this 
Article, with the usual ability of its author, differ widely from those for which the 
Editor of this Review is willing that it should be held responsible.— £]>• D. R. 


130 Origin and Ground ef G&vemment. [August,, 

tions, as metaphysical, as abstractions, agement from a Christian people. All 
as altogether beneath the notice of the scholarship, or scholastic, or scientific, 
wise, practical statesman. But for my or even artistic attainments, like the 
part, 1 have never yet been able to possessionof property, place, or power, 
persuade myself that political capacity, should be regarded as a sacred trust, 
legislative wisdom, accomplished to be used not for the personal good of 
statesmanship, come, like Dogberry's the possessor, but for the moral, intel- 
reading and writing, by nature ; nor lectual, and social elevation of the 
that there is in the mere democratic mass. The Literature we want in 
form of government, any marvellous this country, is not the literature which 
virtue to convert all who are bom results from deferring to popular pas- 
under it, into true enlightened states- sions and instincts, nor indeed the 
men wnthout any study or mental disci- literature that rises not above the 
pline on their part. I hope that I shall not simple apprehension of the majority ; 
be drawn and qutCttered for lese-fnajes- but a literature that breathes a free,. 
/<, if 1 insist that even our American noble, and generous spirit ; that is full 
people might profit not a little by a of the love of man as man ; and that 
more earnest inquiry into the princi- kindles up a holy ardor in all who- 
ples of Government as a science, and come under its influence, and imparts 
by a more familiar acquaintance with to them the needed wisdom, to labor 
the great principles of all just Icgisla- for the moral, the religious, the intel- 
tion, and wise axlministration. For, lectual, and the physical well-being- 
notwithstanding the eloquent and phi- of all men, especially of the poorer 
losophic author of the History of the and more numerous classes. The 
Colonisation of the United States con* tendency of which we speak, is to 
tends, — and brings, in the case of the the creation of a literature the re* 
Carolinas, very strong reasons to sus- verse of this. It is a levelling ten- 
tain his thesis, — ^that sunple practical dency ; but it levels dowTiwards, and 
planters can surpass the profoundest not upwards. Instead of feeling it an 
philosophers in the organization of the imperious duty to instruct and elevate- 
State, and in devising a proper frame the mass, the tendency amongst us i» 
of Government, I must still believe to take our law from the mass, and to 
that science is preferable to ignorance, bring thought down to a level with the 
and the wisdom resulting from it more narrow views, crude notions, and blind 
worthy of reliance than popular pas- instincts of the multitude. If this 
sion, or even popular instinct. Some tendency is continued and encouraged, 
degree of instruction is necessary to our whole intellectual world will be- 
qualify one to make a shoe ; is less ne- come superficial and void, and Ameri* 
cessary to qualify one to follow the art can life too feeble a thing to be worth 
of legislating, or administering the gov- preserving. 

ernment? What is most dangerous in this 

There is a strong tendency, — and I tendency, is the fact that it is thought 

hold, a dangerous tendency, — ^among to be democratic, and is encouraged 

us, to underrate the importance of by some who have the ears and the 

liberal studies, philosophical investiga- hearts of tlie Democracy. To set our 

tions, profound scholarship, and scien- faces against it, is to expose ourselves 

tific attainments, and to extol and defer to the vague charge of being aristo- 

to the alleged wisdom and good sense crats, and to be denounced as the 

of the mass, which practically means enemies of the people, as men who 

the wisdom and good sense of the have no confidence in the people, no 

small minority at the head of one or love for popular government ; but who 

the other of the two great political would introduce a monarchy, or build 

parties into which the country is di- up an aristocracy, or something else 

vided. Mere scholarship for the sake quite as bad, if not worse. But I for 

of scholarship, is no doubt contempti- one meet this charge here on the 

ble ; we want no pedantry, no dUettan- threshold. I deny that this tendency 

tiism. That sort of scholarship which, is democratic, or that it results from 

in its spirit and effects, looks never democracy ; it is decidedly anti-demo- 

beyond the cultivation, the interest, or cratic, and originates in the abuse, in 

the pleasuTQ of the sohofaur himself, the perversion of democracy. There 

deserves and can deserve no encoor* is democracy, in any worthy aeose or 

1843.] AntuDemocrat Tendencies. 131 

the tenn, only where each man has a substance, perhaps devour their women 

mind of his own, and utters that mind, and children. 

clearly, distinctly, without suffering it Now, in the name of science, of 

to be lost in the voice of any other knowledge, of wisdom, of virtue, ©/"Mtf 

man. Moreover, Democracy, regarded people, of outraged democracy,, I for one 

as a principle, is not necessarily a solemnly and earnestly protest against 

deferring to the mass, but is the wise this servility to the mass, a servility, 

and just institution and administration to which a man never submits in 

of Government, for the highest and good faith nor for honest purposes ; but 

best. good of the whole people. I am for purposes always base and selfish. 

tbought to want confidence in the peo- I love my country ; I love her politi- 

ple ; but I have really more confidence cal institutions ; and I am ambitious of 

in them, than he has who said the other seeing my countrymen taking the lead 

day, " Since I have been in office, I in every department of high and 

bare made it my duty to ascertain and manly thought. I am not willing to be 

conform to the will of my constitu- always dependent on foreigners for my 

eats ; ^ for I dare tell the people what intellectuad nutriment ; I blush to 

I beUeve to be the truth essential to think that when I would read a pro- 

their well-being, and to contradict found work on science, whether moral, 

them to their very faces when I believe intellectual, social, political, or reli- 

them in the wrong. But my confidence gious, I must order it from France or 

in the people is in their capabilities, Germany. But so it must be, till we 

and not in their actual attainments, or cease to hold it democratic to echo 

in the practical wisdom of their actual only the thoughts of the people, even 

jadgments. The people in whom I though it be tA^ir ^ sober second 

want confidence is the political people, thoughts.'' We must dare seek for 

the people whose voice we collect at the truth, and dare utter it, and dare labor 

ba]lot-4>ox, who in fact are, and al- for the elevation of the people, instead 

ways most needs be, only a small of merely obeying ^em, which will 

minority of the whole population. The never be obeying them, bnt the misera- 

gennine people, if their voice could ble demagogues and petty politicians, 

really be heard, would be loud and who are raised into importance by the 

earnest in condemnation of the ten- energy with which they scream de- 

dency of which we speak. They feel mocracy, and by the loud, windy pro* 

that they want intelligence, want light, fessions they make on all occasions 

and they look eagerly around for it ; of devotion to the welfare of the peo- 

hot between them and the light stand pje, and of their great willingness to 

ever this immense body of shallow- receive the commands of the people, 

pated politicians, who dread nothing so and to live and die in their service. 

nrach as popular intelligence, and There are subjects, and they too of 

whose sole chance of success is in vital importance to the welfare of the 

shutting out the light, and making the whole people, which the great mass 

peojrfe believe that they, the people, do not, ana cannot master, and which 

are already masters of political science, transcend also the utmost capacity of 

Here lies the evil. Nearly all our the great majority of your educated 

writers, our whole newspaper press, men. There is no use in cavilling at 

with a few honorable exceptions, do this statement, for it is true, and every 

litUe else than echo what they take to man who has paid some little attention 

be the dominant convictions of their to the principles of things, knows it to 

respective parties, sects, or schools; be true. Enlighten aU as much as 

and if one chances to think for him- possible ; and make all subjects as 

self, and labor to advance the mass, to easy to be apprehended as their nature 

elevate the standard of thought, the permits ; but never forget that every 

iHiole pack, man is not equal to everythiuK* There 

.r^r »i u o .V—. W4«i jk ^ i» an infinite diversity of talents and 

'tLiJl"' *^ "^ of gifts: one man can make a good 

***^ » shoe, but no training can enable him 

arc let loose npon him, and he is forth- to chisel a Venus or an Apollo ; ano- 

with rcn down, as a wild beast, or a ther willmake a jfood Bank Cashier, bnt 

savage who, if suffered to escape, would all the training m the world will not 

eonvpc tfaa people aad eat out their fit himto be a good legislator, or enable 

133 Origin and Ground of Government, [August, 

bim to comprehend the fundamental young man in college ; kindled up the 
principles of civil society. There generous ardor of his soul; gave a 
must be leaders, and there always will direction to his whole after life ; be- 
be, quarrel as you will about it. Some came the chief instrument in forming 
men have the natural and acquired gifls his mind and intellectual character, 
to fit them to be political leaders ; That young man was the late Dr. Wil- 
others to take the lead in philosophy, liam Ellery Channing. When we take 
in theology, in science, or in literature, into consideration the wide influence 
The many must depend on these. The for the good of mankind exerted by the 
results, the benefits of the profoundest labors of Dr. Channing through his 
philosophy are for the mass, and life, may we not say, tlmt a most in- 
^hould be communicated to them ; but valuable service had been rendered 
the mass do not, will not, and I dare by Dr. Price to the human race, even 
eay, cannot^ understand the processes if his book on Morals had had no other 
by which those results are obtained, direct influence than that which it ex- 
There must be, and should be an edu- erted in forming the mind and charac- 
cated class, a class with a scientific ter of this eminent philanthropist ! 
culture altogether superior to that to Let us, then, cease our adulation of the 
which the mass of men, whatever their mass, cease our insane eflTorts to adapt 
wealth or rank, can attain or hope to everything to the apprehension of the 
attain. mass, to gauge the amount of truth we 
In this point of view, all important may tell, by the amount the multitude 
as are our common schools, we do not can take in ; and do our best to gain 
w^ell for them to sac^ce our colleges all truth, to nourish and invigorate us 
and universities. One great man, well for wisely directed and long continued 
educated, well informed, devoting his eflTorts for the elevation of all men. 
talents and his acquirements to the But we have been betrayed into a 
good of his countrymen, shall save it, more extended discussion than we pro* 
and secure it many generations of posed, yet if what we have said have 
well-being ; a million of half-educated the least influence in checking this 
men without him will only ruin it. tendency to the superficial and the 
What would have been our country vapid which is now so strong amongst 
but for Washington, Jefiferson, Adams, us, and which is encouraged by mis> 
Jackson, and last but not least, Cal- erable politicians who want place solely 
houni He who can speak out the for its honors and emoluments, the 
profoundest truths to the apprehension politicians of seven principles, as old 
of five hundred of the best and leading John Randolph of Roanoke character- 
minds in the country, speaks after all ized them, that is, of '* five loaves and 
to a much larger audience than he who two fishes ; " and if, furthermore, it 
speaks only to the multitude. They have any effect in provoking the 
who make it their boast that they serious and reflecting among us to a 
speak to the many, do after all speak more thorough investigation of princi- 
only to the few, and what they speak pies, we shall not regret the length of 
is not worth speaking; because it is our remarks, nor that they have de- 
not in advance of what is already real- lay ed longer than we intended our ap- 
ized. Each of these five hundred proach to the main subject of our 
leading minds to whom I speak, speaks present essay. But we leave them 
to five hundred more, and thus through and come to our subject, 
them I actually speak to two hundred What is Government % For what 
and ^fiy thousand, which two hundred End does it exist t What is its Origin 
and fifty thousand continue to echo on and Ground 1 What is the proper or 
my voice till it reaches the mass of my best Mode of organizing its Administra- 
countrymen, — the mass of mankind, tion 1 These are the great and leading 
An instance of the importance of pro- questions which the philosophical 
found study, of deep science, is afiforded statesman must ask and answer in rela- 
us in the case of Dr. Richard Price, tion to government in general, before 
author of a most excellent work on he can proceed otherwise than empiri- 
Morals. This work is abstract, dry, cally, in the adoption of any practical 
and very little read or known. In fact, policy or measures for any given coun- 
the work to most minds is repulsive ; try or epoch, 
but it fell one day into the hands of a I begin what I have to say on this 

1843.] Government that which Governs, 133 

sabject, which coosistA of loose hinU order to be govemment ; and this 

and suggestions, rather than of a full somewhat must be distinct from that 

and complete scientific exposition, to which governs. There must be, then, 

which I am not equal, and for which I not only two terms, governor and gov- 

should need volumes, rather than a erned, but two realities {res) signified 

brief essay in a IVIagazine, — I begin by by them. 

asking, \VTiat is Government 1 I ask We here see in the very outset that 
this question in an abstract and funda- 5e//^government, which presupposes 
mental sense, in which goTernmcnt is the identity of the governor and the 
distinguished from this or that form, governed, — which when transported in- 
and from all arrangements which may to philosophy, would be the identity of 
be adopted or suggested for its practical subject and object. Idealism, and when 
administration. Government, so far transported into theology, would be 
forth as government, must always and Pantheism or Atheism^ — is absolutely 
everywhere be the same, whatever the inadmissible ; and I cannot be driven 
form or the arrangements. My ques- from this conclusion by any friendly or 
tion, then, asks. What is government unfriendly assurances that I " distil my 
in its essence 1 not what is its form, speculation through an alembic of me- 
nor who or what is the ministry ? Let taphysical subtlety, till it is refined 
this distinction be observed and remem- away beyond the comprehension of 
bered between the Government and common intelligence ;" nor by being 
the Ministry. The Ministry may be magisterially or scornfully command- 
lodged in the hands of the one, the few, ed to " away with these cobweb subtle- 
or the many, and therefore be monar- ties and sophistications." I have yet 
chical, anstocratical, or democratical ; to learn that no truth is to be told, that 
bnt back of the Ministry is that which no truth is needed, that goes beyond 
commissions it, and which is common the comprehension of the common 
to each of these respective modes of intelligence ; or that what transcends 
eoostituting it. This, whatever it be, that intelligence is to be sneered at as 
is wl&t I call the Government. Now, " cobweb subtlety and sophistication.'* 
What is this 1 The answer to this These sneers are the easiest answers 
question is the answer to my question, in the world to reasonings which con- 
What is GoYemmentl tradict our favorite theories, but they 
The answer is not difficult. The are answers to which a wise man sel- 
essence of govemment is to govern, dom resorts, and which are far more 
The essence of life is to live, of being efiectual in silencing than in convincing 
is to be, of science to know, of cause an opponent. There is scarcely a 
to eanse ; in like manner, the essence single important principle in any sci- 
of government is to govern. Nothing ence that is not too subtle to be corn- 
exists for us, or can be made by us the prehended by the common intelligence, 
subject of thought or conversation, any These same " cobweb subtleties" are 
£uther than it id a force, having a sometimes of the greatest importance, 
power to do somewhat. In govern- and the gravest practical errors not 
meat there is always a force, having seldom result from neglecting them. 
the power to gorem, and it is govern- Bacon sneered at the speculations of 
ment no farther than it governs. This the old schoolmen as " spider's web ;'* 
fi>rce, that is to say, that which gov- but the author of the History of the 
eras, is the sovereign, that which con- Colonization of the United States, has 
stimtes the city^ or the state, as wisely as felicitously replied to him. 
Government, from its very nature, that '' the spider's web is essential to 
which is to govern, necessarily de- the existence of the spider. '' It is 
maods tTvo correlative terms, the gov- time to end these commonplace sneers, 
enwr and the governed. There is no especially in this country, where a 
govemment where there is nothing tendency to over-metaphysical refine- 
that governs ; equally no govemment ment is certainly not our besetting sin 
where there is notliing that is governed, as a people. 

I am an actor only so far forth as I act ; When we understand by *«(/'-govem- 

a cause only so far forth as I cause or ment, the power of a nation to govern 

create. I must cause or create some- itself, to adopt its own form of govem- 

what in order to be a cause. So gov- ment, and to administer it in its own 

ecnmeat must goyem somewhat in way, uncontrolled by the foreigner \ or 

134 t Origin and Ground of Government, [Anguatf 

"when we understand by the capacity free from all governmental control save 
for self-government, the capacity of so far as he voluntarily sabjects himself 

the people to sustain and administer to it. 

government, even wise and just gov- Now, if we watch closely the signs 
emment, without the aid or intervention of the times, and consult the minorities 
of kings or nobles, the sense in which of to-day threatening to become the 
the term is used amongst us in this majorities of to-morrow, we shall find 
counify, we of course admit the fact that the people are beginning to give 
and the right of self-government. But the word, some its first meaning, some 
in strictness, democracy, in any sense its second. In the first sense, self- 
in which it is government, is no more government is interpreted to mean the 
self-government than is monarchy or absolute sovereignty of the people as a 
aristocracy ; and the habit of continuing collective and consolidated mass, and 
to call our government self-government, from this it is inferred by an unerring 
now after, so far as we are concerned, logic, that therefore all restraints on the 
the struggle for national independence will of the people, all impediments to 
and to get rid of royalty and nobility is the free and full exercise of popular 
over, cannot fail to be productive of the sovereignty, are misplaced, mi8<ihiev- 
worst consequences. The influence of ous, and should not be tolerated. Whoso 
names is greater than we commonly consults the movements, speeches, and 
imagine. A misnomer involves usually resolutions of the Radicals in New 
an error as to the thing. If we call York and elsewhere in the country, 
our government *e//'-govemment, and the truest exponents ofpopular views of 
contend for it under that name, we democracy, and recognized as such at 
shall of necessity run in our theories, the present moment by men high in 
and in our practice so &r as it depends the confidence of the Democratic party, 
on them, into No-Qovernmentism. must perceive and be convinced that 
What is now in this country the anta- this is the sense in which the popular 
gonist of self-government ? Certainly mind is beginning and may continue to 
not a foreign government, for we are understand the term self-government, 
nationally independent ; certainly not So understanding the term, the people 
any more kings or nobles, for we have will seek to actualize its meaning, and 
declared all men politically equal, and they are at this moment bent on actual- 
established in the main universal suf- izing it, and on sweeping away every 
frage and eligibility. WTiat, theni impediment to the free and full cxprcs- 
The question is important ; for the sion, in an authoritative manner, of the 
people, in contending for self-govern- popular will. 

ment, will contend for it in opposition From the absolute independence of 

to some antagonist force, and will un- the people as a consolidated body, on 

derstand it only in that sense in which the ground it is contended for, there is 

it encounters an antagonist force. The but a step to that of the individual ; 

people take words in their most obvious and already is there a party amongst 

and most literal sense ; the refinements us — not very numerous indeed — ^which 

that we philosophers introduce into has taken ^at step openly and boldly, 

speech, they comprehend not ; pay no This party contends for «^(^-govemmcnt 

regard to. They always seek to actual- in its most unlimited sense, and denies 

ize the word in its primary and literal the legitimacy of all civil and political 

meaning. When they are taught that organizations, and declares the indivi- 

self-government is the perfection of dual subjected to no law but that of 

government, they will struggle to actu- God revealed through conscience, and 

alize self-government, in the only sense enforced by moral suasion. These, 

in which it does or can have for them known amongst us as No-Government 

a practical meaning. What practical men, are almost the only consistent 

meaning has or can have the word with theorists in the country ; the only class 

us ? Assuredly it has and can have that has the courage to push premises 

but two. It means, first, the absolute common to a great majority of us, to 

Independence of the people, taken col- their last and legitimate results, 

lectively, to establish and administer I pray my readers not to call aD this 

government, free from all restraint mere subtlety and over-refinement in 

%^hatever ; the other is, that each indi- the use of language. It is not so. In 

vidual has the right to hold himself speaking to philosophers, strict acea* 

.1843.] Self-Government — Loyalty. 135 

ncy of expression is of little moment, goyerns and that which is governed, 
for the philosopher catches your mean- That which governs is not and cannot 
ing, and is ahle of himself to give it its be that which is governed ; for to gov- 
requisite qualifications ; but the mass em is to restrain, to guide, to direct, 
of the people are free from all subtlety, But if the governor, so far forth as gov- 
are plain, straight-forward, consistent ernor, be identical with the governed 
leasoaers, taking, as I have said, words so far forth as governed, the restrained 
in their most obvious sense. If these is the restrainer, the guided is the 
words in their primary and most obvious guide, the directed the director. Bnt 
.sense involve an error, that error will what kind of restraint is that which is 
senre always as one of the premises exercised by the restrained 1 How, in 
from which the people reason, and will the nature of tilings, can that which 
therefore vitiate their whole reasoning, restrains, be itself restrained in that it 
The mass are always admirable lo^i- restrains? that which guides, be guided 
clans. The most thorough-bred dia- in that it guides? that which directs 
lectician can add nothing to their logic ; be the directed 1 When the two terms 
but, in revenge, they never verify their are identified, yon have all in the re- 
mote. Their premises are always as- strainer that you have in the restrained, 
sumed, and they never, whatever the and all in the restrained that you have 
result to which their logic drives them, in the restrainer. If the law controls 
think of returning and inquiring into the people, how can the people, as 
the soundness of their premises, subject to the law, be the force that 
Hence, the great importance of giving imposes the law ? If they could be, as 
to the people correct data ; and this subject to the law, the force imposing 
we shall never do, unless we express the law, they would be as much the 
those data in terms whose primary and sovereign in obeying the law as in im- 
obTioQs sense is the one in which we posing it. But a sovereign under law, 
wish them to be taken. Tell them, a sovereign subjected to law, is no 
make them belieTe,that^e//'-govemment sovereign at all; for in that it is sub- 
is what they are to contend for, they jected, it is not sovereign, but subject ; 
will contend for it in the only practical so, on the other hand, a subject that is 
meaning it has for them in their actual sovereign is not subject ; for the es- 
condition. Self-government to the sence of subject is not to be sovereign, 
Poles and the Irish people would mean, and the essence of sovereignty is to be 
would by them be understood to mean, sovereign, and not subject. If, then, 
the restoration of Poland and Ireland we mean to talk sense, and not non- 
to nationality ; the independence of sense, we must either give up all gov- 
Poland of Russia, Prussia, and Austria, emment, and become no-government 
and the independence of Ireland of men outright, or admit a distinction 
Great Britain. Self-government to between the governor and the governed, 
the people of France or Great Britain I have dwelt the longer on this point, 
would mean freedom from kings and because I am positive that it is one of 
noUes, and the establishment of popular great practical importance. The notion 
forms of government. Self-government of self-government, in the only senses 
here, where we are already nationally it can be practically entertained in this 
independent, and where the form of country, is fraught with mischief. It 
gOTemment is already popular, can strikes at the very foundation of all 
BKan for the mass only the absolute virtue, of all morality. Government is 
sorereignty of the people as a collec- not only that which governs, but that 
tive, consolidated multitude, or the which has the right to govern. The 
ahsolute sovereignty of each individual ; governed, then, are not only forced to 
ftod, in point of fact, save by a few obey, but they are morally bound to 
anUiois more correct in their views obey. Obedience is a duty. We owe 
than in their language, is understood allegiance to government. Here is 
hy the mass of us in only one or the the foundation of Loyalty, which is 
other of these two senses. not only a virtue, but the sum and sub- 
Bot in either of these senses, self- stance of all virtue. We in this coun- 
gorennnent will be found, on analysis, try are chary of the word loyalty, for 
^ in practice, to be equivalent to no- we probably look upon it as the cor- 
govermnent. Wherever there is gov- relative of royalty j and we not only 
^nufient, there most be both that which seldom use the word, but we seldom 

X36 Origin and Ground of Government. [August, 

exhibit the moral quality it implies, bound to obey the true sovereign, if he- 
Yet a disloyal people are in no enviable commands, unto the loss of all my 
condition. The man who has no loy- property, my personal freedom, and 
alty, no sense of a power above him even my life. He may command sdJ,. 
that he is bound to obey, to which he and I withhold nothing; for my right is 
owes allegiance, and should love and to be commanded by no other, and in 
reverence, can be no good citizen, is his presence it is simply the tight Uy 
no true man, but obey. 

Now, as Liberty is the end not only 

<'Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and of all government, but of aU haman 

spoils.*' aspiration and effort, it follows that the 

great concern with us all is to find out 
No such man can be trusted. But, on who or what is the legitimate sovereign, 
the hypothesis of self-government. This leads us directly to the inquiry 
where is the ground of loyalty? The concerning the Origin and Ground of 
very conception of self-government Government. Whence and what is the 
excludes that of loyalty. We cannot State 1 Whence and what is the ground 
be loyal to ourselves, nor to the work of its Authority t These are great 
of our own hands. The transcendental questions, questions of vital importance,, 
nonsense which has in some parts of but which I have room to answer only 
our country been rife of late, about briefly, and which, I am free to confess,, 
loyalty to self, about '* obeying thyself," I should not be able to answer quite tc^ 
and all that, needs no serious refuta- my own satisfaction in all respects,, 
tion. Even what is commonly termed even if I had ever so much room. I 
self-government, when understood of am very far from looking on politics as 
individuals, as when we say. Govern a science which I have myself master- 
thyself, is not, strictly speaking, self- ed. I am still a learner, and need 
government, nor obedience to a self- instruction, like the majority of my 
imposed law, but obedience to the law countrymen, and I discuss the subject,, 
of God, enforced, it may be, not by not so much for the purpose of dogma- 
physical means, but by moral means. tizing as of provoking to its considera- 
understanding by government that tion other and abler minds, which, whea 
which governs, the sovereign ; and by fairly engaged with the true problems, 
the sovereign that which has the right will not leave them till arriving at some- 
to govern, that is, the legitimate sove- tolerable solntion. 
reign, and to which we owe allegiance The Origin of Government, consid- 
and should be loyal ; we can easily ered in itself, as an isolated question,, 
arrive at a correct definition of civil or is of no great practical importance ; it 
political Liberty. Civil or political becomes practically important only 
Liberty, for the individual citizen, is when we make the theories we adopt 
freedom from all obligation to obey any concerning it the basis of our doctrines 
conunands but those of the legitmiate on the ground and legitimacy of the 
soverei^. Tyrannv, civil oppression, authority of government. Four differ- 
is not m being held to obedience, but ent theories have been put forth on the- 
in being held to obedience to that which origin of Government, which it may 
is not conmianded by the legitimate be well ih passing briefly to examine, 
sovereign. To be under no obligation 1. Its origin in the express appoint* 
to obey the legitimate sovereign, or any ment of God ; 

sovereign, is not Liberty, but License, 2. In the spontaneous development or 

and is dike incompatible with the well- human nature ; 

being of the community and of the in- 3. In the authority of the &ther of the 

dividuad. Liberty is never to be under- family; 

stood as exemption from all restraints, 4. In the social compact formed by the 

nor from all restraints but those which people in convention assembled, 

are *tf(/"-impo8ed, which, as we have This last theory was very generally 

seen, are no restraints at all ; but free- embraced by the friends of free govem- 

dom from all restraints but those im- ment in the last century ; it appears 

posed by the legitimate sovereign, to have been the prevailing theory 

These restraints are never to be re- with the framers of our several con- 

garded as tyrannical or oppressive, stitntions. State and Federal, and is 

however stringent they may be. I am yet the dominant theory with our coira- 

1843.] The Social Compact. 137 

trjmen, so far as theory they have on of its just powers. The State has no 

the subject. rights, no powers of its own ; but its 

I am not sufficiently versed in the rights and powers are made up of the 
literature of politics to be able to say rights and powers surrendered to it by 
when or by whom this theory was first the voluntary act of the individuals 
pat forth ; traces of it may be found far forming the compact. This in brief 
back, but it seems to have first grown is the theory as given by Rousseau in 
into importance, in the English Rebel- his famous Contrdt Social, which in 
lion and Revolution, in the seventeenth principle is the same as that given us 
century. It received its earliest phi- by Locke, and differing from it only in 
iosophieal statement from Locke in his this, that according to Locke the con- 
Treatises on Government, and is by tracting parties are the rulers on the 
him put forth as a ground of freedom, one part, and the people on the other 
in opposition to the Theory of Divine part ; whereas, according to Rousseau^ 
Right, which was so construed as to the contracting parties are the people 
be a foundation for the grossest tjnran- alone, each acting individually, and 
ny. Rousseau borrowed it from Locke, binding himself to each and to all. 
sad developed it with new force and To this theory there are several 
coosistency, and gave it its last finish, weighty objections. This state of 

This theory of the origin of govern- nature, of which Hobbes has so much 
ment assumes that there is and can be to say, and which was the phantom 
no just government which does not that haunted all the philosophers of 
originate in the consent of the governed, the last century, is a falsehood. A 
The right, the legitimacy of govern- state in which men exist without 
ment, is founded solely in this consent, government of some sort, in arome de- 
and is limited by it. It also assumes gree, is nowhere encountered in his- 
that civil society is not as old as men ; tory. The rudest savages do not exist 
bat that prior to the formation of civil in this state of nature, but do exist in 
society, there was what we may call tribes, septs, clans, acknowledging 
the State o( Nature. In this state of each a head, and manifesting some de- 
nature, in which mankind lived before gree of organisation and subordination, 
civil society, all men were equal ; and therefore at least the elements of 
every one had an equal right to all, civil society. Moreover the assertion 
which practically, as Hobbes remarks, of this state involves another falsehood, 
was equivalent to no one's having a namely, that man in civil society is out 
right to anything. This state is not of nature, and therefore that civil so- 
ttat best fitted to mankind. Owing to eiety, civilisation itself, is unnatural, 
the res;tle88ness, to the selfish passions a fall, a depravation ; and therefore 
of each, it is a state of perpetual war. again that man's true good consists in 
Each seeks to appropriate aU to himself, the speediest return possible to the 
The strong oppress the weak; the state of nature. Hence Rousseau 
cunning circumvent the simple ; there teUs us that " the man who thinks is a 
is no peaceful industry; no security depraved animal." A return to the 
for persons ; no security for property—- truth, beauty, simplicity and loveliness 
for as yet property is not. Having of nature viras the burden of Volney 
experienced the evils of this state for in his Ruins and Law of Nature, and 
an unknown length of time, mankind especially of Saint-Pierre in his /n- 
were forced, by a sense of thtoir com- dian Cottage, and Paul and VirgitUa^ 
moa wants, to come together in a con- Yet one would like to know when or 
vention, formal or informal, and to how man got out of nature ; and where- 
enter into a compactor agreement each fore civil society is not as natural to 
with each and each with all, by which man as eating, drinking and sleeping, 
each consents to surrender up to the Nor is this all. The assumption of 
wfade his particular or natural rights, the origin of government in a social 
that he may receive in return the compact, is susceptible of no historical 
protection of all, in life, property, and verification. It is, to say the least, 
thepnrsuitofhappiness, which each, as a mere fiction. Compromises may 
a member of the whole, pledges to each have at times been made between the 
and to all. Civil society, the State, different estates of an empire, and 
is created by this convention, and this conventions may have altered the 
eoDseot is the origin, ground and limit administration of government, or ii- 

138 Origin and Ground of (rovemmeni, [Aii^fust, 

etitated and commissioned new minis- did not and could not reach and bind ns 
tries ; but there is absolutely no in- as citizens or subjects of Great Britain ; 
stance on record of a goyemment and it was precisely the efforts on the 
which has originated in a compact part of the British Parliament to reduce 
formed by the people in convention us to the state of subjects of Great 
assembled. Britain, so that British law could ope- 
Some of my readers at first sight rate directly on us as individuals, that 
may be disposed to question this state- led to the rupture, and the entire politi- 
ment, and to allege that our own gov- cal independence of the Colonies. 
«mment6 have all so originated. But This fact is sometimes lost sight of 
our governments offer no exception to even by our own citizens. I have 
the assertion I have niAde ; not one of heard it asserted, nay, I believed it the 
them has originated in a compact en- fuct, before going into a more thorough 
tered into by the people assembled in investigation of the case, that the prin- 
convention, either personally or by ciple contended for by Mr. Dorr and 
deputy. There has never been a his friends in Rhode Island, was pre- 
period since the first settling of this cisely the principle involved in our 
eountry when we were without govern- contest with Great Britain ; but this is 
ment. In each of the States there by no means true. The Suffrage party 
was, prior to the convention of the in Rhode Island lay down the principle 
people, a government, to which the that government is a mere agency, thai 
people owed allegiance, and by the sovereignty resides not in the State, 
authority of which the convention was the body politic, but in the people, 
called. Historically and legally consid- or a majority of them, taken individu* 
ered, our present governments derive ally, who have not only the power but 
from the colonial governments, which the right to overthrow the constituted 
in turn derive from the English Gov- authorities, and to institute new author* 
ernment, through the royal charters ities as seem to them good. The 
creating them. fathers of the Revolution did not by 
Nor let it be supposed that the any means lay down so broad a princi- 
Revolution affects this fact in the least, pie. They asserted nothing concern- 
The American Revolution did not dis- ing the right of the people taken as a 
solve the colonial governments, and mass of individuals to govern them- 
throw the colonists into the alleged selves ; nothing concerning the right 
state of nature, that is to "say, into a of the citizen to overthrow the state of 
state of complete anarchy. It did not which he is a citizen ; nothing con- 
in any sense whatever leave them with- cerning the right of insurrection on 
out government. The American Revo- the part of citizens ; all they asserted, 
loticm was no insurrection of individual because all that was involved in the 
citizens against established govern- controversy, was the right of each 
ment, was no assertion of the right of people, alreaidy a people, ^ving a civil 
individual citizens, in their own nam^ and political existence of its own, to 
and on their own responsibility, to re- assert and maintain its entire political 
sist established government, to abolish independence of every foreign State, 
existing government, and to institute a Now, between this right and that con- 
new government. There was with us tended for by the Rhode Island Suffrage 
no rebellion against established authori- men, there is no little difference, and 
ty, in that sense there would be were men may well assert this without being 
there a portion, no matter how large a willing to assert that, 
portion, of the citizens of Massachu- When the citizens of a State rebel 
setts, to resist and attempt to over- against constituted authority, whatever 
throw in a peaceful or a hostile manner the form of their rebellion or its results, 
the constituted authorities. The char- they are for the time being in a state 
ters granted by the Crown had created of anarchy, and do recognize no law to 
ns distinct communities, bodies corpo- bind them. This was the case in 
rate and politic in ourselves. We were Rhode Island. The Suifirage men, 
thirteen distinct communities, each while forming their new Constitution, 
with a government of its own, supreme did not admit their obligation to obey 
over the colonists, though externally the Charter government, for if they 
dependent on the British crown. British had, they would have admitted the 
law, as such, was not in force here ; illegality of their own proceedings. 

IB411 The Social Cmipact a Fiction. 139 

Thej were obliged, then, to proceed |»atriot or as a friend to the largest 
without law, without goyemment, till liberty compatible with liberty itself, 
they could get their new goTemment But this origin of goyemment in a 
into operation. But sueh was not the compact framed by the people in con- 
ease with the American people in the yention assembled is not only a fiction, 
ReTolotion. They were all the time but an impossible fiction ; for prior to 
Qflder law ; and all their proceedings the conyention, on the theory we are 
regarded by them as legitimate, were considering, there were no pbopls, 
anthorized by the constituted authori- thatf is, no people in the sense in which 
ties. The Colonies, as politick com- they could come together in conyen- 
munities, sent the Delegates to the tion, and be capable of acting and form- 
CoDgress of Seyenty-Six, and author- ing engagements. The people capable 
ized these Delegates in their name to of assembhng in conyentien,.and form- 
declare their independence of Great ing contracts, mnst be already associat- 
Britain. This was an act done by a ed, organized into a community, a one 
competent authority, an authority to body, a sort of collectiye in<uyidual. 
which eyery colonist owed allegiance, But the people so organized, so aaso- 
aad bad owed allegiance from the first, ciated, were already a state, a ciyil 
Is making that Declaration, in fighting society. If, then, we were to assume 
against the troops of Great Britain in the origin of goyemment in a compact, 
its defence, no American citizen acting we should be obliged to assume that 
in obedience to the orders of his own the people could act before they exist- 
Iforermnent, was a traitor or a rebel, ed, for their action in forming the com- 
Rebellion against Great Britain, so long pact presupposes their existence as 
as their acts were authorized by the civil society. But waiying all these 
colonial goyemment, was, on the part objections, eyen admitting the origin of 
of indiyidoal citizens, an impossibility, goyemment in what is termed the so- 
The only ret»els there were in the cial compact, this origin will afford os 
fierolBtion, wliich in fact was no Revo- no sufficient ground for the authority of 
htioD, were the Tories, — the Loyalists goyemment. Prior to civil society, in 
as they were called, — ^who refused to the assumed state of nature, man had 
obey the American goyemments, and no rights, no duties. Are rights and 
aided the foreigner. They were both duties matters that can be created by 
rebels and traitors, for they labored to conventions, matters that have no 
orerthrow the goyemment to which higher, no more sacred character than a 
they owed allegiance, and aided the bargain or agreement which peo|4e make 
foreigner in his attacks on their own with each other 1 If so, ^ere is the 
cooBtry. It is time that the names of sacredness of authority, the obligati<Hi 
Washingtoii, Jefferson, Henry, and of the citizen or subject to obey the 
Haacoek, and Adams, and the gfeat state t Could goyemment subsist for 
body of the American people, be freed one day, if people belieyed the law was 
from their association with that of re- a mere emanation of human will, a 
bels and insorrectionists. The prin- mere ordinance of human beings? 
eipie which they actually asserted was. What force could the decrees of the 
tbat each comnmiuty, possessing a convention, or the conditions of the 
government supreme over its individual compact, have for the conscience, if we 
members, has a right to assert and recognized nothing in the law trans- 
naintain its entire political independ- cending the will of a mass of individ- 
enee, a principle which no American uals ; nothing in it holy, divine ? 
should ever suffer himself to question We have defined government to be 
erea for a moment, for it is founded in that which governs, and that which not 
troth, and perfectly compatible with only governs but has the right to govern, 
soeial order, and the empire of the It is not a mere agency, a ministry, but 
laws ; the principle which some have is supreme, imperative. It is sovereign ; 
nsetted in their name, and with good and the sovereign, so far forth as sove- 
niotives and honest love of liberty have reign, has the right to command what 
attempted to maintain, which strikes at he pleases. In the state of nature, 
the finndation of all social order, and there is no sovereign ; the convention 
leads directly to anarchy, it is to be is called for the purpose of creating 
hopol a man may be permitted to qnes- the sovereign. But is sovereignty a 
^ withamt fovfeiting bis cham as a thing to be created ? The sovereign 

140 Origin and Ground of Government. [Aagaat, 

is oyer and above the individttals to be man, no body of men has the right to 
governed ; that to which they owe control him. He can be bound by no 
allegiance ; which has the right to obligation. The powers he has dele- 
command them. Can these individ- gated to the government still vest ia 
nals create it ? Can the creator be him, and he may revoke them when he 
subject to the creature ; owe allegiance chooses. Where then is the authority 
to it ; be loyal to it 1 Obviously, then, of government over him 1 Suppose he 
if there be in the state a sovereign power has murdered, and the government 
at all, it is not created by those who would punish him ; it must induce him 
are to be subjected to it ; and, if there to consent to be choked to death before 
be no sovereign power in the state, we it can have any right to hang him. 
may as well close the discussion and Few men, we apprehend, would give 
give up talking about government. their assent to a law which would place 

The fuodamental error in the theory a halter round their own necks. If 

we are considering, is in the assumption we assume that sovereignty is inalien- 

that government has and can have no able, that is, that a man cannot alienate 

just powers but those derived from the his natural freedom, we are obliged to 

consent of the governed. This as- come to the conclusion here stated, ob- 

snmption would resolve all government viously incompatible with all govern- 

into self-government, which we have ment. 

seen is the equivalent of no-gorem- But we are told that the man is 
ment. The individual on this theory bound to keep his engagement, and 
is under no obligation to obey a power when he has once given his assent to 
to which he has not given his consent, civil society he is bound to abide by its 
or to submit to a law from which he decisions, and it has the right to en- 
withholds it. Every individual has, force his obedience. That is, sove- 
then, the right, so far as concerns him- reignty is alienable, and a man on 
self, to arrest the action of government coming into civil society surrenders up 
at any moment. How long could gov- his natural freedom, his natural rights, 
ernment co-exist in any community to the whole, and consents to receive 
with the recognition of this right of the in turn only such rights as the whole 
individual to arrest its action 1 or a major part shall concede him. 

It is said that prior to the compact This is Rousseau's doctrine. But in 
there is no sovereignty ; but this is not this case the individual merges himself 
quite true. The individual must be in the community, becomes the corn- 
capable of contracting, which he would plete slave of the state, and has no 
not be, if he had not the sovereign dis- individual existence. However unjust 
posal of himself. Each individual or oppressive the acts of the state, he 
must be sovereign, though limited to has not only no redress, but not even 
himself, by the equal sovereignty of the right to complain. As an individual, 
every other individual. It is contended he has no rights, no existence ; where 
all are free in the state of nature, and would, on this hypothesis, be the sig> 
equal. So says Locke, so sajrs Rous- mficance of that phrase, which has 
seau. No one man, no body of men, has kindled some hearts and exerted some 
any right to control another. This influence in the world, the ^ Rights of 
freedom, this immunity from all sub- Man ?" Man as man would have no 
jeetion, is precisely in this case what rights ; his rights of man would be 
we mean by sovereignty. If there was merged in his rights of citizen — a doc- 
not this sovereignty in tlie individual, trine which, I believe, we Americans 
whence his right and his ability to form will be slow to admit ; for we contend 
contracts? No social compact could that Government has for its mission 
be formed. Independent, then, of civil the full and unequivocal maintenance of 
society, every individual is a sovereign ; the rights of man, of each and every 
that is, so far as concerns himself. man, in all their plenitude. 

Now, sovereignty must be alienable It may be said that the individual 
or inalienable. If it is inalienable, as does not give up all his natural rights, 
I contend, and as does Mr. Jefferson, he only surrenders a portion, in order 
in the preamble to the Declaration of the more securely to enjoy the remain- 
American Independence, then the in- der. Be it so ; who is to determine 
dividual retains all the freedcm in where the line is to be drawn between 
civil EOsiety that he has oat of it. No the rights surrendered, and the rigiiUi 

1843.] Inadequacy of ike Social Compact. 141 

leserred ? If society, the reservation had. We do not dissent from his con- 
will amount to nothing, for it will so olasion, but we should like to know 
interpret its own powers as to take all how it can be obtained from his pre- 
the rights of the indiyidual ; if the mises. 

indiridual, the surrender will amount This objection is sometimes met in 
to nothing, becanse the individual may part by saying that persons by residing 
so enlarge the sphere of his reserved under a given government, do thereby 
rights by interpretation, as to render give their assent to it, and are bound 
the action of Grovemment in restraining to obey it, or leave its territory. This 
liim nnll. If, then, we found govern- does not meet the objection in the case 
ment in compact, we either leave the of minors and women ; for we appre- 
individual his natural freedom, and hend that the state itself would soon 
then we have no government; or we leave itself, if all the women and 
subject the individual to the state, and children were to leave it. Nor is it a 
then no individual liberty. Either con- satisfaetorv answer in the case of the 
sequence should lead us to reject the others. By what right does Massa- 
theory. chusetts infer, from the simple fiust 
But we have not yet done with this of my continuing to reside within the 
theory. We insist on its being pushed limits of her territory, that I give my 
to its last consequences, if it be aidopted assent to her government and laws 1 
at all. If government be founded in The continuance of an individual to 
compact, and derive its just powers reside within the jurisdiction of a given 
«nly from the consent of the governed, state, may be and often is much more 
eertain is it that it should be restricted a matter of necessity than of choice, 
in its authority to the contracting par- It may be and often is his only altema- 
ties, to those who have actually and tive. He may be too poor to emigrate, 
tjfueneiiy given their consent. These or to sustain himself in another land ; 
are never more than a small part of he may be attached to his native 8<m1, 
any communi^. Admit, if you insist, and be unwilling to desert it ; attached 
that the act of voting may be construed to the home of his childhood, the fnends 
into an assent, this would include only and associations that have grown up 
a portion of the aduh males. Those around him and with him, and he may 
to whom the political franchise is not count it a less evil to submit to an 
extended among adult males, women order of things of which he decidedly 
lad children, as well as all those adult disapproves, than to break away from 
males who do not exercise the elective these, without which, if he be of a 
franchise, though entitled to it, are out sensible nature, life for him would be 
of the political society ; are in the state hardly worth possessing ; he may have 
of nature. What n|^ht has govern- duties to perform to his country, to his 
ment over these 1 W ill you say they family, to his friends, which can be 
are represented by the others ? What performed nowhere else ; and, in fine, 
right, in the state of nature, where all though by no means assenting to the 
individuals are equal, has one man to existing government under which he 
represent another, or a man to repre- continues to live, he may not know 
sent a woman ? . Nay, where in this where to look for one he would like any 
atite of nature is fixed what we call better, and therefore resolves to submit 
vu^orily^ so that a man shall not be a to the evils he knows, rather than to fly 
member of the body politic till of a to those he knows not oL If assent is 
certain agel Is not the fixing of the intended to be assent, to be anything 
majority an act of civil society ? How, more than a mere constructive assent, 
then, can it be obligatory on those who which is no assent at all, anything 
have not given their assent? The more than a mere fiction, an empty 
Chief Justice of Rhode Island in a word, it must be given in some more 
very able charge to the grand iury, in positive and less equivocal form than 
vbich he discussed the proceedings of that of one's continuance to reside 
the Snffirage Party, contends for this within the jurisdiction in question. It 
theory of the origin of government in is too late in the day to plant ourselves 
compact. Yet the learned Judge con- on mere forms ; wlmt we must hence- 
tended that the laws of Rhode Island forth look for is realities, the substance, 
were as bmding on those who had not We must learn to call things by their 
the right of sof&age, as on those who right names. If we say government 

142 Origin and Ground of Government. [August, 

demes all its just powers from the controversy. The fact of the very 

assent of the governed ; if we erect general suffering of the millions was 

this into a fundamental principle, and not denied, could not be ; the fact also 

rest our whole political edifice on it, let that the administrators of government 

us do so plainly and unequivocally, in were bound to administer the govern- 

the most obvious and literal sense of ment for the good of the governed was 

the term. The assent must be assent, also admitted in words ; but, then, to 

and assent is no assent unless con- whom were these administrators ac- 

sciously, intentionally, freely, given. countable ] 

But enough of objections to this ^^The powers that be," said their 

theory of the origin of government in advocates, *' are legitimate ; are ordain- 

compact. The truth is, I apprehend, ed of God ; and therefore are and can 

that very few, after all, take this theory be accountable to no human tribunal, 

literally and in its full extent. In order To call them to an account is to call 

to do justice to those who have set it God himself to an account in the person 

forth, and continue to set it forth, we of his representative." 

should recall to mind a^^ainst what Now, to resist legitimate authority, 

opposing theory they set it forth, and or, what is the same thing, an authority 

with wimt motive. The old European ordained of God, — ^for all legitimate au- 

governments had become not a little thority is ordained of God, and derived 

corrupt ; they had ceased to be admin- from God himself, as we shall hereafter 

istered for the good of the governed ; see, — ^is to violate every man^s sense of 

nay, they had changed from govern- right, of duty, of obligation. The ad- 

ments properly so called, into mere vocates of the people met the partisans 

machines for taxing the people, and for of the constituted authorities on the 

grinding the mass to the very dust; question of the legitimacy of these 

they had become intolerable. The authorities. 

people driven to that point where re- " We own," say thev, " that we 
action is sure to take place, began have no right to call the legitimate 
to demand of their masters redress, sovereign to an account ; we own that 
'' Here ye are. Lords and Masters, we are obliged to obey the legitimate 
Kings and Nobles, Governors and Di- sovereign, whatever he commands, 
rectors. We have supported you in all But these constituted authorities are 
luxury ; we have submitted to your not the sovereign : they are but minis- 
guidance, we have borne your burdens ; tries, agencies, holding power as a trust, 
we have stood between you and dan- to be exercised for certain purposes, and 
ger, ready at all times to sacrifice therefore can hold power lawfully no 
ourselves, bv thousands, for your honor longer and no further than they devote 
and glory ; but what have ye done for it to the end for which they were en- 
UB in return 1 We are dying. There trusted with it." 
is no longer living for us on this God's '' True. But they hold their power 
footstool. The most skilful industry, as a sacred trust from God, and they 
the most unremitted toil, cannot pro- are accountable only to him for the 
cure us the means of subsistence, manner in which they may exercise 
We starve by thousands, and our dead it." 

bodies lie along the streets, and our " Not so. Kings and magistrates 

bones must bleach under the rains and are the servants of the people, have 

dews of heaven. Lords and Masters, been instituted by the people for the 

it was yours to have governed us, and people's good, and when they fail to 

to have governed us not for your plea^ promote or to strive to promote that 

sure, but for our ffood. Te have not good, the people may call them to an 

so governed us. We have been taught account, judge iheta, depose them, or 

to believe in a God who is love and punish them in such manner as they 

goodness. He has made no world shall deem proper." 

where the millions must ever toil and One sees here with what thought 

sweat, and die to feed the vanity and the sovereignty of the people was as- 

luxury of the few. Away with the serted. The mass demanded a better 

Uiought! Ye have neglected your social condition, felt that they had a 

duty ; and the day is come for us to right to labor to oUain a better social 

call you to an account." condition, and that they were hindered 

But hereupon arose a very impoztaat £rom obtaining a better soeial condition^ 

1843.] Responsibilily of Power, 143 

by the neflligenee and tyranny of their goTemments responsible to the people, 
rulers. They wished to be able power was shifted, but not rendered 
legitimately to strive for this better responsible, for the power tlien rested 
condition, even against their rulers, and in the people instead of the magistrate ; 
to cail their rulers to an account for but who was there to call the people to 
not aiding them, especially for throwing an account, should they chance to abuse 
impediments in their way. What the their power ? To whatsoever we ren- 
iirieods of the people really wanted, der the administrators of government 
then, was to establish the Responsibility responsible, unless power be restricted, 
of Power, not to God only, but, so to there is always the possibility of its 
speak, to man also. The Responsibility being abused, — ^we may say, the cer- 
to God alone, in the actual state of tainty that tyranny, oppression, corrup- 
tldngSj since rulers had ceased to fear tion, and political death, will sooner or 
God, or to believe in his providence, later find their way into the state. 
was as good as no responsibility at all, Power has always a tendency to en* 
and left to the millions, able to endure large itself, and will always run into 
their oppressions no longer, no hope of abuse, wherever it may be lodged, if 
redress. In this case there was no not tied up so that it cannot. 1 his is 
effectual remedy but in asserting the the fact that the advocates of the peo- 
wrereignty of the people. pie, in demanding the Responubility of 
^ But the people,'' say the advocates power, overlook^, and therefore failed 
of power, *^ when did they become to secure the end they had in view, for 
aorereign, — ^they who have rarely ex- which they had so strenuously asserted 
ercised any palitical power, or consti- the sovereignty of the people, and the 
toted even an estate in the empire ; origin of government in compact. Yet 
they whom government is instituted to it was not the sovereignty of the people 
govern V^ nor the doethne of con^MkCt thev cared 
"They were the original source of for, but some leflittmate ground of op- 
power. They were originally free and position to the Tory Theory, and on 
equal, and no man had a right to control which social amelioration, freedom and 
them; but for their mutual protection well-being, could be contended for and 
and benefit, they chose to come together secured. This ground we, too, want, 
into civil society, and to institute civil and will never consent to abandon ; bat 
goTernment ; to clothe some among we find it not where the friends of 
t&em with authority, the rest promising Liberty and well-being in the two pre- 
obedience. From the compact formed ceding centuries found it. Where we 
W the people, and which constitutes find it, will hereafter appear. 
afid expresses tlie powers and the ends Furthermore, the advocates of the 
of the body politic, derives government doctrine we have been considering 
with aO its legitimate authority. The seem to me to deceive themselves in 
people have not then become sovereign, believing that they themselves, in their 
they always were sovereign, always own minds, place the origin of Govem- 
vere that to which the constituted au- ment in compact. They do no such 
thorities were accountable." thing. They always, consciously or 
Here it is seen that the doctrine of unconsciously, assume the state already 
Social Compact met precisely the doc- as existing, and possessing aU the rights 
tnne it was desirable to overthrow, and of sovereignty. When they speak of 
established the authority of the people the people assembling in convention, 
orer their rulers, and their right to seek they assuredly have in mind a particular 
I redress of grievances, if need were, people, that is to say, a particular na- 
nea against the constituted authorities, tion, or the inhabitants of some par- 
for they were paramount to those au- ticular or specified territory, with its 
thorities. bounds marked and determined. It is, 
The motive was good, but the friends after all, not a mass of individuals, 
of the people made one serious mis- taken at random, but this particular 
^e: they demanded the RespoTuiiiiity people, nation, already existing as a 
of power, when they i^ould have de- distinct, and, we may say, a sovereign 
loanded the lAmitatian of power, community, that assembles in eonven- 
Power is not and cannot be responsible ; tion, and forms the compact To talk 
for 80 fitr forth aa responsible it is not of this people as having no government 
power, but a tniat« In making the woidd be nonsense. ItisasoTereigaty, 

144 Origin and Ground of Government. [Auguat, 

and has in itself, nndoubtedly, the right Island, that had, according to the Suf- 

to establish such a frame of govern- frage Party, the inherent right to come 

ment, and such a mode of administra- together in Convention and frame and 

tion as it may judge proper ; but to say ordain a Constitution. The advocates 

that this people meets together in con- of the People^s Constitution asked as 

vention, and by solemn compact creates the necessary condition of giving legiti* 

civil society, or constitutes itself a body macy to that Constitution, the formal 

politic, is to say that it meets to make assent of a majority of the white adult 

itself what it already is and assumes male population of Rhode Island. Bat 

itself to be. Evidently, then, as it can what see we in all thist We see that 

be really only of such or such a people it is assumed, prior to the formation of 

that we can say it creates its govern- the Constitution, and independent of 

ment in convention assembled, the ad- the Charter, that there is a veritable 

vocates of the origin of government in people of Rhode Island, having the 

compact do virtually assign government right to institute a form of government 

some other origin. Even in their own which shall be supreme over all the 

view, would they analyze it, the sove- inhabitants of the territory recognized 

reignty resides not so much in the under the Charter as Rhode island 

compact as in territory, and, so to and Providence Plantations. The 

speaic, nationality. thought with which these Suffrage men 

To illustrate my meaning, 1 will take proceed, evidently is this : The ma- 
the cases of Ireland and of Rhode jority of the inhabitants of a given 
Island. Ireland is the land of the Irish, territory have the right to determine 
I suppose the advocates of the origin what form of government shall prevail 
of government in compact would agree in that territory, and to what civil rule 
with me, that the Irish have a right, if the whole nnmber of its inhabitants 
they choose, to be independent of Eng- shall be subjected. Now, suppose 
land ; and in case they should assert there never had been any civil or po- 
and maintain successfully their inde- litical Rhode Island ; suppose that the 
pendence, would have a right to esta- inhabitants of the territory in question 
blish a frame of government for them- were in the alleged state of nature, and 
selves. But are we not, in all this, the suffrage men threw themselves 
speaking of the Irish as a distinct race really back on the people in their pri- 
from the English, as a peculiar people, mary capacity, that is, as free, inde- 
having in reality, thou^ subjected to pendent, sovereign individuals, who 
the foreigner, in its kindred blood, a could in this case have spoken of the 
nationality of its own % The Irish are people of Rhode Island ? Who could 
a people, a community, and therefore have said the individuals living within 
it is that we can conceive of their right certain boundaries, form a distinct 
to form a social compact, and their community, and the majority of these 
ability to do it. If the Irish should have a right to govern the whole ? In 
gain their independence, and should the case we suppose, why would not 
call a convention to devise a frame of individuals living in Massachusetts or 
civil government suitable for them, Connecticut have had the same ri^ht 
should we not hold that England and to be represented in the People'^s Con- 
other nations would have no right to vention, as those who lived within the 
be represented in it, and regard it as geographical limits of Rhode Island % 
anoutrageuponthelrish, if they should But what makes Rhode Island in the 
send delegates to it ? Why ? Simply supposed state of Nature ? Wlience, 
because we think of the Irish as a in point of fact, does Rhode Island 
distinct, independent people, having the derive its existence ? Evidently Rhode 
sovereign right to dispose of its own Islandisinitscivilpolity, or initsterri- 
internal concerns. 'Now, shall we tory. The suffi^ge men could not 
contend that a people of whom we can have admitted the first, for they as- 
say this, is not already a civil society, sumed the existence of Rhode tsland 
a body politic 1 Whence did it become independent of the polity, if one may 
B0 1 Not by compact ; for that, by the so speak. Of course, then, the aove- 
very terms of the supposition, is not reignty they recognized they must have 
yet formed. Whence, then I regarded as an incident of territory ; 

Take the case of Rhode Island, and so they were in fact basins their 

They were the people of Rhode own proceedings on the very principle 

184Z.] The Patriarchal Theory. 145 

aninst which they were contending ! he, again an Emperor or Ruler of 

They would supersede the existing many kings or nations. Whether the 

goremment, because it made freemen patriarchal was the earliest form of 

of none but landholders ; and they government or not, is a matter of some 

would give to territory the right of doubt, though we are inclined so to 

constituting a people, a body politic, a regard it ; but whether so or not, is 

sovereign community. These remarks not materia] to our present purpose, 

show tfakt the conception of a people for we are seeking not the origin of 

existing as a distinct, peculiar people, this or that form of government, but 

having in the similarity of its manners, government itself. The authority of 

customs, the identity of its origin and the father over his children is already 

unity of its life, a nationality of its government. Whence the origin and 

own, or inhabiting a specific territory, ground of this authority ? Whence 

politically and geographically deter- the right of the father to govern his 

mined, is always presupposed by the children 1 And by what right does 

advoeales of the origin of government the authority of the father over his 

in compact, as the essential condition children, come to extend to those who, 

of the conception of the people^s com- though his kindred, are not begotten of 

iag together in Convention, to ordain a his body ? 

6une of government for their mutual The authority of the father is 

convenience and benefit. The whole founded, we are told, in natural law, and 

smn and substance of the doctrine, grows out of the necessity of the case, 

when reduced to its practical elements, 1 understand very little of what men 

IB this : each nation has the right to mean by natural law. Natural Law 

Lnstitute and administer its own form of for me, means either one of two 

government, and the proper method is things : 1. What I am naturally im- 

for h to assemble by delegates in Con- pelled, or driven by the impulses of 

vention, aad draw up what shall be the my nature to seek ; or 2. That which is 

fundamental law of the land, namely, founded in the Original Nature or or- 

the CoDstttation. All this may be true, der of things as God hath created and 

But let not this be called going back to arranged them. In the first sense, a 

the origin of government. This would natural law must sometimes be resisted ; 

give me the origin only of some par- my inclinations must be controlled, and 

ticolar form or mode of administering m^ thoughts, feelings, passions, in- 

eovemment, not of government itself stmcts, propensities, subordinated and 

I am not told the origin of government subjected to the law of God under 

till I am told whence this nation derives which I am placed. In this sense, to 

its national life, and its right to institute say that the authority of the fhther is 

and administer government for itself. founded in a law of Nature, is not say- 
ing that it is therefore legitimate. To 

8. We have lingered so long on the say that it is founded in the law of 

Theory which derives government nature, in the second sense, is on the 

from a primitive pact, that we have one hand begging the question by as- 

httle time and less space, to examine suming the very point to be proved, 

te other three Theories we have and on the other, is resolving Nature 

eramerated. Yet we must not pass into the appointment of God, and 

them over without a few remarks on therefore identifying the third or patri^ 

each. We take them in the reverse archal theory with the first, or tnat of 

order from that in which they stand on Divine Right, If we say the authority 

our tist. The third theory we have of the father grows out of the neces- 

nestioDed, is known as the patriarch- sity of the case, then we originate 

Ah. Its advocates derive the State government in necessity. Necessity 

from the Tribe, and the Tribe from the to a Christian can mean only the Will 

Family. The primitive government, of God ; for the ground of all things is 

the foundation of all government, is that not with Christians the Invincible Ne- 

which the father exercises over the cessity of Heathendom, but Infinite 

chfld. This enlarged, the father of Freedom. This again would leave us 

the family becomes the Chief of the as the ground of the right of the 

dan or tribe ; from the chief of the father to govern his child, only the 

tribe he becomes the King or the will of God. We apprehend that 

Bider of the nation ; from tms, it may people would be wiser wonM they taUc 

146 Origin and Ground of Government. [August,. 

lees about what is, or is not commanded are both in the main true and worthy 

by Nature. Nature never yet fur- to be accepted. Government does not 

nished a uniform standard for anything, originate in spontaneity alone, nor in the 

nor commanded the same thing to any outward ordinance of God alone ; but 

two individuals of any race. In no it must respond to man^s nature, to an 

sense, then, in which the law of Nature inherent and essential want of humani- 

is distinguishable from a law of God, ty, or there could be no reason for its. 

could even the fact that the authority existence ; nay, it could have no hold 

of the father over the child originates on man, and therefore could not be at 

in a law of Nature, legitimate that au- all ; and it must have in it a Divine 

thority. If, then, we could resolve all element, and to some extent be an ex- 

fovernments into the patriarchal, and pression of the will of God, or it would, 

educe all authority from the parental, have no legitimacy, no right to com- 

we should still have the same question mand, — no right to our aUegiance, to 

to ask, and the same problems to solve our loyalty. 

in relation to the origin and ground of But, after all, there is no occasion to 
this parental authority, that we have in seek the historical origin of govern- 
relation to the origin and ground of ment. Most likely the historicau origin 
Government in general. of government is no longer ascertain- 
But how from a man^s right to govern able. The more we study into the 
his own children will you deduce his past, the more do we discover there to 
right to govern his wife, and those who impress us with a sense of our igno- 
are not his children ? The conjugal ranee, and to confound our philosophies, 
relation has never been held to be one There was a time when the learned 
of perfect equality ; the man is the had their snug little theories of the 
head of the woman, the lord. He Universe, according to which all ques- 
promises love, protection, fidelity ; but tions were easily answerable and an- 
the woman love, fidelity, obedience, swercd. A little study, and we were 
Whence this obligation to obey on the acquainted with all matters, and could 
part of the woman rather than on the judge of all events from the creation to 
part of the man 1 This assuredly is the present. Indeed, saving one or 
not deduced from that alleged law of two events, nothing prior to the eight- 
nature, which commands the child to eenth century had ever occurred worth 
obey the parent. Whence then ? troubling one^s head about. But we 
Whence, again, the logic by which I begin to feel that the past was not all 
am able, from, my right to govern my a blank. What most astonishes us is, 
chUd, to conclude to my right to govern the further back we go, the higher the 
another man's child, and not only the antiquity to which we attain, the more 
child, but the man liimself ? If my perfect arc the monuments we meet, 
right of chieftainship grow out of my Under the relation of Art, the oldest of 
right as a father, why has not every the pyramids is the most perfect. The 
father in the tribe the same right to be ' oldest books extant contain the pro> 
its chief 1 This question alone shows foundest philosophy, and indicate the 
that it is impossible to deduce the State widest and most varied experience of 
from the Funily. I do not regard the life. Each generation, so to speak^ 
Family as the germ of the State. It seems to dilute the life of its predeces* 
contains elements which are not in the sor. Nothing is new under the sun. 
State, and wants elements, without The highest antiquity indicates a high- 
which the State could neither be con- er. We lose all dates and places, and 
Btituted nor preserved. Both, in my no longer know where to begin, or 
view, are primary institutions, and where to leave off. Vain is it then for 
neither is secondary ; certainly neither us to attempt to fix historically the ori* 
is derivable from the other. Both gin of government. Historicafiy^eak- 
are necessary, but they rest on differ- ing, government has no origin. Men^ 
ent bases, and exist for widely different, wherever we find them, live in society^ 
though not hostile ends. and society without government has 
3. The other two theories on our never been known, is not even coa~ 
list concerning the origin of govern- ceivable. How did society originate t 
ment, namely, that of the Spontaneous How did language originate ? Yet: 
Development of Nature, and that of language is essential to our conceptioxi. 
DiTioe Ordination, rightly understood, of man, and therefore man, aa soon 

IM,] Prometheus. 147 

he existed, must have had language ; analogous to that hj which the life of 

80 must society be regarded as coeval the race itself is so transmitted, 

vith the individual. Man out of so- But we leare the development of this 

ciety is a solecism ; is not man. The thought, a^ well as the clear and dis- 

tnie Tiew to be taken is to regard gor- tinct statement of the philosophical 

enunent as neyer beginning, never end- origin and ground of government, and 

ing, and considering its legitimacy as the mode in which government should 

transmitted from generation to genera- be organized, for a future commu- 

tioD, and from place to place, by a law nication. 



Onb after one the stars have risen and set, 

Sjparkling upon the hoarfrost on my chain : 

Tne Bear, that prowled all night about the fold 

Of the North-star, hath shrunk into his den, 

Scared by the blithesome footsteps of the Dawoi 

Whose blushing smile floods all the Orient ; 

And now bright Lucifer grows less and less, 

Into the heaven's blue quiet deep withdrawn. 

Sunless and starless all, the desert sky 

Arches above me, empty as this heart 

For ages hath been empty of all Joy 

Except to brood upon its silent hope. 

As o'er its hope of day the sky doth now. 

All night have I heard voices : deeper yet 

The deep, low breathing of the silence grew, 

While all about, muffled in awe, there stood 

Shadows, or forms, or both, clear felt at heart. 

But, when I turned to front them, far along 

Only a shudder through the midnight ran. 

And the dense stillness walled me closer round. 

But still I heard them wander up and down 

That solitude, and flappings of dusk wings 

Did mingle with them, whether of those hags 

Let slip upon me once from Hades deep, 

Or of vet direr torments, if such be, 

I eoula but guess ; and then toward me came 

A shape as of a woman : very pale 

It was, and calm ; its cold eyes did not move. 

And mine moved not, but only stared on them. 

Their moveless awe went through ray brain like ice ; 

A skeleton hand seemed clutohing at my heart, 

And a sharp chill, as if a dank night fog 

Suddenly closed me in, was all I felt : 

And then, methought, I heard a freezing sigh, 

A long, deep, shivering sigh, as from blue fips 

St^ening in death, close to mine ear. I thought 

Some doom was close upon me, and I looked 

And saw the red moon through the heavy misty 

Just setting, and it seemed as it were fidling, 

Or reeiiag to its &11, so dim and dead 

116 * . Prometheus. [Augiut, 

And palsy-struck it looked. Then all sounds merged 

Into the rising surges of the pines. 

Which, leagues below me, clothing the gaunt loins 

Of ancient Caucasus with hairy strength, 

Sent up a murmur in the morning-wind, 

Sad as the wail that fi-om the populous earth 

All day and night to high Olympus soars, 

Fit incense to thy wicked throne, O Jove. 

Thy hated name is tossed once more in scorn 
From off my lips, for I will tell thy doom. 
And are these tears 1 Nay, do not triumph, Jove ! 
They are wrung from me but by the agonies 
Of prophecy, like those sparse drops which fall 
From clouds in travail of the lightning, when 
The great wave of the storm, high-curled and black. 
Rolls steadily onward to its thunderous break. 
Why art thou made a god of, thou poor type 
Of anger, and revenge, and cunning force ? 
True Power was never bom of brutish Strength, 
Nor sweet Truth suckled at the shaggy dugs 
Of that old she*wolf. Are thy thunderbolts, 
That scare the darkness for a space, so strong 
As the prevailing patience of meek Lif ht. 
Who, with the invincible tenderness of peace. 
Wins it to be a portion of herself? 
Why art thou made a god of, thou, who hast 
The never-sleeping terror at thy heart, 
That birthright of all tyrants, worse to bear 
. Than this thy ravening bird on which I smile ? 
Thou swear'st to free me, if I will unfold 
What kind of doom it is whose omen flits 
Across thy heart, as o^er a troop of doves 
The fearful shadow of the kite. What need 
To know that truth whose knowledge cannot save ? 
Evil its errand hath, as well as Good ; 
When thine is finished, thou art known no more : 
There is a higher purity than thou, 
And higher purity is greater strength ; 
Thy nature is thy doom, at which thy heart 
Trembles behind the thick wall of thy might. 
Let man but hope, and thou art straightway chilled 
With thought of that drear silence and deep night 
Which, like a dream, shall sv^allow thee and thme : 
Let man but will, and thou art god no more ; 
More capable of ruin than the gold 
■ And ivory that image thee on earth. 

He who hurled down the monstrous Titan-brood 
Blinded with lightnings, with rough thunders stunned, 
Is weaker than a simple human thought. 
My slender voice can shake thee, as the breeze. 
That seem* but apt to stir a maiden's hair, 
Sways huge Oceanus from pole to pole : 
For I am still Prometheus, and foreknow 
In my wise heart the end and doom of all. 

Yes, I am etill Prometfaens, wiser grown 
By years of solitude,— 4hat holds apart 
The past and future, giving the soul room 
To search into itself, — and long commune 
With this eternal silence — more a god 

.] Prometheus. 149 

In my long-suffering and strength to meet 

With equal frpnt the direst shafts of fate, 

Than thou in thy faint-hearted despotism^ 

Girt with thy baby- toys of force and wrath. 

Yes, I am tliat Prometheus who brought down 

The light to man which thou in selfish fear 

Had^st to thyself usurped, — his by sole right, 

For Man hath right to all save Tyranny, — 

And which shall free him yet from thy frail throne. 

Tyrants are but the spawn of Ignorance, 

Begotten bv the slaves they trample on. 

Who, could they win a glimmer of the light, 

And see that Tyranny is always weakness, 

Or Fear with its own bosom iU at ease, 

Would lau^rh away in scorn the sand*wove chain 

Which their own blindness feigned for adamant. 

Wrong ever builds on quicksands, but the Right 

To the firm centre lays its moveless base. 

The tyrant trembles if the air but stirs 

The innocent ringlets of a child^s free hair, 

And crouches, when the thought of some great i^irit, 

With world-wide murmnr, like a rising gale, 

Over men^s hearts, as over standing com. 

Rushes, and bends them to its own strong will. 

So shall some thought of mine yet circle earth 

And puff away thy crumbling jdtars, Jove. 

And, would^st thou know of my supreme revenge, 

Poor tyrant, even now dethroned in heart, 

Realraless in soul, as tyrants ever are, 

Listen ! and tell me if this bitter peak, 

This never-glutted vulture, and these chains 

Shrink not l^fore it ; for it shall befit 

A sorrow-taught, unconquered Titan-heart. 

Men, when their death is on them, seem to stand 

On a precipitous crag that overhangs 

The iUyyse of doom, and in that depth to see, 

As in a glass, the*features dim and huge 

Of things to come, the shadows, as it seems. 

Of what have been. Death ever fronts the vrise, 

Not fearfully, but with clear promises 

Of larger life, on whose broad vans upborne. 

Their out-look widens, and they see beyond 

The horizon of the Present and the Past, 

Even to the very source and end of thinss. 

Such am I now : immortal woe hath made 

My heart a seer, and my soul a judge 

Between the substance and the shadow of Truth. 

The sure supremeness of the Beautiful, 

By all the martyrdoms made doubly sure 

Of such as I am, this is my revenge, 

Which of my wrongs builds a triumphal arch 

Through which I see a sceptre sad a throne. 

The pipings of glad shepherds on the hills. 

Tending the flocks no more to bleed for thee,— 

The songs of maidens pressing with white feet 

The vintage on thine altars poured no more, — 

The murmurous bliss of lovers, underneath 

Dim grape-vine bowers, whose rosy bunches press 

Not half so closely their warm cheeks, unscared 

By thoughts of thy brute lusts,— the hivelike hum 

160 Prometheus. [August, 

Of peaceful commonwealths, where sunburnt Toil 

Reaps for itself the rich earth made its own 

By its own labor, lightened with glad hymns 

To an omnipotence which thy mad bolts 

Would coipe with as a spark with the vast sea, 

Even the spirit of free love and peace, 

Duty^s sure recompense through life and death,—- 

These are such harvests as all master-spints 

Reap, ha}dy not on earth, but reap no less 

Because the sheaves are bound l^ hands not theirs ; 

These are the bloodless daggers wherewithal 

They stab fallen tyrants, this their high revenge : 

For their best part of life on eartii is when. 

Long after dei^, prisoned and pent no more. 

Their thoughts, their wild dreams even, have become 

Part of the necessary air men breathe ; 

When, like the moon, herself behind a cloud. 

They shed down light before us on lifers sea. 

That cheers us to steer onward still in hope. 

Earth with her twining memories ivies o*er 

Their holy sepulchres, the chainless sea 

In tempest or wide calm repeats their thoughts, 

The lightning and the thunder, all free things, 

Have legends of them for the ears of men. 

All other glories are as falling stars. 

But universal Nature watches theirs : 

Such strength is won by love of human kind. 

Not that I feel that hunger after fame, 

Which souls of a half-greatness are beset with ; 

But that the memory of noble deeds 

Cries shame upon the idle and the vile, 

And keeps the heart of Man for ever up 

To the IvBroic level of old time. 

To be forgot at first is little pain 

To a heart conscious of such high intent 

As must be deathless on the lips of men ; 

But, having been a name, to smk and be 

A something which the world can do without. 

Which, having been or not, would never change 

The lightest j^se of fate, — ^this is indeed 

A cup of bitterness the worst to taste. 

And this thy heart shaU empty to the dregs. 

Oblivion is lonelier than this peak, — 

Behold thy destiny ! Thou think'st it much 

That I should brave thee, miserable god ! • 

But I have braved a mightier than thou, 

Even the temptings of this soaring heart 

Which might nave made me, scarcely less than thou, 

A god among my brethren weak and blind. 

Scarce less than thou, a pitiable thing. 

To be down-trodden into darkness soon. 

But now I am above thee, for thou art 

The bungling workmanship of fear, the block 

That scares the swart Baibarian ; but I 

Am what myself have made, a nature wise 

With finding in itself the types of all, — 

With watching from the dim verge of the time 

What things to be are visible in the gleams 

Thrown forward on them from the luminous past,*— 

Wise with the history of its own frail heart. 

4843.] Prometheus, 151 

With reverence and sorrow, and with loye 
Broad as the world for freedom and for man. 

Thou and all strength shall crumble, except Lore, 
By whom and for whose glory ye shall cease : 
And, when thou art but a dim moaning heard 
From out the pitiless glooms of Chaos, I 
Shall be a power and a memory, 
A name to scare all tyrants with, a light 
Unaetting as the pole-star, a great voice 
Heard in the breathless pauses of the Aght 
By truth and freedom ever waged with wrong, 
Clear as a silver trampet, to awake 
Huge echoes that from age to age live on 
In kindred spirits, giving them a sense 
Of boundless power from boundless snfTering wrung. 
And many a glazing eye shall smile to see 
The memory of my triumph, (for to meet 
IfVrong with endurance, and to overcome 
The present with a heart that looks beyond, 
Are triumph), like a prophet eagle, perch 
Upon the sacred banner of the right. 
Evil springs up, and flowers, and bears no seed, 
And feeds the green earth with its swift decay, 
Leaving it richer for the ^prowth of truth ; 
But Good, once put in action or in thought, 
Like a strong oak, doth from its boughs shed down 
The ripe germs of a forest. Thou, weak god, 
Shalt fade and be forgotten ; but this soul, 
Fresh4iving stiU in the serene abyss, 
In every heaving shall partake, that grows 
From heart to heart among the sons of men, — 
As the ominous hum before the earthquake runs 
Far through the uSgean from roused isle to isle,— 
Foreboding wreck to palaces and shrines, 
And mighty rents in many a cavernous error 
That darkens the free light to man : — This heart 
Unscarred by thy grim vulture, as the truth 
Grows but more lovely 'neath the beaks and claws 
Of Harpies blind that fain would soil it, shall 
In all the throbbing exultations share 
That wait on freedom^s triumphs, and in all 
The glorious agonies of martyr-spirits, — 
Sharp hghtning-throes to split the jagged clouds 
That veil the mture, showing them the end, — 
Paints thorny crown for constancy and truth, 
Girding the temples like a wreath of stars. 
This is a thought, that, like the fabled laurel. 
Makes my faith thunder-proof, and thy dread bolts 
Fall on me like the silent flakes of snow 
^ On the hoar brows of aged Caucasus : 
But, O thought far more blissful, they can rend 
This cloud of flesh, and make my soul a star ! 

Unleash thy crouching thunders now, O Jove ! 
Free this high heart which, a poor captive long. 
Doth knock to be let forth, this heart which still, 
In its invincible manhood, overtops 
Thy puny godship as this mountain doth 
The pines that moss its roots. O even now. 
While from my peak of suflfering I look down, 

ISQ Prometheus. [AngatXr 

Beholding with a far-spread gush of hope 

The sunrise of that Beauty in whose face, 

Shone all around with love, no man shall look 

But straightway like a god he is uplift, 

Unto the throne long empty for his sake, 

And clearly oil foreshadowed in wide dreams 

By his free inward nature, which nor thou. 

Nor any anarch after thee, can bind 

From working its great doom, — now, now set free 

This essence, not to die, but to become 

Part of that awful Presence which doth haunt 

The palaces of tyrants, to scare off. 

With its grim eyes and fearful whisperings 

And hideous sense of utter loneliness, 

All hope of safety, all desire of peace. 

All but the loathed forefeeling of blank death, — 

Part of that spirit which doth ever brood 

In patient calm on the unpilfered nest 

Of man^s deep heart, till mighty thoughts grow fledged 

To sail with darkening shadow o*er the world, 

Until they swoop, and their pale quarry make 

Of some o^erbloated wrong, — ^that spirit which 

Scatters great hopes in the seed-field of man, 

Like acorns among ^rain, to grow and be 

A roof for freedom m all coming time. 

But no, this cannot be ; for ages yet, 

In solitude unbroken, shall I hear 

The angry Caspian to the Euxine shout. 

And Euxine answer with a muffled roar, 

On either side storming the giant walls 

Of Caucasus with leagues of climbing foam, 

(Less, from my height, than flakes of downy snow),. 

That draw back baffled but to hurl again. 

Snatched up in wrath and horrible turmoil. 

Mountain on mountain, as the Titans erst. 

My brethren, scaling the high seat of Jove, 

Heaved Pelion upon Ossa*s shoulders broad. 

In vain emprise. The moon will come and go 

With her monotonous vicissitude ; 

Once beautiful, when I was free to walk 

Among my fellows and to interchange 

The influence benign of loving eyes. 

But now by aged use grown wearisome ; — 

False thought ! most false ! for how could I endure-- 

These crawling centuries of lonely woe 

Unshamed by weak complaining, but for thee, 

Loneliest, save me, of all created things, 

Mild-eyed Astarte, mf best comforter. 

With thy pale smile of sad benignity ? 

Year after year will pass away and seem 
To me, in mine eternal agony, 
But as the shadows of dumb summer-clouds, 
W^hich I have watched so ofien darkening o*er 
The vast Sarmatian plain, league-wide at first, 
But, with still swiftness, lessening on and on 
Till cloud and shadow meet and mingle where 
The grey horizon fades into the sky. 
Far, far to northward. Yes, for ages yet 
Must I lie here upon my altar huge, 

1643.] Ode. 153 

A sacrifice for man. Sorrow will be, * 

As it hath been, his portion ; endless doom, 

While the immortal with the mortal linked 

I>reains of its wings and pines for what it dreams 

With upward yearn unceasing. Better so : 

Por wisdom is meek sorrow^s patient child, 

And empire over self, and all the deep 

Strong charities that make men seem like gods ; 

And love, that makes them be gods, from her breasts 

Sucks in the milk that makes mankind one blood. 

Good never comes unmixed, or so it seems. 

Having two faces, as some images 

Are carved, of foolish gods ; one face is ill, 

But one heart lies beneath, and that is good, 

As are all hearts, when we explore their depths. 

Therefore, great heart, bear up ! thou art but type 

Of what all lofty spirits endure, that fain 

Would win men back to strength and peace through love : 

Each hath his lonely peak, and on each heart 

Envy, or scorn, or hatred, tears lifelong 

With vulture beak ; yet the high soul is lefl. 

And faith, which is but hope grown wise, aiul love, 

And patience which at last sludl overcome. 



(Jidapted U the mmsie tf ths JtartiilUite JETym*.) 

A nation's birthday breaks in glory ! 

Songs from her hills and valleys rise, 
And myriad hearts thrill to the story 
Of freedom's wars and victories ; 
Wlien God's right arm alone was o'er her, 
And in her name the patriot band 
With sacred blood baptized their land, 
And England's lion crouched before her ! 
Sons of the Emerald Isle ! 

She bids you rend your chain, 
And tell the haughty ocean queen, 
Ye, too, are free-bom men ! 

Long has the world looked on in sorrow, 

As Erin's sun-burst* set in night ; 
Joy, joy ! there breaks a brighter morrow, 

Behold a beam of morning light 1 
A ray of hope her night redeeming ; 
And she greets it, though there lower 
England's scaffolds, England's Tower, 
And Uiough hireling swords are gleaming. 
Wild shouts on every breeze 

Come swelling o'er the sea. 
Hark ! 'tis her starving millions cry, 
" Give Erin Uberty !" 

* The ancient flag of Ireland. 

154 Pevmings and PencUlings, in and about Town, [August, 



WiU lUmHratioHs bp DarUg, 

No. DL 


There are men— many men — ^whose organization to compel the employing 

mental callipers grasp only a single shoemakers of the moon to give their 

idea — ^the sun of whose thought re- apprentices a half-holiday once a week, 

volves about, warms, and enliffhtens, They are sure that " Convention" must 

but one little world, that world being be something relative to Bedlam, and 

the contracted universe (for a universe that those who wish to refonn cvery- 

it is to them) of their own personal af- body else, must stand greatly in need 

fairs and individual interests. From of some such operation themselves, 

some congenital defect in their intellec-^ An election, to them, is an annual nui- 

tual optics — as spectacles for the mind sance — a periodical eruption, made'ne- 

remain to be invented, and as the con- cessary by a defective constitution, and 

cave lens has not yet been adjusted to all the meetings which go before, are, 

rectify the imperfect vision of the in their eyes, merely the premonitory 

soul — ^they live within a narrow hori- symptom that disease is reaching a 

zon, and browse, as it were, with a te- crisis. Processions and parades move 

ther, having a certain circumference of their pity, and when they think at all 

grass, without the ability to take a about the turmoil of the outer world, it 

mouthful beyond its limits. Nor, in- is only to wonder when the fools will 

deed, have they any desire for such have it " fixed " to their liking, 

epicurean adventure. They do not • Far different from these is that disin^ 

wish even to glance into any field which terested body of men and boys who 

is not peculiarly their own. The clo- lounge at the comers of the way in u 

ver which belongs to them satisfies all great metropolis — ^members of the hu- 

their wants ; and to disturb themselves man family who may be said to be al- 

at all, as to how other people make ways on hand and continually in cireu- 

hay, is a stretch of ambition to which lation. They literally are the pillars of 

they never aspire. Armies may devour the state. They prop up lamp-posts, 

each other — navies may go down and patronise fire-plugs, and encourage the 

submit their Paixhan artillery to the lindens of the street in their unpractised 

investigation of the ^mpus and other efforts to grow. The luxuriant trees, 

martial fishes — empires may rock and which adorn the front of Independence 

reel like Fourth of July revellers in the Hall, outstrip all others in umbrageous 

days when the evidence of patriotism beauty, because they, beyond all others, 

was to make the head heavier than the have been sustained by the kindness of 

heels ; but the species to which we re- loungers, and they now strive to return 

fer still open their shops with unshaken the compliment by affording a canopy 

nerves, take their breakfast with undi- to intercept the rays of the sun, and to 

minished appetite, and go about their avert the falling shower, from the be- 

business with no thought but that of loved friends who stand by them, have 

making bo^ ends meet. To bear a stood by them, and will continue to 

liand in the grand work of ameliorating stand by them, in every sort of wea- 

the condition of the human race, is a ther. 

matter, in their opinion, which qualifies In ancient Rome, whenever that re- 
one for the first vacancy in the lunatic spectable republic got itself into a diffi- 
asylum. They belong to no philan- culty with those unreasonable people 
thropic associations to regulate the who were foolish enough to wish to 
price of soap in another hemisphere, regulate their own affairs, and when 
nor have they ever entered into an the storm grew loud and threatening, 


-'■"" ''(vimii|iiniiw»"™^f- 

(; £) ii IN L ji J. a jj i-i c £ ii 5 , 

Fiu/nitAl i:^ lli.-r.'i}f/jj,irinr T 

1843.] JVa. //. — Street Comer Loungers. 155 

it was sometimes found necessary to on the street, it forms a nucleus for a 

entrust all things to the discretion of a gathering. No matter how slight the 

dictator, whose duty it w^as " to take cause may seem to the ordinary intel- 

care that the republic should receire lect, these are persons who look more 

no detriment.^' But, without the pro- deeply into things, and deriye wisdom 

Tisions of law — without the troubles from circumstances apparently too tri- 

and dangers which flowed from the Ro- vial to deserve regard. 

man practice, we are happy in the pos- But they are secret, too. The per- 

Bession of a host of such officers, unre- feet lounger, though prodigal of his 

cognized, it is true, but not the less presence, is a niggard with his words. 

efficient, whose chief employment and It is his vocation to see, and not to 

whose main delight it is, reckless of speak. His inferences are locked with- 

honor and emolument, to take care that in the recesses of his own breast. He 

nothing detrimental happens to the re- is wary and diplomatic, and not, like 

public. Their regards are always upon other mdividuals, to be sounded "from 

It, in jealous supervision. They are the lowest note to the top of his com- 

no speculative overseers, who imper- pass," by the curiosity of each passing 

fectly attend to exterior affairs, by stranger. He opposes no one in the 

lounging in slippered ease in luxurious acquisition of knowledge — he places no 

offices, disporting themselves over the stumbling-blocks in the way ; but by 

newspapers of the day. They are not his taciturnity intimates that the results 

influenced by the mere report of scouts of his labors are not to be obtained for 

or the sinister assertions of the inter- nothing. It is his motto that, if you 

ested ; but make it their daily practice wish for information, you must use the 

to hear with their own ears and to see proper means to obtain it, for you have 

with their own eyes. Nay, they push the same natural qualifications for the 

their zealous watchfulness so far, that purpose as he. 

they may often be seen in the exercise That this characteristic belongs to 

of their high functions when other mor- the street lounger — ^we have nothing to 

tals, less gifted with discrimination, can say about the mferior class who ope- 

discover nothing to excite their notice, rate solely within w^lls — is evident 

When the pavior is at work in the high- from the fact that it rarely happens, in 

way, heaving the weighty rammer the course of the most inquisitive life, 

with most emphatic groan, not a pebble that any one, on approaching a crowd, 

is driven to its place, that the genuine can ascertain by inquiry of its compo- 

loanger has not marked in every stage nent members, why it has assembled. 

of its progress. No gas-pipe is adjust- The question is either unheeded alto- 

ed without undergoing a similar scru- gether, or else a supercilious glance is 

tiny, and the sanctified spot where the turned upon the querist, with a laconic 

pig was killed or the hound was run response that the party does not know. 

over, acquires such mysterious and fas- Ostensibly, nobody knows a jot about 

cinating importance in the lounger's the matter, except the fortunate few 

estimation, that he will stand whole who form the inner circle, and, as it 

days in sombre contemplation of so were, hem in all knowledge. They 

distinguished a locality. Even the who extricate themselves early from 

base of Pompey^s statue, where great the interior pressure and walk away, 

Csesar fell, could not prove more at- either with smiling faces, as if the joke 

tractive ; and Rizzio's blood, which were good, or with a dejected 'havior 

stains the floor of Holyrood, is not of the visage, as if their sensibilities 

more dear to the antiquary than are the had been lacerated, even they " don't 

marks lefl by an overturned wagon to know !" None will tell, except per- 

the non-commissioned superintendents chance it be a luckless urchin not yet 

of the city. Indeed, they have been taught to economise his facts, or some 

ieen congregated for hours around the unsophisticated girl with a market bas- 

house from which the tenants moved on ket, who talks for talking's sake. But 

the previous night, without complying who believes that the initiated " don't 

with the vexatious ceremony of paying know" — ^that the omnipresent lounget 

the rent — a fendal exaction perpetuated " don't know 1" It is not to be belie v- 

by landlords for the perplexity of the ed. He does know, but from some as 

people. Shonld a masterless hat be yet undetermined and unappreciated 

found, or a drop of blood be discovered singularity of his nature, it is rather his 

156 Pennings and PencUHngs, in and ahaut Town. [August, 

pleasure to be looked upon as i^orant, tion, or has any taste for such active 

than to " unlace his reputation^' by employment as would seem to be ne- 

proving false to so cardinal a point in cessary for achieving such results ; and 

the practice of his kind as to bo a mere so much are tlie scientific puzzled to 

bulletin for others* uses. What he account for the fact to which we have 

knows, he knows — let that content you. reference, that a paper is said to be in 

He has employment for all he has ac- preparation for the '* Philosophical 

quired, which, to outward appearance, Transactions," having for its object to 

would be spoiled by participation ; but determine *' whether a Street Comer 

where, or how, or when, is a problem Lounger, in his distinctive and individual 

which remains to be solved. capacity, be one or many ; or whether 

Unawed by the state of the weather, the specimen be not multitudinous in 

these watchful sentinels are always an identical shape and image, so that in 

abroad, and so far are they elevated the same form and as one person, he Lb 

above the influences of prevailing ef- gifled with the capacity to be every- 

feminacy, that they indulge so little in where at once." Every nice observer 

home delights as to induce many to be- will be inclined to receive the last hy- 

lieve that they dispense altogether with pothesis as the correct impression, for 

the enervating comforts of a fixed do- he must often have had abundant reason 

micile. When their nature must needs to conclude that the lounger is really 

^' recuperate," it is supposed they " ro- thus, ^' as brosui and general as the 

tate" for repose, and that thus, by casing air" — a Monsieur Tonson who 

never couching themselves consecu- has always " come again." 
tively in the same nest, they catch There are, however, certain pecu- 

abuses napping by their sudden and liarities in this matter which are also 

unexpected appearance "so early in worthy of remark — ^little niceties in 

the morning." the case which deserve their comment. 

But, whatever may be the private As each man is supposed to have his 
habits, entomologically or omithologi- superintending star — his supervising 
cally speaking, of *' the street corner genius, which, both in weal and wo, 
lounger," he is a self-evidentproposition hovers about his footsteps or directs 
and an undeniable fact. There may his course, so each individual has his 
be doubts as to the existence of other lounging " John Jones" — ^his Buniliar 
things — all circumstantial nature may from the spirit-land of loaferdom. We 
be disputed, but he must be confessed, know him not but in his palpable form — 
Go where you will, he is there, and as we have exchanged no word of kind- 
he is there to everybody, his there ness with him — ^he has no interest in 
must be evenrwhere, paradoxical as it our affairs, nor we in his — ^there is no 
may seem. His visibility is co-exist- earthly tie existing ; but when we have 
ent with your presence, and it would once marked our coincident lounger, he 
require the pen of transcendentalism to is there for ever— our inevitable fate — 
explain the mysterious nature of his the everlasting frontispiece in the vol- 
wonderful ubiquity. We have not Ian- ume of our experiences — our perpetual 
guage to portray the phenomena de- double, in sunshine or in rain. Let the 
veloped in this respect by a civic loun- fact once be presented to your aenso- 
ffer of the superlative class ; but, in rium that you rarely go to any place 
homely phrase, if we may so express it, without seeing " that man," and vour 
like a speck upon the eye itself, look doom is sealed. You never will go 
where you will, he stands full blown anywhere without seeing hm, either 
before you. He is rarely seen in mo- there or on your way there, from that 
tion — never in transitu ; but he is at time forth ; and when you do not see 
your elbow when you depart, and when him, be assured that there is abundant 
you have reached your end, the lounger reason to doubt whether you are really 
IS at the place in anticipation, leisurely yourself, and whether, notwithstanding 
drumming with his heels upon a post, appearances, you are not mistaken in 
and bearing no traces of a forced march, the person — so that in shaving your ap- 
By what magic process this is aceom- parent countenance, you may have 
plished, no one can tell. There is no shaved an impostor, and in drinking 
proof that he travels. There is no your wine, you may have been pouring 
physical sign in his appearance to in- refreshment down the throat of a roffue. 
dace a belief that he excels in locomo- When a man is without his Bhadow, 

1843.] JVb. //. — Street Comer Loungers, 157 

whftt assurance is there that himself he is instinctive — ^yet no harm appears 
is he ? But when one's reflex is pre- ever to have arisen from this species of 
sentfhemay, in some cases, be satisfied Chang and Eng-ship — from this dis- 
that money put in his own pocket is not junctive Siamese-twinnery, if we may 
entrusted to the care of a peculator, so venture upon a terminological ex-^ 
And in this way it is that wisdom de- periment and coin a phrase to distin- 
rires comfort ^m the phenomenon guish an unnamed idea. The inevita- 
that we have attempted to explain. ble may be sad in his expression, but 

Is the citizen martially inclined, and he shows no sign of being mischievous 
does he attend volunteer parades, to in his soul, nor is his observation sar- 
gratify the heroic longings of his soul castic in its conclusions. He is a stu- 
by having his toes macerated by iron dent of humanity ever at his book, but 
heels, his ribs compressed by ruffian rather touched with melancholy at the 
elbows, or his abdominal capacity asto- lesson thus derived, than made misan- 
nished by the musket-butt of the author- thropic by a knowledge of our weak- 
itative sentinel who knocks the breath nesses and follies. Exulting beauty 
out of your body while politely ex- passes by him, and at the " rustling of 
claiming ^ stand back, gentlemen— a silks and the creaking of shoes,'* which 
little further, if you please !*' There have betrayed so many hearts, he sighs 
is his attendant lounger, in the best of to think that a bad cold or a misdirected 
possible places, and safely beyond the bucket would soon reduce that joyous- 
leach of the mob-repressing guard. ness to the most pitiable plight. He 

Is the foiled pickpocket borne tri- looks plaintively at the unheeding dog, 
umphantly to office of Recorder, Alder- who, ignorant of laws, and vnth muzzle 
iBSD, or Mayor — ^look ye now, and see. at home, sports onward to the fell 
Within the rail of official function, close clutches of the sordid Sambo, to whom 
to magisterial dignity, there stands canine slaughter is a trade and profit, 
your ghost, your " bodach glas,*' not and he draws analogies between pup- 
aotecedent or consequent, but instant, pyhood and youthful prime, revelling 
No need to wish, or call, or wonder at in wild delights and unwarned of 
his absence. You are here, and he is " ketchers" till they are caught. The 
there — cause and effect, linked toge- lounger is a lonely moralist, who has 
ther by hooks of steel. 'Tis your alter too much general sympathy to isolate 
ego—yoar t'other eye, affection by contracting his sphere of 

Do you attend the burial of a friend, usefulness — ^too disinterested to narrow 
and walk in gloom and silent sorrow ? himself down to a pursuit of selfish ag- 
Bash aside your tears and behold, lean- grandizement — too full of heart to be 
ing against that funeral tree which cooped within the ribs of a trade, and 
overa^Mlowsthe sad procession, an evi- too anxious about the general welfare 
dence is apparent that even in grief ever to give rest to his anxious eye. 
your unknown coadjutor is true to his He is the general guardian, the foster- 
Tocatioa. You will never be desert- mother of us all — and perhaps it is our 
ed — ^never ! vanity alone that regards him as being 

Are you essentially humane and exclusive in his attentions, just as child- 
take delight in seeing murder choked hood thinks that a portrait watches all 
and homicide made breathless, that the its movements, or as the moon seems 
world may become tender-hearted and marching above our heads, wherever 
averse to horrors by familiarity with we go. 

Ketch's delectable countenance 1 **That Such as we have described is Nicho- 
man" is helping to support the rectan- las NoUikins — he with the breastpin — 
gular superstructure which reforms he who watches so intently the shav- 
nien by the speedy dislocation of their ing evolved and elaborated from its 
vertebral column, and improves the age parent stick by the keen edge of his 
by disjointing necks. He and Ketch whittle. Though Nollikins appears to 
seem to be sworn brothers. be cutting, and it is reasonable to sup- 

But fear not. Though this circum- pose that he is cutting, yet Nollikins 
stance of yours be something that can- is also thinking. In fact, he is a sage 
not be avoided either by secresy res- — ^not such as they stuff ducks withal, 
pecting your movements, for he is an or liquidate into medicinal tea — ^but that 
intuition — ^by rapidity of travel, for he is sort of sage which has sagacity for its 
ubk]iiiio«ift--or by cuiming evasion, for result, better far than ducks or teas. 

158 Pennings and FenciUings, in and about Town, [August, 

NoUikins, however, labors under a feet and hands, there cannot be a doubt 

difficulty. He is reflective and ob- but that it would complete its measure 

servant, but not practical. He never of complaisance by walking up the 

comes to the application, for that word street and ringing at the bell, w^ith a 

is particularly what he dislikes, and civil inquiry for the cook and the grid- 

hence the deep river of his probable iron. It would come about half an hour 

usefulness has its perfect navigation before breakfast, and never defer its 

interrupted by a dam in the channel, call till after tea. Commend us to the 

His ships never come to port. Nolli- shad, as the best-mannered fish that 

kins has in his time tried many trades, swims. Many men might go to school 

but none of them agreed with him, to the shad ; and, indeed, if our pisca- 

except the pursuit of being midshipman tory learning be not at fault, the shad oyster-boat, and there were points do assemble in schools, to which cause 

even in this profession which were re- possibly may be attributed the excel- 

pugnant to his finer emotions. '* Rak- ience of their training. Always bow 

ing*' on dry land is not perhaps so with deference to a shad — it has trav- 

disagreeable ; but let those who think elled far to enjoy the pleasure of your 

that words are identical and synonym- acquaintance. The oyster, however, 

ous, and represent the same thing at is churlish — ^it makes no free visitation, 

sea and ashore, try raking for oysters, and upon this fact hinges the fate of 

as Nicholas NoUikins did for a whole Nicholas NolUkins. He could not 

Beason, and they will ever afVer have abide the painful contrast which was 

a correct appreciation of differences, brought home to his sensibilities, by 

When the boat returned to the wharf, the change from the wharf to the cove 

Nicholas was at home. His taste for — ^from society to solitude — from the 

society could now be gratified. The delicate play of the iron-handled knife 

delicate aspirations of his nature found (so favorable to the exhibition of grace 

food in the distribution of oysters, and and skill), to the heavy drag of rakes 

his imagination had room to expand as and tongs in the oyster bed ; and he 

he opened the bivalves. What a de- therefore concluded to resi^ his regu- 

lightfol compound of business and lar conmiission, and to obtam his living 

pleasure is that phase of the oyster for the future by dabbling only in the 

trade which sells wholesale, but yet fancy branches of human employment, 

does not scorn the niceties of retail to When the boats come up, he nas no 

the hungry wanderer ! Benevolence objection to taking a place, for the time 

and information are here combined — to being, as salesman to the concern ; and 

talk and to eat — to question and to in this way, working only when urgent 

impart nourishment — to benefit both necessity compels, and consnming the 

the physique and the morale at the rest of the time in the ornamentals of 

same time — ^who would not be midship- life, such as leaning against a post and 

man of an oyster-boat ? — ^who could not speculating on the chances and changes 

live whole days at the wharf under of terrestrial aflfairs, our worthy Nieno- 

such circumstances t Nollikins could las contrives to bite the sunny side 

—-NoUikins did — ^thrice happy NoUi- from the peach, leaving the green core 

kins ! for those who are mean enough to be 

But the genial sky always has content with it. 

clouds in it — a spring morning, be it as Nicholas has a home, npon a deq)e- 

balmy as it may, is generally followed rate emergency, but he does not trouble 
by a cloudy afternoon. When oysters < it often with his presence, for reasons 

are sold and eaten, it is a necessity which he regards as perfectly adequate 

arising from the unfortunate state of to excuse any delinquency in this 

things in this sublunary sphere, that respect which calumnious tongaes may 

you must go after additional oysters — think proper to lay to his charge, 

that is, if you want more ; for oysters, '* As for goin' home, Billy Bunkers,^ 

unlike the accommodating shad, have said he one day in confidence to the 

not yet learned to come up the river of long lad with the short roundabout, who 

themselves, that they maybe caught leans upon the opposite side of the 

at the very door. Few things in the lamp-post ; " as for goin' home, Billy, 

eating way have that innate politeness savin* and exceptin^ when yon canH 

80 remarkable in the character of a help it, why it^s perfectly redicklis. 

■bad. Had the shad been blessed with If people*8 opinyins could be made to 

1843.] No. IL-— Street Comer Loungers. 159 

agree, tbat would be one thing, and ders are about yet, though they are 

you might go^ home. But as these snapped up so fast. Rich widders, 

opinyins don't agree, why that^s another Billy, are * special providences,' as my 

thing, and it^s best to clear out and old boss used to say when he broke his 

keep out, jist as long as you kin. nose in the entry, sent here like rafts 

WTiat's your sitivation when you do go to pick up deservin' chaps when they 

homel There's the old man, and can't swim no longer. When you've 

there's the old voman, and the rest of bin down twy'st, Billy, and are jist off 

them, hurtin' your feelins as bad as if agin, then comes the widder a floatin' 

they was killin' kittens with a brick- along. Why, splatterdocks is nothin' 

bat As soon as you're inside of the to it, and a widder is the best of all 

door, they sing out like good fellers, life-preservers when a man is most a 

' £h, waggybone I Ho ! ho ! lazyboots! case, like you and me.*' 
— bellow, loafer ! — ain't you most dead " Well, I'm not perticklar, not I, nor 

a workin* so hard 1 — t'aint good for never was. I'll take a widder, for my 

your wholesome to be so all-fired in- part, if she's got the mint-drops, and 

dustrious !' That's the way they keep never ask no questions. I'm not proud 

a goin* on, aggravatin' you for ever- — never was harrystocratic — I drinks 

lastin'. They don't understand my with anybody, and smokes all the cigars 

complaint — ^they can't understand a they give me. What's the use of ^in* 

man that*8 lookin' up to better things, stuck up, stiffy ? It's my principle 

I tell you, Billy," exclaimed Nicholas, that other folks are nearly as good as 

with tears in his eyes, " when a feller's me, if they're not constables nor alder- 

any sort of a feller, like you and men. I can't stand them sort." 
me—" " No, Billy," said NoUikins, with an 

" Yes," replied Billy, complacently ; encouraging smile, " no, Billy ; such 

^ we're the fellers — ^it takes us." indiwidooals as them don't know human 

" When a feller's any sort of a feller, natur' — ^but, as I was goin' to say, if 

to be ketched at home is little better there happens to be a short crop of 

than bein' a mouse in a wire-trap, widders, why can't somebody leave us 

They poke sticks in your eye, squirt a fortin t — ^1 hat will do as well, if not 

cold water on your nose, and show you better. Now look here — ^what's easier 

to the cat. Common people, Billy — than this 1 I'm standin' on the wharf-^ 

low, ornery, common people, can't the rich man tries to go aboard of the 

make it out when natur's raised a steamboat — ^the niggers push him off 

gentleman in the family — a gentleman the plank — ^in I goes, ca-splash ! The 

all complete, only the money's been old gentleman isnH drownded, but he 

forgoL If a man won't work all the miffht have been drownded but for me, 

time — day in and day out — if he smokes and if he had a bin, where's the use of 

by the fire or whistles out of the winder, his money then \ So he gives me as 

the very gals bump agin him, and say, much as I want now, and a great deal 

*Get out of the. wajr, loaf!' Now more when he defuncts riggler, accord- 

what I say is this — if people hasn't in' to law and the practice of civilized 

had genteel fotchin' up, you can no nations. You see — that's the way the 

more expect 'em to behave as if they thing works. I'm at the wharf every 

had been fotch up genteel, than you day — can't afford to lose the chance, 

kin make good segars out of a broom- and I begin to wish the old chap would 

handle." hurra about comin' along. What can 

'' That are a fact !" ejaculated Billy keep him 1" 
Bunkers, with emphasis, for Billy has " If it 'ud come to the same thing in 

expierienced, in his time, treatment at the end," remarked Billy Bunkers, 

home somewhat similar to that com- " I'd rather the niggers would push the 

plained of by Nicholas NoUikins. old man's little boy into the water, if 

*' But, Billy, my son, never mind, it's all the same to him. Them fat old 

and keep not a lettin' on," continued fellers are so heavy when they're 

NoUikins, and a beam of hope irradiated skeered, and hang on so, why I might 

his otherwise satomine countenance ; get drownded before I had time to go 

** the world's a railroad, and the cars is to bank with the check ! But what's 

comin'— sil well have to do is to jump the use of waitin' t Couldn't we shove 

in, chalked free. There will be a time 'em in some warm afternoon ourselves I 

--flomething miui happen. Rich wid« Who'd know in the crowd !" 

160 Now and Then. — A Dialogue. [August, 

" I Ve thought of that, Bunkers, when now ! — and my dog will bite their cat — 

a man was before me that looked like who's ginger-pop and jam spniee-beer 

the right sort. IVe often said to my- at this present writin', Vd like to 

self, ' My friend, how would you like know ?" 

to be washed for nothin' 1 — but, Billy, And, in a transport of enthusiasm, 

there might be mistakes — ^perhaps NoUikins knocked the hat of Billy 

when you got him out, he couldn't pay ! Bunkers, a shallow, dish-like castor. 

What then 1" clear across the street. 

" Why, keep a puttin' new ones in Thus, wrapped in present dreams 

to soak e^ery day, till you do fish up and future anticipations — a king that 

the right one." is to be — ^lives Nicholas Nollikins— the 

" It won't do, my friend — ^they'd erand exemplar of the Street Comer 

smoke the joke — all the riff'-rafi' in town Lounger. There he stations himself, 

would be pushin' old gentlemen into for hope requires a boundless prospect 

the river, and the eldeny folks would and a clear look-out, that by whatever 

have to eiye up travellin' by the steam- route fortune chooses to approach, she 

boat. We must wait, I'm afraid, till may have a prompt reception. Nicholas 

the real thing happens. The right and his tribe exist but for to-morrow, 

person will be sure to come along." and rely firmly upon that poetic justice 

^^ I hope so ; and so it happens quick, which should reward those who wait 

I don't much care whether it's the old patiently until the wheel of fortune 

man, or his little boy, or that rich wid- turns up a prize. They feel, by the 

der, that gets a ducking. Pm not generous expansion of their souls, by 

proud." Uieir impatience of ignoble toil, by their 

^* And when it does happen," ex- aspirations after the beautiful and nice, 

claimed NoQikins, swelling with tri- that their present position in society is 

umphant anticipation, '* who but me, the result of accident and inadyertency, 

with more beard than a nannygoat, and and that if they are not false to the 

a mile of gold chain, goin' up Chestnut nature that is within them, the time 

street? Who but NoUikins with his will come when the mistake will be 

big dog t" rectified, and ^* they shall walk in silk 

*' Yes, and Billy Bunkers, with two attire, and siller have to spare," which 

big dogs, a chasin' the pigs into the is not by any means the case at present, 

chan^ shops !" All that can be expected iust now, is, 

^' Then you'll see me come the non- that they should spare other people^s 

sense over the old folks — ^who's loafer "siller.'* 


A niALoavK. 
wairrsN umbkk a, FicTuac EuaBsiKTuio thx last man bvkq ixKAsiAcsuism roa mjono. 


Now, Merciful Heayen ! unmerciful men ! 
What is it I see hanging there, brother Then % 
(Abruptly exclaiming, young Now thus began). 

Then, That, brother NowV— (/wtn/j to the Gallows) — ^why, that is 
a man. 
B ut wherefore thns suddenly stricken with grief ! 
'Tis true it's a man, but the man was a thief; 
The scoundrel purloined a huge round of prime beef. 
Indeed, he confessed it, and foolishly said, 
That his wife and his children were crying for bread. 

Now. Ciyittg for bread ! Did the man want food ? 
Was it guilty to take for his famishing brood ? 
Oh, dear brother Then, was it thus in your time t 
Was poverty, brother, the poor wretches crime I 
And pray, my good Then, do answer me, whether 
The wife and tne children were hung up together \ 

Then, Ho ! ho \ brother Now, but your question is rich ; 
Yourself, in my time, would have swung for a witch. 
The man, my dear Now, with the beef in his maw, 
Was hung to fulfil a nice point of the law ; 
His wife more respectably died in her bed, 
Heart-broken or starved, and his children were fed 
At the poor-house awhile, and doubtless you^ll learn 
That they, for some crime, have been hung in their tnm. 
Mankind, you will find, are so strangely perverse, 
That in spite of the Gallows they grow worse and worse, 

New. Poor man ! So they hung him up there for a show. 
Like a sign-board to swing in the wind to and fro. 
See his rags, how they flutter and flaunt on the air ; 
Like moss from a tree hangs his dark matted hair ; 
His children look up to their father and cry, 
And wonder why he above others should fly ; 
But wonder still more at his danffling up there 
Without wings, unlike all other rowb of the air. 
See, the crows gather round with their ominous caw, 
Like professional lilk that exult in the law ; 
There's the soul of a Jeffries, or Campbell, no doubt 
In a suit of black feathers careering about. 
Or black-coated parasites (Heralds of Peace !) 
Who took charge of a fold for the sake of a fleece ; 
StiU thirsty for blood, though at large in the sky, 
Wherever there's crime and a carcase they fly. 

Then. Ho ! ho ! my young master, your manners are rude ; 
All your reasons are false, all your doctrines are crude ; 
I can prove to you clear as the breath that you draw, 
That hanging is right by Levitical law. 

Note, Well, dear brother Then, I've no time to dispute, 
And I might not your long-winded speeches refute .A 
This world I am heir to I find such a state in, ^ 
That really I haven't much leisure for prating. 
But leave not, I beg you, that death-bearing, tree, 
With its horrible fruit, as a keepsake for me. 
^ You will leave me enow for the Devil's applause. 
In your prisons, and fetters, and barbarous laws. 

I stand on the spot that once bounded your view, 
And beyond see a horizon hidden from you. 
Though a mist seems to rise in the distant profound, 
It is fringed with a halo, reflecting a bound 
Unbedimmed by a cloud, which the Future shall see, 
When he stands on this spot now a boundary to me. 

yOfL. MX. — HO. LXII. H 

CarHUmc the JewdUr. [August,. 




-'* Come, Heeling night, 

Skarf lip the tnder tye of piilfu) diiy ; 

And wiih iby bloody and Invisible hand, 

Cancel, and tear to pieces, that great bond 

Which keeps me pale.'* Macbktr. 

'** Nay, gentle lady. 

The prime of Florence wait upon thy ftmlles. 

Like Mnflowers on the golden light they love : 

Thy llpn have aueh sweet melody, Uis hung upon 

TUi silence is en aflony. Did it plead 

For one condemned, but O, most innocent ! 

Twoald be a music th' air would fkll in love wlUi, 

And never let it die, till It had won 

lu honest purpose.** Fazio. 


In the Rue St. Honore, Paris, stood a voice entreating admission in the most 
small house, occupied by the Lady urgent manner. 
Magdalene de Scuderi, the favored '* Thi^ip not the manner of robbers," 
friend of Louis XIV. and of Madame thought luartiniere. " AVho knows but 
de Maintenon, and famed moreover for some unfortunate person, in peril of his 
her romances and her charming verses, life, has come to seek refuge here, 
which were the admiration of the knowing my mistress to be always 
French court. ready to aid the distressed 1" There- 
It was near midnight, in the autumn with she threw open the window, and 
of the year 1680, when a knocking was demanded who made such a noise at 
beard at the door of this house, so loud the door, at this late hour. She tried 
that the lower hall resounded. Pierre, to disguise her voice, and assume the 
the only male servant in the lady^s deep tones of a man. 
little household, was gone from Paris, By the faint light of the moon, 
with her permission, to be present at through d rifling clouds, the maid dis- 
the marriage of his sister ; and it so cemed a tall figure, wrapped in a dark 
happened Uiat Martiniere, the maid, mantle, with a broad-brimmed hat pull- 
was this night jto sole companion of ed down closel;^ over the face. She 
her mistress, one was none of the called aloud, as if to persons within the 
most courageous, and sat trembling in house, " Baptiste ! Claude ! Pierre P* 
her chamber, listening to the repeated to frighten the stranger if he had nefa* 
knocks, and thinking over all the tales > rious designs ; but the stranger replied 
of thieves and murderers her busy me- in a gentle though melancholy trae ; 
mory could supply. But the clamor "Ah, Martimere, is that youl I 
at the door redoubled, and she could know your voice well, however you 
even distinguish a voice, whether in strive to disguise it. I know, too, that 
menace or supplication she could not Pierre is not at home, and that you are 
tell. Fearful that her mistress might alone with your mistress. You have 
be awakened, the maid snatched up the nothing to fear from me, be assured, 
light, and ran to a window that over- But I must speak, and this momenty 
looked the entrance to the house, with your lady." 
From there she distinctly heard a '* You are mistaken,^* cried the maidr 

* The story is much condensed from the original^ but without injury to the intereft 
of jUtt narrative. 

1S43.] dardtOae the Jeweller. 168 

"if yoa imaipiie ray lady will speak your humility without, which won my 

with you at this hoot of the night, too ready sympathy. You shall not 

She is sleeping ; and on no account now speak with her ladyship. If yoa 

would I rouse her from the repose so mean no ill, as you pretend, you can 

necessary at her time of life." come to-morrow ; now you must de- 

"I am aware," replied the person part." 

helowj " that your mistress, not long The man sighed deeply, but looked 

since, laid aside the manuscript of her fiercely at Martiniere, and grasped the 

new romance, to complete some verses handle of his weapon. She stood firm, 

which she is to-morrow to read to the returned his glance boldly, and pressed 

Marquise de Maintenon. I conjure more closely against the door. 

yw, Martiniere, to have mercy upon^ *' Let me pass !" cried the stranger, 

me, and open the door. Your doing '* I will not stir from this place,** 

BO may save a wretch from destruction, answered the devoted maid, " do what 

The honor, Uberty, nay, the life of a you will. You can murder me ; but 

human being hangs on the interview I your crime will, sooner or later, be 

DQst have Uiis instant with your mis- expiated on the scaffold, where many 

t[^». Consider, you will yourself of your companions in guilt luve bled 

incur her displeasure, when she learns already." 

^ you drove from her door an un- " You take me for a robber,*' return- 
hapfty being who sought her aid." ed the youth, with flasMng eyes and a 
^ Come to-morrow morning," said scornful smile—** and sooth I look like 
the maid. one at this moment ; but my companions 
Her voice betrayed her hesitation, in guilt, I would have you know, are 
The stranger answered quickly and not yet judged !" — and laughing wildly, 
bitterly: he drew his dagger. Martiniere pre- 
" Does fate or the blasting l^htninff pared to receive the death-stroke, when 
vait for convenient hours t ^ave I the clatter of horses* feet and the clash 
oot told you, that salvation hangs on of weapons was heard in the street. 
thii moment I Can you refuse me ** The guard ! help, help !** cried she. 
kelp ? Open the door ; you have no- But her mouth was stopped by the 
thiflg to fear from a miserable wretch hand of the intruder. " Woman, yoa 
lihe me ; I come only to implore succor, would destroy me !*' he exclaimed in a 
^t I may be save^from impending low, hoarse tone. " It is all over ; take 
rain!" w this — ^take it— give it to your mistress 
Martuiiere observed that these words to-night, to-morrow, when you will.*' 
^ere uttered in a tone of the deepest And he pressed a small casket into her 
^lifuish, and interrupted by sobs ; and hands, again enjoined it on her to let no 
that the voice was a youthful one. one open it but her mirtress, and snatch- 
Her heart melted ; and without further ing the light from her, extinguished it 
^liberation, she descended the stairs and hastened out of the house. Mar- 
^ opened the door. tiniere, confused and twrified, with dif- 
No sooner was the door open, than ficulty groped her way back to her 
the stranger rushed in. The li^ht held chamber, where she sank half fainting 
^Martiniere fell full upon his face, on the bed. Not many minutes had 
which was that of a young man, pale elapsed, when she heard the hall door 
^ death, and bearing tlra marks of open, and light, stealthy steps ascend 
TioJeot emotioa. the stairs and approach her apartment, 
^ Lead me to vour mistress !*' he She expected nothing less than the re- 
exclaimed, so wildly that the maid was turn of the fearful visiter, and it was 
"cady to swoon with fright. His no small comfort to her to see, by the 
nautle had fallen back, and she saw light of a lantern, the face of Pierre. 
^ gleam of a dagger in his belt. It was he who had returned earlier than 
fi>stUy ascending the stairs, up wfa^h he anticipated from his excursion. He 
^ followed her, ehe closed the <^|>r had encountered in the street the patrol, 
^ the ante-rooai to the chamber^of and had been arrested, whence the cla- 
Mademoisdle Scuderi, and placed her- mor that had reached the ears of Mar- 
Klf firmly against it. tiniere. ^'I was well known to Des- 
"* Your behavior vrithin the house,** grais, the marshal,*' said Pierre, " and 
^ «ud resolately, though in a trem- ne ordered my release as soon as he 
ttog voice, *^ does not at ^ agree with broii^ his lantern to my face. I shaH 

104 CardiUac the JeweUer. [AngoBt, 


take care how I un caught out so late in a diegraeefiil intrlgne, became his 

again. But just as I came up the stepe pupil in these fearful mysteries, and in 

a nuui, wrapped in a mantle, with a daring wickedness soon went eyen be- 

drawn dagger in his hand, rushed past yond him. SeTeral members of her 

me and escaped. I found the door un- own family were the first victims of 

locked. What does this mean V poison, and it seemed as if the thirst 

Martiniere related what had happen* for bbod increased with its gratifica- 

ed, and showed the casket. Pierre tion. The audden death of many poor 

agreed with her in deciding that the persons in the Hotel Dieu awakened at 

intruder had some eril intent. **' A length the sui^icion that the food sent 

watchful ProTidence," said he, " has them weekly by the Marquise was poi> 

this night sayed our gracious lady from soned ; and some guests of hers died 

robbery — ^perhaps from murder. My after having banqueted at her house, 

counsel about the casket, Martiniere, is Saint Croix remained unsuspected for 

that you throw it into the Seine. Who some time, but Heaven had prepared a 

knows that it is not filled with poison, just retribution for him. The poison 

intended to kill her ladyship when she he distilled was so subtle that tiie 

opens it> as did the letter, written in an smallest quantity of the fine powder 

unknown hand, the Marquis de Tour- (pcudre de successum it was called) 

Bay 1" After h>ng deliberation, the two inhaled into the nostrils was sufficient 

faithful domestics resol?edinthemom- to cause instant death. He wore, for 

ing to inform their mistress of all that his own security, a glass mask while at 

liad passed, and to express to her their his work. One day, as he was pouring 

suspicions in regard to the mjrdterious the powder just prepared into a phial, 

oasKet, so that she should not open it the mask fell and was shivered into 

wiUiout warning. fragments. At the same moment Saint 

Their apprehensions were not with- Croix sank lifeless to the ground, the 

out sufficient grounds. Paris had been victim *bf his own diabolic^ art. As 

Sbi some time the scene of unparalleled he left no heirs, government took pos- 

atrocities, the progress of which had session of his effects, and placed titem 

been arrested only by the most severe all under seal. In his laboratory were 

proceedings on the part of the authori- found all the implements and materials 

ties. used in preparing poisons, and also let- 

Glaser, a German chemist, had been ters from the ft^quise de Brinvillier, 
much celebrated for his success in the which left no dffbt of her guilt. She 
pursuit of natural science, and was fled to Liege, and sought shelter in a 
thought by the people to excel in the cloister. Desgrais, an officer of the 
mysteries of alcnemy . He was assist- connetablie, was sent after her. Dia- 
ed by an Italian named Exili, who dis- guised as a priest, he entered (He clois- 
played great desire to acquire a tho- ter, and succeeded in persuading the 
rough knowledge of his art. But the wicked woman, with whom he pretend- 
assistant was not so eager in his re- ed to be in love, to grant him a private 
searches after the philosopher's stone, interview in a garden without the Con- 
or the universal elixir, as in the manu- fines of the sacred walls. There his 
facture of subtle poisons. He succeed- men seized upon her ; she was placed 
ed in distilling several, and at last, can- in a carriage and borne to Paris. Soom 
tiouiriy as his labors were cai-ried on, after, she was beheaded, with one of her 
became an object of suspicion, and was accomplices ; her body was reduced to 
sent to the Bastille. In the same apart- ashes, and the ashes scattered to the 
ment was confined the Captain Godin four winds. 

de Saint Croix. This man, of violent Paris had not a long breathing-space, 

passions without principle, vindictive, ere it seemed evident that the spectre 

ambitious and reckless, was a fit pupil was abroad again, and more destructive 

of the Italian chemist ; and to him he il^n ever. Many were the victims ; 

disclosed the secrets which were to s^ce a dwelling was thought sale 

give him power over the lives of his mm the secret destroyer. The public 

eneftiies. Released ere long from the alarm rose to a pitch of frenzy. But 

Bastille, he began to pot his terrible the murderers baffled all the eflbrts of 

art into mractiee. the police to discover and punish them. 

The Marqnise de Brinvillier, with To put an end to this frigbtftil state of 

whom Saint Croix had been connected thiiiga, the King institnted a new conurt 

1643.] CsrdUlac the JwMer. 166 

of joaUoe, and invealed it with powere While the scailbld ftreamed with the 

for the exclosive purpose of inquiring blood of legal yictims, the crime of 

into, detecting, and punishing these se- poisoning or poison-vending became 

cret crimes. This court was called the less and less frequent. But there arose 

Chambre ArdefUe. La Regnie was its another dark and secret destroyer, 

presideat, and the sittings were held which threatened to become as formi- 

Qot hi from the Bastille. dable. A band of robbers appeared to 

With sooh a president, and with the have been organized, with the object of 

ciiuung Besgrais for an officer, the obtaining possession of all valuable 

most vigorous measures adopted for the jewels. Precious stones disappeared, 

detection of criminals were shortly sue* though carefully locked up, in the most 

eessfol. In the Faubourg St. Germain inscrutable manner. Many persons who 

lived an old woman named La Voisine, wore jewels about Uieir persons vtrere 

& fortone-teUer and conjurer by profes- assaulted at night in the streets, struck 

aioD, who had, with the assistance of down, and robbed — in some cases mur* 

lier companions, Le Sage and Le Vi- dered. Several, whose lives were spar- 

goaieux, obtained a sway over the ed, deposed that they had been knocked 

Binds o{ the superstitious populace, down with a sudden blow on the head. 

She was found to be Exili's pupil, and and on recovering sense found them- 

to have been in the habit of preparing selves in anoUier place than that where 

poisons, which she sold at high prices they had fallen. The murdered victims 

to those who came to poxchase. Des- had all the same wound, a dagger- 

giais discovered her practices ; she thrust through the heart, which proba- 

made a free confession, and was con- bly had produced instant death. These 

demned by the Chambre Ardente to be murders became terribly frequent. 

bvDed at the stake. In her house was About the luxurious court of Louie 

finisd a Ust of the persons who had XIV., what young cavalier was there 

availed themselves of her assistance ; who had not a fair one to propitiate, or 

and io consequence of this, it not only a mistress to visit, to whom he wished to 

luppeaed thaU execution after execution carry some acceptable ornament 1 Some> 

^ place, but sosipicion rested on per- times the treasure was rifled from him 

noa of high dignity. Cardinal Bonzy on his way to the person for whom it 

vaa thought, through means of La was inteiMcd ; once the corpse of the 

Voiaine, to lutve shortened the lives of lover was found at the door of his be- 

ttveral persons to whom, as Archbishop loved. 

of Narbonne, he was obliged to pay In vain Argenson, the minister of the 

peoaions. The Countess of Soissons, police, did his utmost — in vain La Reg- 

^ Duchess de Bouillon, and even nie was enraged, and sought to compel 

Heari de Montmcrenci, whose names confessions from prisoners in his pow- 

vere found on this list, were also ac- er — ^in vain new guards and patrols 

eaaed ; but the fiuih of the hitter con- were appointed — ^no trace of the rob- 

sMed only in his having applied to the hers was discovered. It was also not 

old woman to write his horoscope. a little remarkable that nothing could 

Certain it is, that the blind zeal of be found of the jewels taken, though 

I^Rsident La Regnie led to the com- strict search was instituted in all places 

BUttion of many cruelties. The tribu- where they were likely to be offered f<MP 

ttl took the character of the Inquisition ; sale or barter. As if still more to baffle 

^ slightest suspicion was sufficient to suspicion, it was observed that the 

vutaat severe imprisonment ; and in quarter of the city where crime had 

oany eases, after execution, accident been most frequent, and where Desgrais 

^noght to Rght the innocence of the was stationed, was exempt from disturb- 

nfierers. The person and demeanor ance : while in that where all had been 

^ Li Regnie were forbidding in the unmolested hitherto, the robbers found 

extreme ; and these, with his character their richest spoils. Desgrais resorted 

£k severity, soon procured him the to the expedient of choosmg officers to 

^siJUke even of the people whose aven- occupy his place, as like him in person- 

gf and protector he declared himself, al appearance as possible, and called 

The Duchees de Bouillon, when asked by his much-dreaded name, and send- 

^ him on trial if she had ever seen the ing them to the principal streets, while 

Kvil, answered, '* raethinks I have he himself, at the risk oi his life, lurked 

ba now beiinre my eyes !** in eomers and by-ways alone, and fol- 

166 CariHiac the JeweUer* [Atxgust, 

lowed at a distance any passer-by who around roe the men who had pnrsned 
happened to be well dressed or to wear the robber ; amonff them the Marquis 
jewels. But even this stratagem was de la Fare, his drawn sword in his 
unsuccessful. hand. We lighted torches — ^we exam- 
One morning Desgrais came to La ined the wall— ^ot a trace of window, 
Regnie pale and agitated. '^ You have door, or opening was to be found. It 
news !" cried the President eagerly-^ is a high, well-built, stone wall, and 
" you have found trace of them V* encloses on one side a house where an 
" Last night," answered the breathless old couple live, to whom not the slight- 
official, " not far from the Louvre, the est suspicion can possibly attach. I 
Marquis de la Fare was struck down in have been over the premises again this 
my presence." The president started morning, and my opinion is that the 
up with joy — ^^ We have them !'* ex« person who has baffled us is the devil 
claimed he. " Hear me out first," said himself!" 

Desgrais with a bitter smile. '^ I was The story of Desgrais was soon 
walking near the Louvre ; a figure passed known over raiis, and the superstitious 
without seeing me, walking with un- alarm of the people easily induced them 
steady steps, and glancing round every to believe that the words he had utter- 
moment. By the light of the lamp I ed in bitter jest were actually true. 
Tecognized the Marquis de la Fare, and The heads of the populace were full of 

Siessed in what direction he was going, magic and diablerie, and it may well 
e was about a dozen paces in advance be conceived that all the details of the 
of me, when a figure sprang as it were story were exaggerated into the mar- 
out of the earth and fell upon him. In vellous. A pamphlet, containing an 
my first surprise, eager only to secure account of the demon apparition, his 
the assailant, I cried out and rushed to rising out of the earth, and his disap* 
lay hold upon him. My feet were en- pearance in the same manner before 
tangled in my mantle, and I fell down, the eyes of the afirighted Desgrais, 
Springing to my feet the next instant, was published, embelUshed with wood 
I saw the robber flying as on the wings cuts, and had an immense sale — strik- 
of the wind. I pursued — I blew my ing terror to the hearts of those who 
horn — ^I was answered by the whistle of read it, and even intimidating the guard, 
the guard — and presently the street whose business it was to protect the 
was alive with men and horses. '^ This city. Several of the gens-d^armes pro- 
way, this way, for Desgrais !" I shout- vided themselves -with amulets dipped 
ed, and ran on, never losing sight of in holy water. 

the pursued, though he dodged and Much concerned at this state of 
made several turns to escape me. I things, Argenson went to the King and 
followed him into the street Nicaise ; petitioned for the appointment of a 
his strength appeared to fail him — ^I re- new court, invested with powers even 
doubled my exertions — ^he had not more larger than Uie Charnbre Ardeniey for 
than fifteen paces the start of me — " the detection and punishment of the 
"You seized him — you held him offenders. Louis was already convinc- 
fiist — ^the guard came to your help V ed that the Charnbre Ardente had ex- 
cried La Kegnie, seizing the arm of ercised too many cruelties ; and, dis- 
Desgrais, as if A« had been the robber, trustful as he was of the discretion of 
" Fifteen paces before me," continu- the over-zealous La Regnie, rejected 
ed the officer. " The man sprang from the petition. 

before me into the deep shadow of the Another method was resorted to, to 
wall, and vanished." induce him to reconsider the matter. 
" Vanished — through the wall ?" The Ring usually spent his afternoons 
" Exactly so." in the apartments of Madame de Main- 
" You are raving !" exclaimed La tenob, where his ministers often met 
Regnie as he stepped backward, and him and remained till late in the even- 
struck his hands together with a ges- ing. One day, while tliere, a poetical 
ture of despair. petition was presented to him, written 
" You may call me a madman," con- in the name of some distressed lorer, 
tinned Desgrais, rubbing his forehead who wished to carry a valuable present 
as one just waked from a sleep, " or a to iiis mistress, but was afraid of the 
fool ; it happened exactly as I tell you. invisible robbers. To Louis, the polar 
I stood breathless before the wall, and star of love and gallantry, whose beams 

1843.J CardiUac the JeweUer. 167 

could enli^ten the darkest night, the wortli the tronUe of robheiy, and that 

embarrassed poet and lorer appealed ; everybody knows. Who wishes hann 

beseeching him, by the might of his to an aged lady who has nothing to do 

daontless arm, to crash his secret foes, with rogues or murderers except in hei 

as did Hercules the serpent, or Theseus romances; who proTokes no one's 

the Minotaur. The poem was art- envy — olives quietly aloof from the 

fully contrived to excite the King's world ; who has nothing to leave behind 

attention, from what was said of the her except the moderate effects of a lone 

secret danger, as well as the bbored dame and a few well-bound volumes % 

paaegync on the monarch with which You may paint your last night's visiter 

it concluded. Louis read it through as terrible as you will, Martiniere ; I 

attentively, and turning to Maintenon, cannot believe he had any evil pur- 

without removing his eyes from the pose." 

paper, read it aloud to her ; then She took up the casket — ^the two at- 

SDuiing, asked her what she thought of* tendants stepped back — Pierre sank on 

the request of the endangered lover, one knee, while his lady pressed hard 

The marquise replied, half in jest as a steel spring, and the lid flew open. 

was her wont, that the wanderer in se- In the casket lay a pair of gold brace- 

cret ways on errands forbidden deserv- lets, richly adorned with jewels, and a 

ed, in aooth, little protection, but that necklace, similaxlv ornamented, all of 

doubtless vigorous measures ought to rare splendor. The vain Montespan 

be adopted for the detection of crimi- had never such ! Scuderi smiled, for 

lols. Dissatisfied with this reply, the what were such baubles to her t She 

King folded the paper and was going took from beneath them a folded note, 

to hand it to the secretary who vras in which she expected to find the solu- 

writing in the adjoining apartment, tion of the mystery. Sh^ read the note 

when his eyes fell on M'Ue de Scuderi, and grew pale — it fell from her trem- 

wrho had just taken her accustomed seat bling hands, and raising her eyes toward 

near Maintenon. Turning toward her, heaven, she sank back in her seat. 

he said playfully : Pierre and Martiniere sprang to her 

" The Marquiae knows little of the help. M'lle de Scuderi burst into tears, 

gaOantry of our noble gentlemen, and and sobbing, exclaimed, " Is this my 

chooaes to parry me with her * forbid- puni6hment 1 Are words uttered half 

den errauds' — in sooth, anything but in jest to be thus brought to me laden 

forbidden ! What think you, my fair with fearful meaning 1 Am I, who 

Scuderi, of this poetical complaint ?" have lived in innocence and peace from 

Scuderi rose from her seat and an- childhood, in my old age to be suspect- 

s^ered, with a graceful courtesy and a ed of a league with crime ?" 

slight blush : The goA lady put her handkerchief 

" Un amant qui craint Us voleurs to her eyes and wept still more, while 

n'estmnnt digne d* amour. ^^ Martiniere picked up the paper and 

"By St. Denys, you are right!" read it in obedience to a sign from her. 

cried Louis, throwing down the peti- It ran thus : 

tion. " You are right ! I will have 

no blind proceedings, that level the in- " * Vn amant qui craint lu vcUwrt n*€tt 

Bocent with the gtalty ! Argensonand point digne d^amour.* 

La Regnie must be content r " Yonr ingenious wit, most honored 

lady, has saved us — who appropriate trca- 

All the terrors of the popular super- ^^^es that would «|hcrwise be wwte^^^^^^ 

stuion were present to the minTof Improper objects--from t"^^'^»/P"- 

If _• . *^, 1 * J * secution. Accept these ornaments as a 

Mammere, as she related next mormng ^^^^ ^^ ^^, ?^j.j„d. They are the 

to her mistress what had passed, and „jost valuable we have to offer, lbou«h 

with trembhng hands debvered to her y^^^ admired lady, are already adorned by 

the mysterious casket. Pierre stood f,r more inestimable jewels. We entreat 

in the comer, pole, and hardly able to ^^at your gracious remembrance and 

speak, and wringing his hands ; while friendship may never be withdrawn from 

the maid beaonght her lady to use every « The Invisible.'' 
possible precaution in opening the 

casket. Scaderi said, smiling, " You « Is it possible," repeated Scuderi, 

are aconite of geese! Who wants to kill as her maid read the billet, 'Uhat 

me? I am not rich*— I have no treasures shameless wickedness can be carried 

109 Carddiac the JewdUr. [Augost, 

80 iar V* The sun was sldning thitmgh enthusiast in his bnsinesB ; at first nn- 

the curtains of crimson silk, and the dertook all orders with aiaerity, and 

gems on the table flashed with a bril* usually demanded a price so small as 

liancy intolerable to her eyes ; she hardly to bear proportion to his labor, 

placed her hand before her face, and This was remarkable, as it was well 

' commanded Martiniere to replace them known that he spared no pains, but 

•in the casket. The faithAil maid, as wrought by day-light and lamp-Hght ; 

she closed the lid, suggested that it and often, when his work was nearly 

would be proper to send the jewels to finished, would undo it all and begin 

the minister of the police, and inform anew, to make some trifling alteration, 

him of the circumstances under which His taste was exquisite, and he snflfered 

they came into her possession. no work of his to go abroad that did 

The lady rose and paced her cham- not please his fastidious taste ; so that 
ber awhile, in much agitation, whUe everything he executed was a master- 
deliberating what to do. At last she piece, exciting the curiosity and admi- 
sent Pienre to fetch a carriage, and di- ration of all who saw it. With all this 
lected her maid to dress her as expedi- care for his reputation as an artist, he 
tiously as possible. Sh6 then proceed- was extremely capricious, and would 
ed to the Marquise de Maintenon. It often delay the fulfilment of orders from 
was an hour at which she knew the week to week, and from month to- 
Marquise would be alone^ and she took month. In vain would his customer 
the casket with her. ofier to double the price — ^not a louis 

Great was the surfM'ise of Maintenon more would Cardillac take than what 
when her friend entered her apartment he had stipulated for ; and if preyailed 
pale and trembling, and witliout her cm by importunity to finish in haste, he 
usual dignity of demeanor. ** What showed every mark of displeasure and 
has happened? — ^tell me, I entreat vexation. It had also been noticed,, 
you !'' she exclaimed, as she led the that if he had on hand a piece of work 
agitated lady to a seat, and strove to on whigh it was necessary to bestow 
calm her disquietude. At length Scu- much care, because of the value of the- 
deri composed herself sufiiciently to re- gems or the delicacy of the workman- 
late the whole, at the same time express- ship, he alwajrs showed an excessive 
ing the anguish she felt that so dreadful degree of disquietude and iU-temper, 
a consequence should have followed the walking restlessly about, execrating 
playful words she had uttered in pres* himself^ his business, and all about him, 
ence of the King. as if supposing that all the professional 

Maintenon thought the cruel jest of character he had acquired was now at 

the robbers not worth being grieved stake. Orders of less importance were 

about, but requested to see their pre^ readily undertaken, and with apparent 

sent. She took the bracelets and neck- good humor, particularly when unlimit- 

lace from the casket, and examined ed confidence was repcwed in his tattte 

them at Uie window, with expressions and judgment ; but not unfrequentl^, 

of admiration at their extraordinary when the owner came to receive his 

magnificence. The jewels shone with ornaments at the stipulated time, and 

intense lustre in the sunshine ; they to pay what was demanded, it chanced 

were rare and beautiful, and the work- tha^ he found Cardillac moody and sul- 

manship of the gold exquisitely fine ; len, and was disappointed by delay, 

only the hand of a master had joined so Sometimes, afler having engaged to 

perfectly the delicate links of the small complete a piece of work, he would, 

chain. without assigning any reason, entreat 

After a moment the Marquise turned to be released from his promise. The 

to her friend and said, ** These brace- King and several persons in high rank 

lets and necklace are the work of no had in vain solicited him to work for 

other person than Ren^ Cardillac !" them. Except in very few instances, 

Cardillac was the most skilful gold- he had refused, and of late had declined 

smith and jeweller, not only in Paris, all orders from the court, and even frran 

but of that time. He was intimately Madame de Maintenon, unmoved by 

acquainted with the nature of precious offers of large sums in payment, 

stones, and it was notorious that even The eccentric character of this man 

ovdinary jewels, set by him, displayed a was represented in his person. He 

lustre unobserved before^ He was an was below the middle height, bat broad- 

1843.] Carimae the JewdUr. 16& 

shonldeMd aad mvBCiilar in ftmme, re- " Hearen be praised P exclaimed 
tuning, though he was past fifty, aUthe Scuderi, rising from her seat and ap- 
Tigor and el&Bticity of youth. The proaching the jeweller. '* Here, mas^ 
stNogth of his pl^sieal constittrtion ter Ren^, are your lost jewels — take 
was apparent in his marked features, them again." And she told how they 
and his thick, erisp locks. His per- came into her possession. Cardillae 
flonal appearance was anything but heard her out in silence, now and then 
prepossessing; his small, deep-set, rest- only passing his hands across his fore- 
leas eyes had an expression of cunning head, and stroking his chin. When 
aad suspicion that might have produced the lady had ended he seemed lost in 
an un&vorable impression, but that thought for some moments. At length he 
Caniiilae was universally known in took up the casket, and kneeling on one 
Paris as an honorable man, open-heart- knee, presented it to Mile de Scnderi. 
ed and disinterested, and always ready " Fate has appointed it to you, noble 
to help those in want. lady," said he. ** I remember now, 
"• I will venture anything," said the that while I was at work at it, it was of 
Mtrqoise, ^ that if I were to send for you I thought. Despise not my gift — 
Gazdillac to examine these jewels, he accept it as a token of my reverent es- 
would refuse to come, for fear of reeeiv. teem. " *' Nay, master Ren^," answer- 
ing an order. Yet I am told, though ed Scnderi, " such ornaments would 
for some time he pretended to with- be very unsuitable for my age. And 
draw from business, that he now la- what have I done for you, that you 
bors more diligently than ever, and should make me so rich a present t 
exseules orders — ^with grumbling, how- Go, Master Ren^ — if I were as young 
ever, as usual.'* and handsome as the Marquise de Fon- 
Scttften, who wished nothing so much tange, and rich, too, I might keep the jew- 
as to restore the treasure to its rightful els. But me they would not become." 
owner, suggested that it would be as But Cardillae insisted. '* Take them 
well to sei^ word to Master Cardillae as a favor to me, gracious lady," said 
that the Marquise only wanted his opi- he. ** You know not how deep is my 
nion upon certain gems. This message reverence for your distinguished vir- 
was sent him, and in a short ^ace of tues ; do not mortify me by refusing 
time the jeweller viras announced. the small tribute of my admiration." 
Cardilbu; seemed surprised at seeing Scuderi was still inclined to be inexo^ 
MUe de Scuderi ; he bowed courteous- rable ; but Maintenon took the casket 
ly to her, and then turned to the Mar- from the jeweller's hand, and said, 
qoise* Madame de Bifaintenon pointed " Now I pray you, Magdalene, say no 
to the bracelets and necklace on the more of your years. What have you 
table, and asked if they were not his and I to do with time % Do not renise 
work. Cardillae glanced at them, then the good Master Ren^ ; but accept with 
hastily replaced them in the box and thanks a present that, I warrant me, 
closed the lid. With a smile, coloring money could never obtain from him." 
deeply at the same time, he replied to Cardillae rose, apparently much gra- 
tbe Marquise : " Indeed, your ladyship, tified, kissed the hand of Mile de Scu- 
Cardillac's workmanship must be little deri, and with an obeisance to the Mar- 
known if any one could suppose for an quise, left the apartment. *^ In the 
instant that those ornaments were name of the saints, what ails the man 1" 
wrought by any other jeweller. They cried Scuderi. Maintenon burst into a 
are, of course, my work." musical laugh, and said, " Do you not 
'* Tell us, then," said the Marquise, see, Magdalene, the man is desperately 
*^ for whom were they made 1*^ enamored of you, and is laying siege to 
^ For myself alone," answered Car- your heart after the approved iisbion V* 
dillac. '* You think it strange" — ob- The poetess looked grave, but could 
serving the snrprise exhibited by both not withstand the gay humor of her 
ladiea— *' but i assure you it is so. friend, who rallied her mercilessly 
Such workmanship I bestow only on upon her new admirer. Madame de 
ray beet stones, and these were set with Maintenon concluded by offering her 
unusual care. A short time ago I lost services as dressing-maid on occasion 
those ornaments out oS my workshop, of the bridal, if such an event shouUI 
nor have I ever been aUe to find who take place, and the benefit of her ex- 
took them, ttm me/* perience in all housewifely duties. 

170 CardiUac the Jeweller, [A^ogOBt, 

Seuderi bore this good-homoredly, ing it with tlie excellent master Rene, 

hut looked sad as she rose to take leave it is not quite clear to me that he has 

of her friend. *' I will take these jew- nothing to do with it. At any rate, I 

els with me," said she, " but never wear could never bring myself to wear the 

them. They have been in the hands ornaments." 

of that terrible band of robbers, and the The Marquise laughed at her friend^s 

blood of the murdered seems to cleave fears, and said she carried her scruples 

to them. And the behavior of Cardil- too far ; but when Seuderi asked her 

lac, I must confess it, seems not a little seriously what she would do in her 

strange to me. I cannot divest myself circumstances, she was obliged to con- 

of the apprehension that behind all fees she would make the same resola- 

lurks some dreadful mystery ;' and tion, and rather throw the ornaments 

though I may do injustice by connect- into the Seine than weaur them. 


Manv months passed, and one evening Seuderi endeavored to quiet her 
it happened that M^lle de Seuderi was maid, ^tssuring her that no harm had 
erossing the Pont Neuf in the glass come to them ; yet she could not her- 
ooach of the Duchess de Montansier. self help feeling more than ordinary 
Carriages of that construction had but curiosity to know what her note con- 
recently come into use, and they conse- tained. As soon as a light could be 
quently attracted much attention from procured, she opened the paper, and 
the people in the streets. The crowd read as follows : 
on rent Neuf was such as to impede " A dreadful &te, which you could 
the motion of the horses for some mo- avert, thrusts me to the aJiyss 1 I 
ments while the carriage of the Duoh- conjure you, by all that is sacred, by 
ess was passing. APlle de Scuderi^s the love of a son toward his honored 
attention was drawn to one side by the mother, to send the bracelets and neck- 
sound of angry exclamation, and she lace you received from me — under 
observed a man making his way eagerly pretence of having them reset or alter- 
through the crowd, beating and thrust- ed, or under any pretence — ^to Master 
ing aside those who prevented him. Rene Cardillac. Your welfare, your 
As he came nearer she caught a glimpse life, hangs thereon. If this be not 
of his face ; it was that of a young done to-morrow, I will force my way 
man,, pale and distorted, as it seemed, into your house, and murder myself 
with agitation. His eyes were fixed before your eyes." 
steadily upon her. With difficulty he " Now it is certain," said M^lie de 
made his way to the door of the car- Seuderi, " that even if this strange 
riage, which he pulled open with vio- young man really belongs to the band 
lent haste, and throwing a paper into of robbers, he has no ill purpose against 
Scuderi^s lap, retreated again and dis- me. Had he succeeded in obUoning 
appeared among the crowd. Martin- an interview with me that night, who 
iere, who was inside with her mistress knows but he might have disclosed 
when the man opened the door, shriek- circumstances which would have made 
ed and fell back swooning. Her lady clear what seems now so deep and 
pulled the string and called to the dark a mystery % Be the event what 
coachman in vain ; he, escaped from it may, I will do as this paper directs 
the crowd, gave the reins and whip to me, and rejoice to be rid of the ill- 
his horses, and they, shaking the foam boding jewels, that have seemed to me 
from their mouths, scampered lustily a talisman of evil. Cardillac will be 
over the bridge. Seuderi held her true to his old habits, and not let them 
smelling-bottle to the nostrils of her out of his hands so easily again." 
fainting maid ; and at last Martiniere The next day the lady reeolved to 
opened her eyes and recovered sense go herself and carry the casket to the 
enough to speak. Trembling and fal- jeweller. But it seemed as if every- 
terin^, she cried, "Where is that man? thing conspired to prevent her having 
Ah ! It is the same, the very same who a moment's leisure. All the wits in 
brought you the casket of jewels on that Paris chose that morning to call upon 
terrible night !" her, and beset her with verses, anec- 

1843.] dtrdaiac the JewUer. 171 

dotes, and plays. RwBme -paid her a " And the girl V^ inquired M^lle de 

long visit ; and after that it was time Scuderi. 

&r her to go to the Duchess de Mon- ^* She is Madelon, Cardillac's daugfa- 

tansier ; so that the visit to Cardiltac ter. The prisoner is her lover, and 

was unavoidably postponed till next she is protesting his innocence. She 

day. has at least a knowledge of the deed. 

The poor lady slept ill that night ; and I must send her also to Uie Con- 
two or three times she started, almost ciergerie." 

thinking she saw the young man stand- As he spoke, he threw a fierce look 

ing before her, with his pale, gloomy at the poor girl. She was beginning 

&ce, the featares of which she weU to breathe heavily, but had no power 

remembered ; the more so, as they to move or speak ; her arms hung mo- 

called up some indistinct recollection tionless, her eyes were dosed, and the 

of past years. Early in the morning b^rstanders seemed at a loss what to do 

she rose, had herself dressed, and with her. The good lady^s eyes filled 

drove to the house of the goldsmith, with tears as she lodced on this sad 

bearing with her the fated casket. spectacle. The crowd fell back a little, 

The street Nioaise, where Cardillac and Cardillac's corpse was brouffht out 

lived, was thronged with people, and a of the house. M*lle Scuderi cfUled to 

dense crowd was collected before his Desgrais : 

house* There were cries, shouts, and " I will take the girl with me ; I will 

execrations ; and the multitude seemed be answerable for her.** 

to be with difficulty restrained by the A murmur ofapprobation ran through 

police, who were in possession of the the multitude. The women lifted her 

house. Besgrais, with several of his up and bore her to the carriage, which 

men, were on the steps. The house* soon drove back to the Rue St. 

door was opened, and a man was Honor^. 

broBght out chained, and led away, A physician was summoned imme- 
amid the wild execrations of the popu- diately ; and after some time, Madelon 
lace. Scuderi, much terrified, called was Kcalled from her state of insensi- 
oat to her coachman to go forward ; bility. Her compassionate hostess 
but the carriage was already hemmed completed what the physician had be- 
in by the crowd, and they were com- gun, by whispering to her words of 
pell^ to stop just in front of tlie house, hope ; and a flood of tears soon came 
At the next glance, Scuderi saw a to her relief. She was then able, 
beautiftil younff girl, in the wildest though often interrupted by sobs, to 
abandomnent of grief, kneeling at the relate what had happened, as far as 
feet of Desgrais. She cried, in tones she knew it. 

of heart-rending anguish, " He is inno- She had been awakened in the night 

cent! He is innocent!" Desgrais by a tap at her door, and heard Olivier's 

strove to release himself frmn her. A voice, entreating her to come down 

stoat, mde sddier seized her l^ the stairs, as he feared her father was very 

arm, and pulled her firom him ; when dangerously wounded. Springing from 

the soldier let go her arm, the poor bed, she opened her door. Olivier 

girl fell helplesriy on the pavement, stood there, pale as death, with a light 

and lay there msensible. Scuderi in his hand ; he led the way, trembling, 

could bear this no longer. to her &ther*8 workshop, and she fol- 

^ In Heaven's name, what has hap- lowed. Cardillac was lying there ; she 
pened?*' cried she; and ordering the knelt down beside him, and observed 
door opened, she stepped out of the that his breast and clothes were bloody, 
carriage. Some compassionate women Olivier endeavored to bind up the 
lifted up the young girl, placed her on wound, after pouring some balsam upon 
the stepe, and rubtHed her forehead and it. While he was thus occupied, Car- 
hands with spirits ; while the lady dillac ceased to rattie, opbned his eyes, 
made her way to Desgrais, and eagerly and fixed them on her and on her lover ; 
repeated her questions. The official then, virith a feeble motion, he drew her 
answered bluntly : hand, which was in his, tovirards Oli- 

" Rene Cardillac was this morning vier's, joined them, and pressed both 

found murdered. His assistant, Olivier gently. The efibrt exhausted him ; his 

Brusson, is the murderer. He has just head fell back, and, with a deep sigh, 

been canned to prison." he expired. Olivier's account was, 

172 CardiUac the JewelUr. [AugiMt^ 

that while waUdng wiA OardiHae, by most amiaUe disposition ; and that he 
his order, a few moments before, he had always lived with them happily, 
had been attacked and wounded in his Then, too, she considered they were 
presence ; he had borne him back to shortly to be related ; Olivier, as Oar-' 
his own house, not deeming the wound dillac'a son-in-law, would inherit all he 
ao severe as it proved to be. At dawn, had ; so that desire of plunder could 
some of the neighbors, who had heard not have moved him to his murder. If 
the noise of talking, and Madelon^s the deed had been committed in a mo- 
sobs, came to see what was the matter, ment of passion, why did not the per- 
The alarm was given, the police came, petrator make his escape, instead of 
and Olivier was arrested as the mux- carrying home the body, and awaiting 
derer* the arrivsd of the police? In riiort. 

Poor Madelon gave a moving picture after thorough investigation, Scuderi 

of the excellence and kindness of her became convinced of the absolute inno- 

lover. He had lived in peace with his cenee of the accused, and resolved to 

master, for whom he seemed to enter- rescue him from death, cost what it 

tain the respect and affection of a son. might. 

Their mutiml regard had been sealed Before applying to the King, she 

by her engagement with Olivier, and deemed it best to see the President L& 

her father gave consent to their mar-. Regnie, and eomnmnicate to him all 

riage, because he esteemed the young that she had learned in fovor of the 

man as faithful and noble-minded, prisoner. It would be no slight ad* 

The young girl thus opened her mind vantage gained, coald she awaken m 

to her protectress ; and ended by say- his behalf even doubts in the mind of 

ing, that even had she stood by, and such judges. 

with her own eyes seen Olivier plunge La Regnie received her with muoh 

the dagger into her father's breast, riie courtesy, and listened attentively to 

would have held it for a delusion of all she had to say. A smile of un- 

Satan, and wouM never have believed pleasant meaning played anmnd his 

him capable of so horrible a crimei mouth as she appealed to his sympa^ 

Scuderi was much affected by this thies, and suggested that the judge 

narration, and inclined to believe in the should never seem the enemy of the 

innocence of the accused. She took accused. When his turn came to 

the precaution to make some inquiries, i^>eak, he said : 

and found that the neighbors of Car- '^ It is honorable, lady, to your gene- 

dillac eonfirmed what Madelon had said rous feelings, and natural, that yoa 

respecting the kindly relations between should be moved by the tears of aa 

her father and lover ; and all spoke of unfortunate young woman, and should 

the young man as remarkable for his believe what she tells you, to save her 

industry, application to business, and lover ; but it is the duty of the judge 

quiet and amiable deportment. to tear away the mask of deceit. How 

Olivier, brought before the Ckambre this is to be done, I am not bound to 
ArdentBi denied, with the utmost firm- reveal, nor to explain the several steps 
ness, the crime with which he was of our criminal process ; but rest as- 
charged, and persisted in his assertion, sured, lady, my duty shall be done, 
that CardiUac had been struck down in without fear of the world's judgment, 
his presence by an unknown assassin ; As I would not, however, appear & 
dial he had carried him home, on find- monster of cruelty in your eyes, permit 
ing that he was wounded ; and that me to mention some of the grounds I 
soon alter he had expired. This pre- have for believing the prisoner guttt^r. 
oisely agreed with Madelon's state- Cardillac is found m the morning, 
ment. murdered: no one is by him but his 

Again and again did the benevolent assistant, Olivier Brusson, and his 

lady question 'her charge as to every daughter. A dagger, stained wi^ 

oiroumstaace of the fatal night ; while bloc^, is found in the apartment. OU* 

she inquired if Olivier had never dis- vier declares that his master had been 

agreed with his master, or if he was struck down at night in his presence, 

never subject to those blind fits of For the purpose of robbery ? That he 

passion that sometimes deprive men of does not loiow. He was with the 

reason for a time. Madelon assured deceased. Was it not possible to resist 

her that he was of the gentlest and tl» assassin, to seize him, to call for 

im.] CmrdiBae ik4 JewUer. 173 

help t Olivier me^b he me fifteen or the nrarder of hie maater, but that we 

twenty Btepe behind him. Bat why at hare reason to beUeve him aseoeiated 

fluch a distance ? The master so or- with that secret band of robbers whose 

dered it. What was Master Caxdfllac deeds have made all Paris tremble ; 

doin^ in the street so late at night 1 who hare eluded hitherto all efforts to 

That he cannot tell. Was it net his detect them, and mocked at thepunish- 

cnsloin to be invariably at home after ments denounced by the law. liiroDgh 

nine in the evening 1 Here Olivier him, all will — all must come to light. 

sto]^ed, seemed much confnsed, and Cardillac's death-wound was precisely 

toB&f repeated his assertion, that on similar to those inflicted by the secret 

the Bight in qnestion CardiUac did go band ; and what is yet stronger proof, 

ibrthf and was murdered in the street, since Olivier^s imprisonment, no mnr- 

Now mark me, lady. It is proved be- ders have been perpetrated. The 

yond dodbt, that Cardillae did not go streets are secure by night as by day, 

forth that night. The hoose-doOT is since he, who was doubtless at the 

provided with a large lock, in which head of the band, has been arrested, 

the key eannot be tamed withoat noise. He has confessed nothing as yet ; bat 

and the door always makes sach a the Chambre Ardsnte will find means 

eteakiag that it can be heard in the to make him speak, even against his 

oppennoet story. On the lower floor vrill.*' 

hM^ Master Claude Patnie and his Scuderi shuddered. "And Made- 

fomale servant, both aged people, but Ion t*' asked ^e. 

active and intelligent. They both heard ** Ay," replied La Regnie ; '' how 

Master Gaxdillae come down, as nsoal, know we tluit she is not an aeeom- 

at the hoar of nine, and lock and bar pUce V 

the door; then go op stairs again to '^Ha!" almost shrieked the lady; 

his chamber, where they heard him a ^ it was her father !** 

few fflinotee after reading akmd. They " Even that may not have prevented 

heard the door of his chamber shut, the crime," said the President. ** Re- 

when he retired. Master Glanders member Brinvillier poisoned her fttther 

sleep is oeually yery light, as is the and brothers. Yoa must pardon me, 

ease with most old people ; and this lady, if I am soon obliged to take 3roar 

night he was nncommonly wakeful. Tprotigie from yon, and place her under 

The domestie got him a light, and he arrest." 

sat wp reading till after mi<might. He Scuderi could have wept, though 

then went to bed, but had not been indignant; but she saw that nothing 

asfeep long, when he was awakened would avail, not even virtue and mis- 

by hearing above a stifled sound, as of fortune, before this fearful man. ^ Be 

a heavy body &Uen on the floor, the human !" was all she said to him ; and 

noiBe of quick steps, and then a groan- rising, she left his house. As she went 

ing. Both the old people were alarmed; down the steps, whither the President 

but they dared make no disturbance, with ceremonious courtesy attended 

till the dawn brought others to the her, a strange thought came into her 

hoBse." head ; and turning to La Regnie, she 

*' But tell me," asked Scuderi anx- asked, quickly : 

ioudy, ^* in all die circumstances, can " Would it be permitted me to see 

yoa find clue to a motive for this horrid this unhappy youn^ man 1" 

deed !" As she asked this question, the seme 

" Hem ! " answered La Regnie, sinister smile j^ayed about the Presi- 

" Cardillae was not poor ; he had many dent^s mouth, 

valuable jewels." " Certainly," he answered ; *' cer- 

^ Was not his daughter to inherit hb tainly, most honored lady. If you are 

weahh ! Yen forget that Olivier was not unwilling to visit the abode of gnih, 

to be his son-in-law." and to look on its victim in his degra- 

'* Bat he may have committed the dation, in two hours you shall be con- 
deed for others." ducted to the prison, where you will 

" For what others 1 " demanded see this young man, whose fate appears 

Seaderi, astonished. to interest you so much." 

Tlie President looked at her a mo- The lady sighed ; but harshly dis- 

ment, and then said : posed as she thought the President 

** Yoa must knew, lady, that Olivier towards him, 'she could net say that 
woold ere this have been executed for any minister of the law would have 

174 CardiUae the JeweUer. [AngiMl, 

beea difierently impressed. But the of heait-rendiiig aagtiiah, "^ Thea all is 
picture of domestic harmony and love lost !" and fell on the gpround in a 
drawn by Madelon was before her swoon. 

mind; and she gave up all effort to Scuderi oidered her maid to take 
penetrate the mystery rather than admit care of the unhappy girl, and left the 
a doubt of the innocence of Madelon's apartment. Not long after, Pierre 
lover. Her object in wishing to visit inade his appearance, with a &ce of no 
the prisoner was to hear his account little consternation, and informed his 
of the events of that night, and by mistress that Desgrais waited to see 
comparing it with Madelon^s, to see if her. " Let him come in,^' answered 
some evidence favorable to him, and the lady, not noticing the fears ;of her 
satisfactory to his judges, could not be servant ; and the official entered, 
elicited. '^The President La Regnie," said 

When she arrived at the Gonciergerie, he, '* has sent me to your ladyship with 
she was conducted into a large, light a request, which he is emboldened to 
apartment. Soon she heard the clank hope you will grant, by his knowledge 
of chains, and Olivier was brought into of your firmness and regard Cor justice, 
her presence. She looked at him as and by the conviction that through yoa 
he entered — and fainted. alone is likely to be elicited information 

When M*Ue de Scuderi recovered of much consequence to the public, 
her senses, the prisoner was gone. He is also encouraged to apply to you 
She earnestly entreated to be immedi- by the consideration that you have 
ately helped into the carriage, and weady taken much interest in the 
driven home. At the first glance she process now before the Chambre Xr- 
had recognized in Olivier Brusson the derite. A change has taken place in 
• young man y^o had- opened the door the prisoner since he has seen your 
of her carriage on the Pont Neuf, and ladyship. He still refuses to confess, 
throvnti the note into her lap ; the same declaring himself innocentofCardillae's 
who had brought her the casket of death, but expresses himself willing to 
jewels. La Regnie^s dreadful suspi- submit to his doom, which he has de- 
cion, then, was well founded! The served* Your ladyship will observe 
prisoner indeed belonged to that band that the last admission obviously points 
of robbers, and had really murdered to other crimes. But he will confess 
his master ! And Madelon ! The good nothing ; not even under the fear of 
lady's feelings were emlnttered, crush- torture. He petitions only for an in- 
ed ; she began to doubt if there was terview with you ; to you done he will 
truth in the world. She could not disclose all. Will your ladyship con- 
prevent the most horrible suspicions descend to hear him V^ 
from entering her mind. Many of the ^ How !" cried the lady, " and be- 
ciroumstances that before seemed proof come the minister of your bloody tri- 
of the girl's entire innocence, now ap- bunal ? Receive the confidence of the 
peared out to prove her consummate unhappy man for the purpose of bring*- 
art, her deep guilt. What meant her ing ham to the scaffold ? Never, Des- 
tears and her anguish, lest her lover grais ! Brusson may be a murderer, 
should suffer a deserved death ? With but I will hear none of his guilty 
these bewildering thoughts busy at her secrets. I am no fa^er confessor." 
heart, Scuderi lighted from the oar- " Perhaps, kdy," said Desgiais, 
riage, and entered her own house, "your mind may change when you 
Mi^elon was in her room ; she rushed have heard the prisoner. Did not you 
to meet her protectress, and sank at yourself entreat the President to be 
her feet ; she raised towards her eyes human 1 He is so, when he yields to 
that seemed to shine with angelic pu- the prisoner's earnest prayer, and 
rity ; she clasped her hands across her resorts to the last means that may sare 
breast with a vesture of supplication, him trom the torture." 
Scuderi averted her face, and said in Scuderi shuddered involuntarily, 
a harsh tone: "You will not be asked," pursued 

" Gro ! the murderer awaits the Desgrais, " to re^it the prison, the 
punishment of his crimes. Heaven sight of which before affected yon. 
grant tluit not on you also lies the guilt To-night, if you consent, the prisoner 
of biood!" shall be brought to your house. He 

Madelon only exclaimed, in a voiee shall speak with you atone ; but a soffit 

1843.] CardiUac the JeweUer. 175 

cient gtiard shall be placed without the you hare ao often caressed, and once 

lOom, to prevent his escape and secure loyed ? It is he who stands before 

you from all danger. Indeed, yon have you . " 

nothing to fear from him ; he speaks The lady uttered an exclamation of 

of you with profound respect ; and surprise and grief, and sank back upon 

insists that could he have seen you the cushions of her chair. She had 

earlier, he had not been brought into cause for emotion. Anne Guiot, the 

this strait. Moreover, you will not be daughter of an impoverished citizen, 

required to reveal more of his confes- had been from her childhood the 

sion than you choose. Can more be prot^g6e of M*lle de Scuderi, and her 

said to induce you to comply V^ cherished though humble friend. She 

The lady hesitated a moment, then had married an honest and industrious 

answered with dignity : young man, Claude Brusson, a watch* 

^You may bring the prisoner; I maker. Their little son had been tie 

will speak with him. God will give favorite of her protectress, and as fond 

me firmness and courage.*' of her as of his mother. Some years 

Late that night a knocking was after their marriage, Claude being less 

heard at the house door. Pierre opened fortunate in his business than he ex- 

to the gens-d'armes, who conducted pected, found it difficult to maintain 

Bmason. An icy thrill ran through his family, and removed to his native 

M'Ue de Scuderi^s frame, as she heard city of Geneva, in spite of Scuderi's 

them traTersing the hall, and mounting advice that they should remain in 

the stairs. Presently the door of her Paris, and her promises of patronage. 

dressing-room opened, and the prisoner Anne wrote several times to her adopt- 

entered, free from his fetters, and well ed mother ; but gradually her letters 

dressed, followed by Desgrsis. The became less frequent, and at length 

official introduced him, and then re- ceased entirely. M'lle de Scuderi was 

spectfuUy withdrew. forced to believe that the cares of an 

Brusson approached, and sank on increasing family, and new scenes, had 

his knees at the ]ady*s feet, covering effaced the recollection of her early 

his fzce with his hands. When he friend. Twenty years had passed 

lemored them, his face was seen bathed since Brusson, with his wife and child, 

in tours. had left Paris. 

Scuderi was deeply moved ; and in A silence of some minutes ensued, 
spite of herself a doubt that he could during which both were much agitated ; 
be guilty arose in her mind. What the prisoner so violently, that MUle de 
earnestness and truth were in his ex- Scuderi pointed to a seat, near whieh 
preasire features '. And they awakened he was standing, and on which at her 
some Tague recollection of the past, bidding he sank. 
though what, she could not say, which With no little effort he collected 
beesme more distinct as she gazed himself, and again addressed the lady, 
upon him. She forgot that a murderer " It is as a stern duty, madame, that I 
was before her, and said in a tone of have prepared myself for this inter- 
gentleness and sympathy : view, which I have craved as a last 
" What have vou to say to me, favor of my judges. May I entreat 
Master Brusson V^ your compassionate indulgence, while 
The young man still knelt before I disclose what will certainly surprise 
her. you, perhaps fill you with abhorrence 
** Oh, most honored lady," he asked, towards me ! Would that my poor 
" hare you, then, no remembrance of father had never left Paris ! So long 
me?^ as I can remember, our condition at 
Scuderi looked at him again, and Geneva was one of poverty and priva- 
reptied, that his features did indeed tion ; from my earliest childhood 1 was 
remind her of some friend ; and that accustomed to want, and to hear day by 
recollection had for the moment over- day the complaints of my parents of 
c<Miie her horror of his crime. At this their hard lot. My mother spoke 
he rose, and stepped back a pace or much of you, her early benefactress ; 
twn, before he said, in a melancholy but a false pride probably prevented 
tone : her and my rather ft'om returning to so- 
"^ Hare you, then, forgotten Anne licit your kindness in their beha&. As 
GuioC ? and her son Olivier, the boy scoa as I was able to work, I was ap- 

176 CardiUae the JeuMer. [AagoiBt, 

pzeniieed to a gpldsmiUi; soon after, with diligence to my bosmeu, and 

my father died, and in a few months when I was able to command a com> 

my mother followed him to the grave." petence, to sue for Madelon^s hand. 

'* Poor Anne \ poor Anne !" cried One morning while I was at work, 

Scuderi, sobbing. Cardillac came in, his face distorted 

" Heaven be praised, rather," re- and pale with anger, ' I need your 

somed the prisoner, *' that she was services no longer,' said he, furiously ; 

tiUcen from evil to come, and lived not ^ out of this house, and let me never 

to see her beloved son die a felon's behold you more ! I need not tell you 

death !" Here the unfortunate young why you are dismissed ; the sweet 

man yielded to his feelings and burst fruit you would pluck hangs too high 

into bitter and passionate tears. There for your reach !' I would have spoken, 

was a movement w^ithout, as if the but he seized and drageed me to the 

guard apprehended an attempt to es- door, which he slanmied in my &ce 

cape ; Olivier marked it, and pro- when I was outside. I left tiie hooae, 

ceeded : — *' I was harshly treatea by and obtained lodgings with an acqaaiot- 

my master the goldsmith, notwithstand- ance in the suburb St. Martin. But I 

ing that I wrought early and late ; and had no rest ; my head was fiUed with 

my situation soon became intolerable, plans for obtaining a sight of Madelon. 

It happened one day that a stranger By night I wandered about the hoose 

came into our shop to make some pur- in which she lived, in hopes of seeing 

chases. He took notice of a necklace even her shadow passiag the window, 

on which I was working ; clapped me In the street Nicaise, dose to Car- 

on the shoulder and said, ' my younff dillac's house, is a high wall with seve- 

^iend, that is capital workmanship, I ral projecticms of rough stone. Agianst 

know not, indeed, who could do better, one of these I leaned one night, looking 

unless it were Rene Cardillac, who is up at the window of my beloved, which 

the first jeweller in the world. You was visible, but there was no light 

should go to him ; he would be glad, there. Suddenly I saw a light in the 

no doubt, to employ you ; and. you window below, which I knew was Car- 

could improve yourself with him.' dillac's apartment. I was surprised 

These words sank deep into my soul, that he should be awake at this hour, 

I was restless thenceforward in Gene- for it was past midnight, and Texed 

ra ; and ere long I got released from also ; for it convinced me that any at- 

my master's service. I came to Paris, tempt on my part to enter the house, 

Ren^ Cardillac received me very which vras my object, would be dis* 

coldly ; but I insisted on his allowing covered by him. While I was won- 

me to show him some of my work, dering if anything unusual had hap- 

I finished a small ring, and brought it penbd, the light was extinguished ; and 

to him. He looked at me, as if his soon afler I felt the part of the wall 

eyes would read me through and against which I leaned, giving away, 

through, then said, ' You are a skilful I sprang back and hid myself in the 

workman ; you can come and help me deep shadow behind the projection, 

in my shop. I will pay you well, and I could see distinctly that a secret door 

you shall be pleased with xny service.' turned in the wall, and a dark muffled 

Cardillac kept his word. 1 remained figure came sofUy out, and vralked 

with him ; but it was many months down the street. Impelled irresistibly, 

before I saw his daughter, who was I followed a few paces behind him. 

passing some time in Uie country with Close to an image of the Virgin the 

an old female relative. At length she figure turned round, and the light of a 

returned. Oh ! how lovely she was ! lamp fell on its face. It was Cardillac ! 

No man ever loved as I did !" A shuddering seized me ; but as if 

Olivier here paused a few moments, borne <m by magic, I still followed 

before he could proceed calmly : him ; at length he disappeared in the 

'* Madelon was very kind to me. deep shadow on the side of the street. 

She oflen came into the shop, and as but a light clearinp^ of his throat be- 

I could not conceal my passion from trayed that his lurking-place was close 

her, she did not hesitate to acknowledge at hand. A few moments elapsed; 

that she returned it. Her father when a man wearing a plumed cap and 

watched ue closely, but we eluded his ^ura, oame alongi humming an air. 

suspicions. Ixesolved to »{ ply myself CardiUao sprang on him, like a tiger 

ISaj CmrHttae the JeunUtr. 177 

OD fail pny ; die man fell on the bonror and amaiement, I knelt beside 

paTemeat; I sprang forward, crying, the vietim and strove to bnnff him to 

' lihster CanUllac — ^what have yon life* but he was quite dead. Before I 

dow?^ He started op, rushed past me, knew it, I was surrounded by the 

ud disappeared. Bewildered with police, and seized as the murderer.'* 


'^JjiELATKX) how I had oome to the dillac, ' that it will require other evi- 

wouDded man just as the assas- dence than yours to criminate a man 

sm left him. The ofiicers looked in like me, noted for good report ; «ind 

my face, and one of them exclaimed, that any effort to injure me will pro- 

'1 know him well; it is Olivier Brus- bably result in your own ruin. As 

<80fl, the goldsmith ; he works for the concerns Madelon, it is to her, not to 

excelleat Master Ren6 Cardillac, and my fears, you are indebted for my 

B an honest fellow !* Again they present visit. She loves you pas- 

resiioned me, and I told exactly what sionately. Since your departure, she 

had aeen, only not mentioning the has wearied me with entreaties to 

assassin's name. They showed me recall you, dechiring that without you 

tlie woaod. directly through the heart she could not live. Indeed, she is 

of the murdered man ; and after some grown so pale and wan, that I have 

further examination I was discharged, feared for her life. Last evening I 

".ill next day I seemed to be in a promised her I would bring you home 

frightful dream. The awful occur- to-day.* 

renee I had witnessed was continually " May I be forgiven, lady, if I 

before my eyes. As I sat in my yielded to my feelings, and wbal 

chamber &e door opened, and Cardil- seemed my fate, and returned with 

lac entered. ' "What do you want, for Cardillac 1 Madelon rushed to meet 

HeaTen*s sake V I cried. He came me — altered indeed, but restored to life 

towards me with a smile that sent a by the sight of him she loved. As I 

fhodder throug'h my frame, drew a clasped the beautiful girl in my arme 

chair, and seated himself close by me. and pressed her to ray throbbing heart, 

* Olivier,' said he, * I was over hasty in and vowed never, never to forsake her, 

my conduct to you yesterday ; I drove I became fettered to her and hen, 

yoQ from my house, but I find I can- body and soul !'* 

sot do without you. Even now I have Olivier ceased, again overcome by 

o& hand a piece of work, which I cannot his feelings. Mile de Scuderi, strucK 

complete without your help. Will you with amazement, exclaimed, "Is it 

eater mj service once more ? You are possible 1 Rene Cardillac, then, be- 

silent. 1 know I have done you wrong, longed to that band of robbers, whose 

1 did not approve your love for Made- dreadful deeds have alarmed all Paris 1" 

ioo; holy on mature consideration, I '*What say you, ladyt^' cried the 

find that so far as industry, skilfulness, prisoner — " the band 1 Such a band 

ud faithfulness are concerned, I never existed. Cardillac alont it 

could not have a better son-in-law than was, who perpetrated all those deeds 

yofireelf. ' Come with me ; Madelon of blood ! In the fact that he o/oim 

awaits you.* was engaged in this fearful enterprise, 

" Cardillac ^8 words went to my lav his security. Thus the difficulty 

heart, bat I had no power to speak, of tracing the guilt became greatly 

He f^nBerrtA my emotion — * You hesi- enhanced. But let me go on, and rOf- 

tate,^ said he ; ' you have perhaps veal to you the secret of this most 

other views ; you mean to go to guilty and most unfortunate of men. 

Desgrais, to La Regnie, or to Argen- You may readily conceive my state of 

son. Beware, young man! lest the mind, after my return to his house, 

power yon ioToke to the destruction of But the step was taken, and I could 

others make you also its victim !' not go back, though forced to regard 

' Let those/ I cried, * who are con- myself as an accomplice in his crimes, 

Arioos c^ crime, fear the names you so long as I remained silent. In Ma^ 

ha? e mentioned ; I have nothing to do delon's love, I forsot, at times, my an- 

with them.* * Remember,* sa^ Car* guishi for she, at lea«t, was innoGOOt ( 

▼ou xiu. — ^NO. LXll* 12 

178 CardOJac the Jewdler. [Angut^ 

bat I conU not always ernrii down the tlieni. And hj a sort of insfinct I 
grief that was cooboipiiig me. I coald tell which were real gems, and 
worked with CardiUac in his shop, hat their oompazatiTe ralue. To gratify 
nerer dared lift my eyes to his &ce ; my taste for handling precious stooes,. 
nor did I speak, except constrained to aiul follow the supposed bent of my 
do so. All day he seemed, as the genius, 1 learned the jeweller's art. I 
world supposed him, the honest work* worked with an enthusiasm which was 
man, the tender father ; the night only a passion, and soon hecame celebrated 
witnessed his deeds of horror. One for my skill. Now commenced the 
day he was in nnusoally good spirits, era in which the evil influence of my 
And talked and laughed while at his star showed itself predominant. When- 
work. Suddenly he threw down the ever I was engaged on any important 
ornament he was elaborating; rose piece of work, such as the setting of 
from his seat, and said, ' Olivier, the valuable stones, I was seized with a 
relations between us must be altered ; restlessness and aa anguish that de- 
I can endure this no longer. What all prived me of sleep, and impaired my 
the acuteness of Desgrais and his fel- health. Day and ni^t stood before 
lows have failed to ducover, accident me, like a spectre, %e person from; 
has revelled to you. You saw me do whom I had received the order, decked 
what my evil star compelled ; I could with my jewels ; while a voice cried 
not resist ; and you will find that it was in my ear, '^ They are your»— they 
yooi evil star also, that led you ^o the should be yours ! Take them ; what 
discovery. As you are now situated, are diamonds to the dead T' At length 
you cannot betray me ; therefore you I yielded to my destiny. I had eatruice^ 

shall know all.' * I will never be- to the houses of the great ; I lad 

eome your accomplice !' was upon my many opportunities for plunder ; I used 

lq» ; but I did not speak, for I dared them ; no lock withstood me ; and thus 

not trust myself to utter what I felt, the jewels I coveted, which I had 

Cardillac seated himself on his work- worked on, were soon again in my^ 

ing-bench, and wiped the sweat from hands. But this did not quiet the demon 

his forehead. At length he began : spirit within me. I know not how it 

* An accident that happened to my was, but I felt an inexpressible hate for 

mother, before my birth, has colored those at whose orders I had made or- 

my life. Wfailepregnant withme, she naments; a thirst for their i^ood,. 

attended a fiSte, where she saw a which condemned me to perpetual 

Spaniard with a chain of jewels about wretchedness. It vt^a at this time I 

his neck. The jewels were rich and purchased this house. Its owner and 

brilliant, and attracted my mother's I arranged the purchase in this very 

attention ; nay, so fascinated was she room, over a flask of wine, and he 

that she could not take her eyes from showed me the secret passage, trap- 

the wearer. He had been a suitor of door, and door through the wall. These 

hers before her marriage ; an unsuc- were built by a monk, who lived in the 

cessful one ; and observmg the atten- cloister, and used to go out and come 

tion with which she regarded him, in at night by this secret entrance. I 

imagined that she had fallen in love paid the man for this information, and 

with him, and laid a plan to carry her bound him to secresy. Not long after, 

oflf. He seized her, and by force bore I sent home to a gentleman of the 

her to his carriage, but her screams court a rich necklace, which I knew 

brought assistance, and in the scuflie was destined for a beautiful opera girl, 

the Spaniard was killed. He fell, I went out at night through the secret 

dragging my mother with him ; and it door ; I waylaid the gentleman ; I 

was some time before she was extri- struck my weapon to his heart, and 

cated from the corpse. The conse- possessed myself of the necklace. This 

quence was a severe illness ; and done, I felt a happiness that is inde- 

though she recovered, its eflfects re- scribable. The evil spirit was laid, I 

mained. My evil star had arisen, and was no longer tonnented. But thift 

its influence was shed on me from that peace did not continue ; my evil star 

hour. I had a passion for jewels from became once more ascendant, and I 

my childhood. I used to steal rings a victim to the agonies of hell; agonies 

when a boy, for I could not withstand to be assuaged only by blood. But 

the oonsoming desire I felt to possess thmk not, Olivier, though I could not 

1843.] Cardiilac the Jetodler. ^ 179 

lesist the dreadful impulse, that I have land. The untimely death of the 

been quite destitute of human sympa- princess has discharged me from the 

thy and remorse. You know how re- necessity of sending her the jewels, 

Inctantly I have lately undertaken which I value very highly. I will 

orders ; how I have declined working send them as a token of gratitude to 

for many, whom I would not injure. M^Ue de Scuderi, in the name of the 

You cannot know the struggles I have hand of robbers. Thus I mock at 

had with the power that tms dominion Desgrais and the Chcanbre Ardente, 

over me ; struggles which, alas, have You shall carry the present to the lady.* 

been too often in vain !' " As Cardillac named you, honored 

*' When Cardillac had ended, he con- lady, it seemed as if a dark veil was 

ducted me to a vault under ground, and torn away, and the fair images of my 

ahowed me his cabinet of jewels. No happy childhood again smiled upon me. 

monarch had a richer collection. * On There came a ray of hope into my soul, 

Uie day of your marriage,^ said he to which penetrated its gloomy depths, 

me, ^ you shall take an oath npon the ** I consented to do the vnll of my 

holy cross, that upon my death you master, and took the casket which ha 

will destroy all these by means I will delivered into my hands for you. 

then place in your hands. I will not Through you alone I saw the way by 

have a human being, and least of all which I might be saved — snatched 

Madelon and you, enriched by these from the ruin that threatened me. I 

Uood-etained treasures.' " determined, as the son of her you had 

*' Thus, lady, was I prisoner in a loved and cherished, to cast myself at 
labjrinUi of crime, the victim of con- your feet and disclose all — all to you. 
tending feelings. In Madelcm I saw You would have kept the secret, moved 
the angel who could elevate me to by the unspeakable misery that threat* 
heaven ; but then it was as if demoniac ened poor Madelon in case of a dis- 
bands dragged me again towards the covery — but you would have devised 
abyss, and 1 strove to escape in vain, some means to arrest the wickedness 
Thus passed some time, and I grew of Cardillac, without bringing him to 
daily more miserable. I thought of public punishment. What these means 
flight ; of snicide ; but Madelon ! How would be, I could not tell, but that yoa 
could I separate myself from her—* would save the innocent Afadelon and 
from her love 1 Blame me, lady — if me, I felt in my heart of hearts. You 
you will ; in truth I was weak, not to know, madame, how I failed that night 
struggle against the passion that fet- in my purpose of seeing you. Yet I 
teredme to crime. But am I not to relinquished not the hope of being more 
atone by an ignominious death ? successful another time. Before long, 

'' One day Cardillac came home un- however, the demeanor of Cardillac 
usually cheerful. He looked kindly changed; he was evidently brooding 
oil me; kissed Madelon; and ordered over some evil. He became moody 
for dinner a flask of better wine than and restless, and murmured often to 
be conunoidy drank. When Madelon himself. One morning as he sat at the 
had left us, I rose to go into the shop, work-table, he sprang up hastily, and 
' Sit still, young man,' said Cardillac ; ran to the window, muttering, ' I wish 
' no more work to-day ; let us drink Henrietta of England had my necklace 
the h^th of the most excellent lady and bracelets !' I heard this exclama- 
in Puis/ Therevidth he filled our tien, and it fdled me with terror. I 
g^aaaes, and asked me how I liked the knew that the demon was again within 
aentinient, his soul, and nothing but your destruc- 
irr ^ • • . r » * . tiow would Satisfy its cravings. I saw 
Vn amantgm cratnt les voleurs rCest ^^ ^y j^ save you but bylmving the 
point dtgne d'amour. j^^^l^ restored to Cardillac ; and know- 
He proceeded to relate what had pass- ing that the danger increased every 
ed in the apartments of Madame de moment, I resolvS to seek and warn 
Maiatenon, between her, yourself and you. I followed your carriage on the 
the king, and the spirited reply yon had Font Neuf, forced my way to it, and 
given to the poetical petition. ^ Hear, threw a note into your lap ; you re- 
Olivier,' said he, ' my resolution. I member its contents. You did not the 
^ve a necklace and bracelets I finished next day do as I besought you ; and 
«Hne time since for Henrietta of £ng- my fears rose into despair. Cardillao 

180 CardUlac the Jeweller, [Aogot^ 

was more gloomy than ever ; 4t was me — how is it with Madelon 1** Sen- 
evident his mind was running on the deri sommoned Martiniere, and in a 
jewels, for he frequently aUuded to few moments Madelon was in the arms 
them. I could not doubt that he was of her lover. *' Oh, now ! all is well," 
bent on some terrible deed. But I she exclaimed, *' since thou art here ! 
resolved to save you, even at the price I knew — ^I knew that noble lady would 
of his life. After Cardillac had retired save thee!" And Olivier forgot his 
that night according to his custom, I chains and the doom that thr^tened 
descended noiselessly into the court, him: and again and again they em- 
went out by the secret door in the wall, braced each other, with tears of joy. 
and concealed myself at a little dis* Had their protectress not been before 
tance. I waited some time — ^for I had convinced of the young man^s imio- 
determined to watch the night through, cence, the sight of such pure, devoted* 
At length Cardillac came forth, by the passionate love, forgetful of all his 
secret door, and glided down the street, wretchedness, forgetral of all the world 
I followed him at a little distance ; but the one beloved, would have been 
my heart beat when I saw him going sufficient to assure her that such a 
towards the Rue St. Honors. Sud- heart could never have harbored 
denly I lost sight of him ; and aware thoughts of crime ! 
that no time was to be lost, I resolved It was now late, and Desgrais tapped 
to place myself as sentinel at your door, lightly at the door of the apartment, 
But at that instant an officer passed and reminded them that it was time the 
without seeing me, humming a tune, prisoner riiould depart. The lovers 
as did the first victim whom I saw were separated. M^Ue de Sender! 
Cardillac murder. When he had gone wept; for though relieved of all the 
on a few paces, a dark figure, which I dark suspicions that had before filled 
recognized as Cardillac^s, sprang upon her mind, her heart was saddened by 
him. I rushed forward with a loud the thought that the son of her beloved 
cry ; but it was Cardillac, not the offi- Anne, though innocent, must in all 
cer, who had fiillen. The officer, see- probability suffer an ignominious death, 
ing me, drew his sword, and placed She honored the feelings that prompted 
himself on the defensive, supposing me him to choose death rather than expose 
an accomplice ; but soon seeing that I to infamy the father of his Madelon : 
busied myself only with the wounded yet no way could she see to save him 
man, and did not attack him, he has- without revealing this secret, 
tened away. Cardillac was living. I Anxious, however, to do something, 
took up the dagger with which he had she wrote a letter to La Regnie, in 
been wounded, and supporting him, which she expressed the fullest con- 
assisted, or rather carried him to his viction that the prisoner was innocent 
own house. The rest is known to you. of Cardillac^s death ; and declared that 
'* You now know, revered lady, my only his heroic resolution to bear to the 
only crime, that of forbearing to de- grave a secret whose disclosure would 
nounce the father of Madelon. I am bring unutterable wretchedness upon a 

Suilty in thus permitting his infamous good and virtuous person, prevented 

eeds ; I will bear their punishment — his making a confession to the court 

for no torture shall wring from me the which would prove him guiltless not 

dreadful secret. I will never poison only of CardiUac's murder, but of all 

the peace of Madelon*s life by the participation in the crimes of the secret 

knowledge, nor suffisr her buried father band of robbers. The lady spared not 

to be dragged from the asylum of the argument nor eloquence to sofVen the 

grave amid the execrations of the heart of the President. In a few 

people. No ! my beloved must mourn hours the answer came, that he was 

over me as a guiltless victim, but time truly glad the prisoner had so favorably 

will heal her grief, and she will never impressed the judgment of his distin- 

be embittered by the knowledge of her guished patroness. The prisoner's 

fatherV crimes.'' noble resolution to bury his secret, he 

Olivier ceased ; but soon after throw- was sorry the Chambre Ardenie could 

ing himself at Scuderi*8 feet, while not approve, as she did, nor spare the 

tears rolled down his cheeks-—'* You means in their power to enforce m 

are convinced of my innocence !" he disclosure. After three days he hoped 

cried—** Have mercy upon me, and teU to be in possession of this secret 

1843,1 CardiUac the JeuMer. 161 


Too weD did Seuderi know what *' Speak — oh, speak !'* cried Sou* 

thoee means were ; and she resolved deri, clasping her hands. 

apoa taking the advice of an eminent " I was the person, madame, who 

lawyer ia her extremity. Pierre Ar- killed the old jeweller in the street, not 

Daad d'Andilly was then the most far from your house." 

celebrated advocate in Paris ; to him " You !" almost gasped the lady. 

she applied, and told him all, as far as "I myself;'' returned the Count; 

she cottld, without betraying the secret " and I assure you, lady, I am proud ol 

Bnisson desired to conceal. D'Andilly the deed. Know, that it was Cardillao 

iieard her through, and answered, who committed at night so many thefts 

smiling, in the words of Boileau : ** Le and robberies, and so long eluded the 

traipeut guelmie fois fi'itre pas vrai- police. I know not how it was, but 

smUaMe. — He snowed her that under the suspicion came into my head one 

the circumstances, and with the evi- day, when I went to receive some or- 

dence before them, La Regnie had naments I had ordered, and the old 

ground for his suspicions ; nor did he villain showed neat disquietude, asking 

see how the prisoner could be saved me for whom I designed the jewelry, 

torn the torture, without a full and and afterwards questioning my servant 

free statement on hia part of all that to know if I visited a certain lady. I 

bad hai^ned. '* Then I will go to the was on my guard, and observing that 

King, and supplicate his mercy !" cried all the murdered were despatched by a 

the lady, wiping away her tears. — dagger stroke through the heart, I 

^Not ao! for Heaven's sake, not so!" protected myself by a piece of linked 

exclaimed D'Andilly. "The King can- steel armor, which I wore under my 

not now show clemency to one thus vest. CardiUac fell upon me from be- 

suspected ; it would stir up the people hind. His grasp was like that of a 

to the fiercest indignation. Let the giaat ; but his dagger, which he plunged 

prisoner clear himself, either by con* at my heart, slipped harmlessly across 

feasion or otherwise, of the heaviest the steel armor. My dagger was in 

part of his accusation ; then it is time my hand ; I turned upon him, and bu* 

to implore the King's mercy." ried it in his bosom." 

Discouraged as she was, Seuderi " And yet you were silent," said the 

still resolv^ not to abandon the nn- lady, " and did not give information." 

happy prisoner's cause, so long as "I beg you to observe," interrupted 

there remained a possibility of saving the officer, " that I knew not how such 

him. Thai evening, as she was sitting information would be received, nor 

aione endeavoring to think of some what it might brmg upon me. Would 

plan,Martiniere entered and announced La Regnie, made up of suspicion as he 

the Count de Moisse, an officer of the is, believe an accusation against the 

royal guard. honest and virtuous Master CardiUac f 

*^ I most pray your pardon, lady," Would he not more readUy turn the 

said the Count, as with soldierly dig- sword of law against me V 

aity he bowed on entering, " for in- " Impossible !" said Seuderi. " Your 

tniding upon you at so late an hour, rank — ^'' 

We aoldjen cannot wait for convenient " Think," returned the officer, " of 

seasons ; but two words will plead my the Marshal de Luxemburg, whose 

sxcQse. Olivier Brusson sent me to application to Le Sage for his horo- 

JDO." soope brought him to the Bastille ! No, 

'^Olivier Bmsson!" repeated the lady, not an hour of my freedom wUl I 

hdy, startled, ^ what have you to do give to La Regnie, who would gladly 

vith himt" enough set his cold steel against our 

** I mentioned his name," replied the throats." 

officer, smiling, ^* because I know your ^ Then you would bring the innocent 

friendly interest in him, and know it Brusson to the scafibld V' demanded the 

vin procure me a gracious hearing, lady. 

He is, by ererj one but you, supposed *' Innocent 1" repeated the Count, 

gniity of CardiUac's death ; not, how- *' Do you call him innocent who was an 

ever, by every one, for I, lady, agree accomplice in CardiUac's crimes 1 No, 

vith yon in believing him innocent ; lady, I determined to reveal to you all 

and for even a better reason than you I know ; you are at liberty to use the 

18) CardiUac ik9 JewdUr, [Aogast, 

infonnation I haye conveyed to you, for as he came in. ATlle de Scnderi told 

the benefit of the prisoner, in any way her moving story in as few words as 

that does not place me in the hands of possible, but omitting not a single cir- 

the Chambre, Ardentey cmnstance. She related the incidents 

It was no part of the lady^s natnre of Brusson's early life, his acquaintance 
to spare any exertion where innocence with Cardillac, and domestication in 
was to be succored ; and after this his family ; his discovery of the mas- 
evidence of the truth of Olivier^s state- ter's guilt, and the circumstances of 
ment, she determined on disclosing all his death. With a trembling voice, as 
to D'Andilly, under a promise of she saw Louis listened with deep in- 
secrecy. terest, she described the scene with 

D^Andilly received her information, La Regnie, with the prisoner, and with 

and himself questioned the officer, the Count de MoiBse ; concluding with 

particularly with respect to his know- a prayer for mercy, as she knelt at the 

ledge of Cardillac's person, and of the Kin? s feet. 

man who followed him. The Count The King had heard her with great 

replied that it was light enough for him surprise and agitation ; he raised her 

to see the goldsmith, whom he could from her kneeling posture, and inquired 

not mistake ; he had killed him with more minutely into the evidence that 

the very dagger he had since seen in substantiated Olivier^s confession ; also 

the possession of La Regnie. The with regard to the secret entrance into 

young man who came up as the jeweller Cardillac's house. "^ It is a strange 

fell, had his hat drawn over his fea> story," said he, at length ; and turning 

tures ; but he saw enouffh of his face to the door, summoned Louvois, with 

to be able to recognize him again. whom he left the apartment for some 

D^Andilly's opinion, after some deli- minutes. Both Maintenon and Scuderi 

beration, was, that the evidence, though looked upon this absence as unfitvorabie 

sufficient to produce a moral certainty to their hopes. But Louis soon re- 

of Brusson's innocence, would not re- turned ; paced the room several times 

lease him from the hands of the law. with his hands behind him ; then coming 

Evenif acquitted of CardiUac^s murder, towards Scuderi, he said: *'I would 

suspicion would fiisten upon him as the see this young girl — ^lis Madelon.'* 

accomplice of his crimes. All they The lady idmost shrieked with joj, 

could hope was in delay. Count de for she now feh confident of success. 

M oisse must repair to the Conciergerie, She left the room, and ere long Madelon 

identify ihe pnsoner^s person, and then herself knelt at the King's feet. Never 

lelate before the tribunal what had oc- was entreaty more earnest and intense 

curred. Then it was the time to sup- than that expressed in her clas|>ed 

plicate the King's mercy ; and he woiQd hands and tearful eyes, as in speechless 

counsel that nothing be concealed from supplication she raised them to the 

his majesty. In his sense of justice. King's face. Louis seemed struck by 

in his internal conviction of the truth, her singular beauty. He raised her 

lay the result. from the ground, and led her to a seat ; 

The Count did as he was advised to and as be did so, Maintenon whispered 

do ; and Scuderi undertook to speak to her friend, " See, how like she is to 

to the King. This was no easy matter. La Valliere !" 

as the popular horror of the supposed It might have been that Louis heard 

crime rendered Louis unwilling to this remark ; a flush passed over his 

interfere with the execution of the law. brow ; he glanced at maintenon ; and 

Madame de Maintenon's resolution, ne- turning to Madelon, said : " I can w<^ 

rer to speak to the King of disagre^le believe, my girl, that you are convinced 

matters, placed her assistance out of of the innocence of your lover ; but let 

the question. The prisoner's fate lay us hear wluit the Chambre ArdenU 

in the hands of M'Ue de Scuderi. She says to it." 

appeared in the apartment of Madame de At these words, which seemed the 

Maintenon, at the hour when the King knell of her hopes, M'Ue de Scuderi 

was expected. In her rich dark dress was ready to sink to the earth. She 

and flowing veil, her noble figure had had no doubt they were owing to the 

a dignity that commanded attention ; ill-timed allusion of Madame de Main- 

and always observant of grace and tenon. On such small things fjlhen 

majesty, the King noticed her as soon hang the fate of men ! Bnt there 

1843,1 CardiUae the Jeweller. 183 

jiotldi^ now Imt patiently to abide the When Louis joined the ladies, it 

Kiog'i pleasure. seemed that he had quite forgotten the 

Count de Moiase^s deposition was whole matter. He was cheerful, and 

jq>eedily known among the people, and talked gaily on many subjects, bat said 

■&B it often happens, the multitude not a word of Brusson. At length 

patted directly from one extreme to Bontems entered, and whispered a few 

the other. Those who a few days words in his ear. The king then rose, 

before execrated the prisoner, and advanced towards Mile de Scuderi, 

called the scaffold too mild a punish- and said with a smile, '^ I wish you joy, 

ioejit, DOW were loudest in outcries for Mademoiselle ! your prot6g^, Oliyier 

liis release, and proclaimed him an Brusson, is free I'' 

iiiJioceiit Tictim. The neighbors now re^ Overcome by the snrprise of joy, 

membered his mild and amiable deport- and unable to express her feelings in 

meat, his attachment to Madelon, and words, Scuderi would have sunk at the 

ibe fidelity and diligence with which King^sfeet. He prevented her, sayinff, 

he served his master. The multitude " Go, go ! you should be parliament's 

•sirroQttded La Regnie's house from advocate, and undertake all my causes ; 

moraixig till night, crying out that Oli- for, by St. Denys, nothing on earth 

Tier Brasson must be set at liberty, and can withstand your eloquence ! Yet"— « 

thiowing stones at the window, so that pursued he more seriously ; '* it was a 

the President was obliged to summon hard business ! The protegee of virtue 

die police to protect his dwelling. herself cannot be sure of acquittal 

Many days passed, during which before suoh courts !'' 

K*lie de Scaderi heard nothing of The lady at length found words to 

Brosson^s business. She went to thank the iQng for his clemency and 

Maiatenon, but received no consolation generosity. I^uis interrupted by in- 

from her ; for she said the king ob- forming her that much warmer thanks 

jerred silence upon the subject, and awaited her at her own house, where 

would doubtless be displeased if re- the lovers had met to part no more, 

minded of it. She then asked with a " Bontems," concluded he, '* shall count 

simle/*howthe little La Valliere was?" out a thousand louis-d^ors, which you 

Seoderi was convinced that in the bo- may give in my name to the maiden as 

iom of that proud woman lurked a her dower. She may marry Brusson, 

Jirejndiee against her protegee — even who really merits not so happy a lot — 

because her mention ot that name had but they must both leave Paris. That 

caoaed emotion in the King. is my will." 

At length, through D^Andilly, she As the good lady returned home, 

learned that Louis had had a long pri- Martiniere came to meet her, followed 

vate interview with the Count de by Pierre, and both crying joyfully 

■Hotsae ; also that Bontems, the king's '* He is free — ^he is here !" The happy 

confidential agent, had been to the lovers threw themselves at the feet of 

Coneiergerie, and conversed with Brus- their benefactress. " I knew — ^I knew," 

<on ; and lastly, that Bontems, with cried Madelon, " that you, and yoa 

aeveial others, had gone at night to alone would save him!" "I trusted 

-exainifle Cardillac's house and the pre- in you from the beginning, my mother !" 

niiaes. He was certainly tracing each cried Olivier, and both kissed the wor- 

link of the eridence. But would La thy lady^s hands, and bathed them with 

Regnie suffer any evidence to loosen tears. Ajid then they embraced each 

hia hold on the victim ? All was in other, and protested that the rapture of 

the dark. that moment repaid them for all their 

Weeks passed thus : when one mom- past sufferings, 

•ing Mile de Scuderi received a mes- They were united in a few da^s ; 

senger fr<»n Maintenon, informing her and as, according to the king^s will, 

the King wished to see her that even- Brusson was to leave Paris, he removed 

ing in her (Maintenon^s) apartments, with his wife, after taking a tender 

Saideri^s heart beat, for she felt that farewell of M'Ue de Scuderi, to Gene- 

the decisive hour was come. She va. He would not have remained in 

comforted the pooj Madelon, however, Paris had it been lefl at his option ; 

and desired her to occupy the time of where everything reminded bun of 

her ahsenee in prayer for the one dear Cardillao^s crimes. Madelon's dower 

^ them both. vras sufficient to set him up in businessi 

184 Hampton Beach* [Aagnst^ 

and his skill in workmanship soon of hmnan justice. All who had been* 

enabled him to earn a competence. robbed of jewels before the time speci- 

fied of his death, the end of the year 

Aboat a year afVer Bnisson's depart- 1660, were summoned to appear at the 

ore, a public proclamation appeared, house of D'Andilly, and claim and 

drawn up and signed by Harry de prove their property. If the proof 

Chamvalon, the Archbishop, and by was satisfactory, it was to be restored 

the Advocate, Pierre Amaud d^Andilly, to them. Many who had been knocked 

announcing that a quantity of jewels down and robbed by CiprdiUac, came 

stolen from different persons had been forward and recovered their treasures, 

recovered from the house of a criminal The remaining treasure became the^ 

removed by death from the punishment property of the church of St. Eustache^ 



BY 1. o. wBrrriKR. 

The sunlijsrht glitters keen and bright, 

Where, miles away, 
Lies stretching to my dazzled sight 
A luminous belt, a misty light, 
Beyond the dark pine bluffs and wastes of sandy grey. 

The tremulous Shadow of the Sea ! 

Against its ground 
Of silvery light, rook, hill, and tree. 
Still as a picture, clear and free, 
With varying outline mark the coast for miles aronnd. 

On — on — ^we tread with loose-flung rein 

Our seaward way, 
Through dark-ffreen fields s^nd blossoming grain» 
Where the wild brier-rose skirts the lane, 
And bends above our heads the flowering locust spray.. 

Ha ! like a kind hand on my brow 
Comes this fresh breeze, 
Cooling its dull and feverish glow. 
While through my being seems to flow 
The breath of a new life— 4he healing of the seas! 

Now rest we, where this grassy mound 

His feet hath set 
In the great waters which have bound 
His granite ancles greenly round 
With long and tangled moss, and weeds with coo! spray wet;,. 

Good-bye to Pain and Care ! I take 

Mine ease to-day ; 
Here where these sunny waters break, 
And ripples this keen breeze, I shake 
All hardens from the hearti all weary thought* away. 

1643.] Hampton Beach. 185 

I draw a freer breath — ^I seem 

Like all I see — 
Wares in the san — the white-winged gleam 
Of sea-birds in the slanting beam — 
And far-off sails which flit before the South wind free. 

So when Time's veil shall &U asnnder, 

The soul may know 

No fearful change, nor sadden wonder, 

Nor sink the weight of mystery nnder, 

Bat with the upward rise, and with the vastness grow. 

And all we shrink from now may seem 

No new revealing ; 
Familiar as oar childhood's stream, 
Or pleasant memory of a dream 
The loved and cherished rast upon the new life stealing. 

Serene and mild ,the untried light 
May have its dawning ; 
And, as in Sununer^s northern night 
The evening and the dawn unite, 
The sonset hues of Time blend with the soul's new moming. 

I sit alone : in foam and spray 

Wave after wave 
Breaks on the rooks which, stem and grey, 
Beneath like fallen Titans lay, 
Or murmurs hoarse and strong through mossy cleft and cave. 

What heed I of the dusty land 

And noisy town ? 
I see the mighty deep expand 
From its white line of glimmering sand 
To where the blue of Heaven on bluer waves shuts down ! 

In listless quietude of mind, 

I yield to all 
The change of cloud, and wave, and wind, 
And passive on the flood reclined, 
I wander with the waves, and Mrith them rise and fall. 

But look, thou dreamer ! — ^wave and shore 

In shadow lie ; 
The night-wind warns me back once more 
To where my native hill-tops o'er 
Bends like an arch of fire the glowing sunset sky ! 

So then. Beach, BluflT, and Wave, farewell ! 

I bear with me 
No token stone nor flittering sheD, 
But long and oft shall Memory tell 
Of this brief thoughtful hour of musing by the Sea. 

jfMt»wy, lOO, la M., 1843. 


186 Roger Mahin^s Burial. [Angiist 



One of the few incidents of Indian rock, oaks and other hard-wood trees 

war&re, naturally susceptible of the had supplied the place of the pines, 

moonlight of romance, was that expe* which were the usual growth of the 

dition, undertaken for the defence of land ; and a young and vigorous sapling 

the frontiers in the year 1725, which stood close beside the travellers, 

resulted in the well-remembered The seTcre wound of the elder man 

*' LoTcU's Fi^ht. Imagination, by had probably deprived him of sleep ; 

casting certam circumstances judi- for, so soon as the first ray of sunshine 

ciously into the shade, may see much rested on the top of the tiighest tree, 

to admire in the heroism of a little he reared himself painfully from his 

band, who gave battle to twice their recumbent posture, and sat erect. The 

number in the heart of the enemy's deep lines of his countenance, and the 

country. The open bravery displayed scattered grey of his hair, marked him 

hj both parties was in accordance with as past the middle age ; but bis muscu- 

civilized ideas of valor, and chivalry lar frame would, but for the effects of 

itself might not blush to record the his wound, have been as capable of 

deeds of one or two individuals. The sustaining fhtigue, as in the early 

battle, though so fatal to those who vigor of life. Languor and exhaas- 

fought, was not unfortunate in its con- tion now sat upon his haggard features, 

sequences to the country ; fo|:-it broke and the despairing glance which he 

the strength of a tribe, an«r conduced sent forward through the depths of the 

to the peace which subsisted during forest, proved his own conviction that 

several ensuing years. History and his pilgrimage was at an end. He 

tradition are unusually minute in their next turned his eyes to the companion 

memorials of this affair ; and the cap- who reclined by his side. The youth, 

tain of a scouting party of frontier-men for he had scarcely attained the years 

has acquired as actual a military re- of manhood, lay, with his head upon 

nown, as many a victorious leader of his arm, in the embrace of an unquiet 

thousands. Some of the incidents sleep, whieh a thrill of pain from his 

contained in the following pages will wounds seemed each moment on the 

be recognized, notwithstanding the sub- point of breaking. His right hand 

stitution of fictitious names, by such as grasped a musket, and, to Judge from 

have heard, from old men's lips, the the violent action of his features, 

&te of the few combatants who were his slumbers were bringing back a 

in a condition to retreat, after " Lovell's vision of the conffict, of which he was 

Fight." one of the few survivors. A shout, — 

deep and loud to his dreaming fiincy,— 

The early sunbeams hovered cheer- found its way in an imperfect murmur 
fully upon the tree-tops, beneath which to his lips, and, starting even at the 
two weary and wounded men had slight sound of his own voice, he sud- 
stretched their limbs the night before, denly awoke. The first act of reviv- 
Their bed of withered oak-leaves was ing recollection was to make anxious 
strewn upon the small level space, at the inquiries respecting the condition of 
foot of a rock, situated near the sum- his wounded fellow-traveller. The 
mit of one of the gentle swells, by latter shook his head, 
which the face of the conntnr is there *' Reuben, my boy," said he, ^' this 
diversified. The mass of granite, rock, beneath which we sit, will serve 
rearing its smooth, flat surface, fifteen for an old hunter's grave-stone. There 
or twenty feet above their heads, was is many and many a long mile of howl- 
not unlike a gigantic grave-stone, upon ing w^ildexness before us yet; nor 
which the veins seemed to form an would it avail me anything, if the 
inscription in forgotten characters. On smoke of my own chimney were but 
B tract of several acres around this on ^e other side of that swell of land. 

I843L] Roger Mahm's Burial. 187 

The Indian ballet was deadlier than I rior. Tarry not, then, for a foU j like 

thought" this, hut hasten away, if not for your 

^ You are weary with our three days' own sake, for hers who will else be 

tnreU'^ replied the youth, ** and a little desolate." 

longer rest will recruit yon. Sit you Malvin spoke the last few words in a 

here, while I search the woods for the faultering voice, and their effect upon 

lieriM and roots, that must be our sns- his companion was strongly yisible. 

teoance ; and haying eaten, you shall They reminded him that there were 

lean on me, and we will turn our faces other, and less questionable duties, than 

homeward. I doubt not, that, with my that of sharing the fate of a man whom 

help, you can attain to some one of the his death could not benefit. Nor can 

frontier garrisons." it be affirmed that no selfish feeling 

^ There is not two days' life in me, strove to enter Reuben's heart, though 

Renben,"saidtheother,calmly, ^andl the consciousness made him more 

will DO longer burthen you with my earnestly resist his companion's en- 

QKless body, when you can scarcely treaties. 

rapport your own. Your wounds are ^* How terrible, to wait the slow ap- 
deep, anid your strength is (ailing fiurt ; proach of death, in this solitude !" ex- 
yet, if yon hasten onward alone, you claimed he. ^* A brave man does not 
may be preserved. For me there is shrink in the battle, and, when friends 
no hope ; uui I will await death here." stand round the bed, even women may 

** If it must be so, I will remain die composedly ; but here " — 

tnd wstch by you," said Reuben, reso- " I sludl not shrink, even here, Reu- 

btely. ben Bourne," interrupted Malvin ; " I 

** No, my son, no," rejoined his com- am a man of no weak heart ; and, if I 

panion. ^ Let the wish of a dying were, there is a surer support than that 

man have weight with you ; give me of earthly friends. Yon are young, and 

one grannof your hand, and get you life is dear to you. Your last moments 

hence. Think you that my last mo- will need comfort far more than mine ; 

meats will be eased by the thought, and when you have laid me in the 

that I leave you to die a more linger- earth, and are alone, and night is set- 

ing death ? I have loved you like a tling on the forest, you will reel all the 

wer, Reuben, and, at a time like this, bitterness of the death that may now 

I aboidd have something of a Other's be escaped. But I will urge no selfish 

authority. I charge you to be gone, motive to your generous nature, 

that I may die in peace." Leave me for my sake ; that, having 

''And because you have been a father said a prayer for your safety, I may 

to me, should I therefore leave you to have space to settle my account, undi»- 

peiish, and to lie unburied in the wil- turbed by worldly sorrows." 

deniesB 1" exclaimed the youth. " No ; " And your daughter ! How shall I 

ifyoorendbe in truth approaching, I dare to meet her eye?" exclaimed 

will watch by yon, and receive your Reuben. "She will ask the fiite of 

parting words. I will dig a grave here her father, v/hioBe life I vowed to defend 

hy the rock, in whioh, if my weakness with my own. Must I tell her, that he 

oreroome me, we will rest together ; travelled three days* march with me 

or, if Heaven gives me strength, I from the field of battle, and that then I 

will seek my way home." left him to perish in the wilderness! 

*^ In the cities, and wherever men Were it not better to lie down and die 

dwell," replied the other, ^ they bury by your side, than to return safe, and 

their dead in the earth; they hide say this to Dorcas!" 

them from the sight of the living ; but " Tell my daughter," said Roger 

here, where no step may pass, perhaps Malvin, ** that, though yourself sore 

for a hundred years, wherefore shotild wounded, and weak, and weary, you 

I not rest beneath the open sky, oov- led my tottering footsteps many a nule, 

eied only by the oak-leaves, when the and left me only at my earnest en- 

Mtoffln winds dnll strew them 1 And treaty, because I would not have your 

for a nBonument, here is this grey rock, blood upon my soul. Tell her, that 

on wfaieh my dying hand sbkll carve through pain and danger you were 

the name of Roger Malvin ; and the faithful, and that, if your life-blood 

traveller in days to come will know, could have saved me, it would hare 

Ihat here deeps a hunter and a war- flowed to its last drop. And tell her^ 

188 Roger MalvUCs Burial. [Angiiflt, 

thftt 7<ra wiU be somethings dearer similaritj betiireen the two cases, — 

than a fatheri and that my blessing is " it is now twenty years, since I 

with you both, and that my dying eyes escaped, with one dear friend, from 

can see a long and pleasant path, in Indian captivity, near Montreal. We 

which you will journey together. " journeyed many days through the woods^ 

As Malvin spoke, he almost raised till at length, overcome with hanger 

himself from the ground, and the en- and weariness, my friend lay down, 

ergy of his concluding words seemed and besought me to leave him ; for he 

to fill the wild and lonely forest with a knew, that, if I remained, we both 

vision of happiness. But when he must perish. And, with but little hope 

sank exhausted upon his bed of oak- of obtaining succor, I heaped a pillow 

leaves, the light, which had kindled in of dry leaves beneath his head, and 

Reuben's eye, was quenched. He felt hastened on." 

as if it were both sin and foUy to think *' And did you return in time to save 

of happiness at such a moment. His him T' asked Reuben, hanging on Mai- 

companion watched his changing coun- vin's words, as if they were to be pro- 

tenanee, and sought, with generous phetic of his own success, 

art, to wile him to his own good. " I did,'' answered the other, ^ I 

" Perhaps I deceive myself in regard came upon the camp of a hunting- 

to the time I have to live," he resumed, party, before sunset of the same day. 

^* It may be, that, with speedy assist- I guided them to the spot where my 

ance,Imight recover of my wound. The comrade was expecting death ; and he 

foremost fugitives must, ere this, have is now a hale and hearty man, upon his 

carried tidings of our £ital battle to own farm, far within the frontiers, 

the frontiers, and parties will be out to w^hile I lie wounded here, in the depths 

succor those in like condition with our- of the wilderness." 

selves. Should you meet one of these, This example, powerful in efiecttng 

and guide them hither, ^dio can tell Reuben's decision, was aided, uncon- 

but that I may sit by my own fireside sciously to himself, by the hidden 

again?" strength ofmany an other motive. Roger 

A mournful smile strayed across the MaJvin perceived that the victory v?a8 

features of the dying man, as he in- nearly won. 

sinuated that unfounded hope ; which, ** Now go, my son, and Heaven 

however, was not without its effect on prosper you!" he said. *^Tum not 

Reuben. No merely selfish motive, back with your friends, when you meet 

nor even the desolate condition of Dor- them, lest your wounds and weariness 

cas, could have induced him to desert overcome you ; but send hitherward 

his companion, at such a moment. But two or three, that may be spared, to 

his wishes seized upon the thought, search for me. And believe me, Ren- 

that Malvin's life might be preserved, ben, my heart will be lighter with 

and his sanguine nature heightened, every step you take towards home«" 

almost to certainty, the remote possi- Yet there was perhaps a change, both 

bility of procuring human aid. in his countenance and voice, as ha 

^Surely there is reason, weighty spoke thus; for, afler all, it was a 

reason, to hope that friends are not far ghastly fate, to be left expiring in the 

distant ; " he said, half aloud. *^ There wilderness. 

fled one coward, unwounded, in the Reuben Bourne, but half convinced 

beginning of the fight, and most proba- that he was acting rightly, at length 

bly he made good speed. Everv true raised himself from the ground, and 

man on the frontier would shoulder his prepared for his departure. And first, 

musket, at the news ; and though no though contrary to Malvin's wishes, he 

party may range so far into the woods collected a stock of roots and herbs, 

as tins, I shall perhaps encounter them which had been their only food daring 

in one day's march. Counsel me fiiith- the last two days. This useless sup-* 

fully," he added, turning to Malvin, in ply he placed within reach of the djring- 

distrust of his own motives. " Were man, for whom, also, he swept to- 

your situation mine, would you desert gether a fresh bed of dry oak-leaves, 

me while life remained !" Tlien, climbing to the summit of the 

*' It is now twenty years," replied rock, which on one side was rongh and 
Roger Malvin, sighing, however, as he broken, he bent the^ oak-sapling down- 
secretly acknowledged the wide dis* wards, and bound his haaiUcerchief to 


1843.] Roger Mdvin^s Burial, 189 

the topmost branch. This precaution endeavored to persuade the youth, that 
ires not anneceasary, to direct any who even the speediest succor might avail 
might eome in search of Malvin; for to the preservation of his life. Reuben 
erery part of the rock, except its was internally convinced, that he should 
bind, smooth front, was concealed, at see Malvin's living face no more. His 
a little distance, by the dense under- generous nature would fain have de- 
growth of the forest. The handker- layed him, at whatever risk, till the 
chief had been the bandage of a wound dying scene were past ; but the desire 
upon Reuben^s arm ; and, as he bound of existence and the hope of happiness 
it to the tree, he vowed, by the blood had strengthened in his heart, and he 
that stained it, that he would return, was unable to resist them, 
either to save his companion's life, or *^ It is enoagh,** said Roger Malvin, 
to lay his body in the grave. He then having listen^ to Reuben's promise, 
descended, and stood, with downcast ^* Go, and God speed you !" 
eyes, to receive Roger Malvin's part- The youth pressed his hand in 
iBg words. silence, turned, and was departing. 

The experience of the latter suggest- His slow and faltering steps, however, 
ed naueh and minute advice, respect- had borne him but a little way, before 
iog the yoath's journey through the Malvin*s voice recalled him. 
trackless forest. Upon this subject he ^* Reuben, Reuben," said he, faintly ; 
spoke with czhn earnestness, as if he and Reuben returned and knelt down 
were sending Reuben to the battle or by the dying man. 
the chase, while he himself remained '* Raise me, and let me lean against 
secure at home ; and not as if the human the rock," was his last request. ** My 
coamenance that was about to leave face will be turned towards home, and 
him, were the last he would ever be- I shaH see you a moment longer, as 
hdd. But his firmness was shaken you pass among the trees." 
before he concluded. Reuben, having made the desired 

''Carry my blessing to Dorcas, and alteration in his companion's posture, 
aay that my last prayer shall be for her again began his solitary pilgrimage, 
and you. Bid her have no hard thoughts He walked more hastily at first than 
hecaose yon left me here" — ^Reuben's was consistent with his strength ; for 
heart smote him — *^ for that your life a sort of guilty feeling, which some- 
would not have weighed with you, if times torments men in their most 
its aacrifice could have done me good, justifiable acts, caused him to seek con- 
She will marry you, after she has cealment from Malvin's eyes. But, 
moomed a little while for her father ; afler he had trodden far upon the 
and Heaven grant you long and happy rustling forest-leaves, he crept back, 
days ! and may your children's children impelled by a wild and painful curiosity, 
atand round your death-bed ! And, and, sheltered by the earthy roots of 
Keaben," added he, as the weakness of an uptom tree, gazed earnestly at the 
mortality made its way at last, ^ return, desolate man. The morning sun was 
when your wounds are healed and unclouded, and the trees and shrubs 
year weariness refreshed, return to imbibed the sweet air of the month of 
this wild roek, and lay my bones in the May ; yet there seemed a gloom on 
grave, and say a prayer over them." Nature s face, as if she sympathized 

An almost snperstitious regard, aris- with mortal pain and sorrow. Roger 
iog perhaps from the customs of the Malvin's hands were uplifted in a fer- 
Ii^ians, whose war was with the dead, vent prayer, some of the words of 
as well as the living, was paid by the which stole through the stillness of the 
frontier inhabitants to the rites of se- woods, and entered Reuben's heart, 
pvHure ; and there are many instances torturing it with an unutterable pang, 
of the sacrifice of life, in the attempt to They were the broken accents of a 
bory those "wfao had faOen by the petition for his own happiness and that 
'^aword of ^e wilderness." Reuben, of Dorcas; and, as the youth listened, 
therefore, felt the full hnportance of conscience, or something in its simili- 
the promise, which he most solemnly tude, pleaded strongly with him to 
made, to zetiim, and perform Roger return, and lie down again by the rock. 
Malvin's obseqiiies. It was remarks- He felt how hard was the doom of the 
ble, that the latter, speaking his whole kind and generous being whom he had 
hnrt in his pwtiiig woidSf no longer deserted in his extremity. Deathwould 

190 Roger Malviti's Burial. [Aognst, 

come, like the slow approach of a mothers, wives, and children tell, 

corpse, stealing^ g^radually towards hitn whether their loved ones were detained 

through the Jorest, and showing its by captivity, or by the stronger chain 

ghastly and motionless features frotn of death. Dorcas nourished her ap- 

behind a nearer, and yet a nearer tree, prehensions in silence, till one after- 

But such must have been Reuben^s own noon, when Reuben awoke from an 

fate, had he tarried another sunset ; unquiet sleep, and seemed to recognize 

and who shall impute blame to him, if her more perfectly than at any pre- 

he shrank from so useless a sacrifice 1 vious (ime. She saw that his intellect 

As he gave a parting look, a breeze had become composed, and she could 

waved the little banner upon the sap- no longer restrain her filial anxiety, 

ling-oak, and reminded Reuben of lus "My father, Reuben V^ she began; 

vow. but the change in her lover^s coonte- 

nance made her pause. 

Many circumstances contributed to The youth shrank, as if with a bitter 
retard the wounded traveller in his way pain, and the blood gushed vividly into 
to the frontiers. On the second day, his wan and hollpw cheeks. His first 
the clouds, gathering densely over the impulse was to cover his face ; but, 
sky, precluded the possibility of regu- apparently with a desperate effort, he 
lating his course by the position of the half raised himself, and spoke vehe- 
Bun ; and he knew not but that every mently, defending himself against an 
effort of his almost exhausted strength, imaginary accusation, 
was removing him farther from the ** Your father was sore woupded in 
home he sought. His scanty suste- the battle, Dorcas, and he bade me not 
nance was suppUed by the berries, and burthen myself with him, but only to 
other spontaneous products of the fo- lead him to the lake-side, Uiat he might 
rest. Herds of deer, it is true, some- quench his thirst and die. But I would 
times bounded past hun, and partridges not desert the old man in his extremity, 
frequently whirred up before his foot- and, though bleeding myself, I sup- 
steps; but his ammunition had been ported him; I gave him half my 
expended in the fight, and he had no strength, and led him away with me. 
means of slaying them. His wounds. For three days we journeyed on to- 
irritated by the constant exertion in gether, and your father was sustained 
which lay the only hope of life, wore beyond my hopes ; but, awaking at 
away bis strength, and at intervals con- sunrise on the fourth day, I found him 
fused his reason. But, even in the faint and exhausted, — ^he was unable 
wanderings ofintellect, Reuben's young to proceed, — his life had ebbed away 
heart clung strongly to existence, and fast, — and" — 

it was only through absolute incapacity of "He died!" exclaimed Dorcas, 

motion, that he at last sank down beneath faintly. 

a tree, compelled there to await death. Reuben felt it impossible to acknow- 
In this situation he was discovered ledge that his selfilsh love of life had 
by a party, who, upon the first intelli- hurried him away, before her father's 
gence of the fight, had been despatched fate was decided. He spoke not ; he 
to the relief of the survivors. They only bowed his head; and, between 
conveyed him to the nearest settle- shame and exhaustion, sank back and 
ment, which chanced to be that of his hid his face in the pillow. Dorcas 
own residence. wept, when her fears were thus con- 
Dorcas, in the simplicity of the olden firmed ; but the shock, as it had been 
time, watched by the bed-side of her long anticipated, was on that acconnt 
wounded lover, and administered all the less violent, 
those comfoits, that are in the sole gift " You dug a grave for my poor 
of woman's heart and hand. During fatlier in the wUdemess, Reuben V* 
several days, Reuben's recollection was the question by which her filial 
strayed drowsily amonff the perils and piety manifested itself, 
haraships through which he had passed, "My hands were weak, but I did 
and he was inca|»ble of returning defi- what t could," replied the youth in a 
nite answers to the inquiries, with smothered tone. " There stands a noble 
which many were eager to harass him. tomb-stone above his head, and I would 
No authentic particmars of the battle to Heaven I slept as soundly as he ! 
had yet been circulated; nor could Dorcas, perceiving the wildness of 

1843.} Boger MahiiCs Burial. 191 

his latter words, ini^uired no farther at deep tow unredeemed, and that an an* 
that time ; but her heart found ease in buried corpse was calling to him out of 
the thought, that Roger Malvin had not the wilderness. Yet such was the 
jacked such funeral rites as it was consequence of his prevarication that 
possible to bestow. The tale of Reu- he could not obey the call. It was 
ben's courage and fidelity lost no- now too late to require the assistance 
liong when she communicated it to her of Roger Malvin 's friends, in perform- 
friends ; and the poor youth, tottering ing his long-deferred sepulture ; and 
from his sick chamber to breathe the superstitious fears, of which none were 
sunny air, experienced from every more susceptible than the people of 
tongue the miserable and humiliating the outward settlements, forbade Reu- 
torture of unmerited praise. All ac- ben to go alone. Neither did he know 
knowledged that he might worthily de- where, in the pathless and illimitable 
mand the hand of the fair maiden, to forest, to seek that smooth and lettered 
whose fiuher be had been ** faithful rock, at the base of which the body 
unto death f* and, as my tale is not of lay ; his remembrance of every portion 
love, it shall suffice to say, that, in the of his travel thence was indistinct, and 
qnee aif two years, Reuben became the latter part had left no impression 
the husband of Dorcas Malvin. During upon his mind. There was, however, 
Ae marriage ceremony, the bride was a continual impulse, a voice audiUe 
covered with blnshes, but the bride- only to himself, commanding him to go 
groom^s face was p«de. forth and redeem his vow ; and he had 
There was now in the breast of a strange impression that, were he to 
Reuben Bourne an incommunicable make the trial, he would be led straijriit 
thought ; something which he was to to Malvin^s bones. But, year aner 
conceal most heedfiilly from her whom year, that summons, unheard but fdt, 
he most loved and trusted. He re- was disobeyed. His one secret thought 
gretted, deeply and bitterly, the moral became like a chain, binding down his 
cowardice that had restrained his words, spirit, and, like a serpent, gnawing into 
when he was about to disclose the lus heart ; and he was transformed into 
truth to Dorcas ; but pride, the fear of a sad and downcast, yet irritable man. 
losing her affection, the dread of uni- In the course of a few years after 
versal scorn, forbade him to rectify their marriage, changes began to be 
this falsehood. He felt, that, for leav- visible in the external prosperity of 
ing Roger Malvin, he deserved no cen- Reuben and Dorcas. The only riches 
sure. His presence, the gratuitous of the former had been his stout heart 
sacrifice of his own life, would have and strong arm ; but the latter, her 
added only another, and a needless agony father^s sole heiress, had made her 
to the last moments of the dying man. husband master of a farm, under older 
But concealment had imparted to a cultivation, larger, and bertter stocked 
jtiatifiable act, much of the secret effect than most of the frontier establishments, 
of guih ; and Reuben, while reason told Reuben Bourne, however, was a neg- 
hira that he had done right, experienced, lectful husbandman; and while the 
in no small degree, the mental horrors, lands of the other settlers became an- 
which punish the perpetrator of undis- nually more fruitful, his deteriorated in 
covered crime. By a certain asso- the same proportion. Tlie discourage* 
ciation of ideas, he at times almost ments to agriculture were greatly les- 
imagined himself a murderer. For sened by ^e cessation of Indian war, 
years, also, a thought would occasion- during which men held the plough in 
illy recur, which, Uiough he perceived one Imnd, and the musket in the other ; 
all its foUy and extravagance, he had not and were fortunate if the products of 
power to banish from his mind ; it was their dangerous labor were not de- 
a haoating- and torturing fancy, that his stroyed, either in the field or in the 
^ther-in-law was yet sitting at the foot barn, by the savage enemy. But Reu- 
of the rock, on the t^ithered forest- ben did not profit by the altered con- 
leaves, alive, and awaiting his pledged dition of the country; nor can it be 
asststance. These mental deceptions, denied, that his intervals of industrious 
however, came and went, nor did he attention to his afiSurs were but scantily 
ever murtake them for realities ; but in rewarded with success. The irrita^ 
the calmest and clearest moods of his bility, by which he had recently become 
Biiiid, be was conscioos that he had a distinguished, was another cause of his 

199 Roger MaimfCs Burial. [August, 

declining prosperity, as it occasioned fiirewell to the few, who, in the Might 
frequent quarrels, in his unavoidable of fortune, called themselves their 
intercourse with the neighboring set- friends. The sadness of the parting 
tiers. The results of these were in- moment had, to each of the pilgrims, 
numerable law-suits ; for the people of its peculiar alleviations. Reuben, a 
New England, in the earliest stages moody man, and misanthropic because 
and wildest circumstances of the coun- unhappy, strode onward, with his usual 
try, adopted, whenever attainable, the stern brow and downcast eye, feeling 
legal moide of deciding their differences, few regrets, and disdaining to acknow- 
To be brief, the world did not go well ledge any. Dorcas, while sbe wept 
with Renben Bourne, and, though not abundantly over the broken ties by 
till many years after his marriage, he which her simple and affectionate na- 
was finally a ruined man, with but one ture had bound itself to everything, felt 
remaining expedient against the evil that the inhabitants of her inmost heart 
fate that had pursued him. He was to moved on with her, and that all else 
throw sunlight into some deep recess would be supplied wherever she might 
of the forest, and seek subsistence from go. And the boy dashed one tear-drop 
the virgin bosom of the wilderness. from his eye, and thought of the ad- 

The only child of Reuben and Dor- venturous pleasures of the untrodden 
CSS was a son, now arrived at the age forest. Oh ! who, in the enthusiasm 
of fifteen years, beautiful in youth, aad of a day-dream, has not wished that he 

S'ving promise of a glorious manhood, were a wanderer in a world of summer 
e was peculiarly qualified for, and wilderness, with one fair and gentle 
already began to excel in, the wild being hanging lightly on his arm ? In 
accomplishments of frontier life. His Touth, his free and exulting step would 
foot was fieet, his aim true, his appre- know no barrier but the rolling ocean 
hension quick, his heart glad and nigh ; or the snow-topt mountains ; calmer 
and all, who airticipated the return of manhood would choose a home, where 
Indian war, spoke of Cyrus Bourne as Nature had strewn a double wealth, in 
a future leader in the land. The boy the vale of some transparent stream ; 
was loved by his father, with a deep and when hoary age, afler long, lonff 
and silent strength, as if whatever was years of that pure life, stole on and 
ffood and happy in his own nature had found him there, it would find him the 
been transferred to his child, carrying father of a race, the patriarch of a 
his affections with it. Even Dorcas, people, the founder of a mighty nation 
though loving and beloved, was far less yet to be. When death, like the sweet 
dear to him ; for Reuben^s secret sleep which we welcome afler a day of 
thoughts and insulated emotions had happiness, came over him, his far de- 

gradually made him a selfish man ; and scendants would mourn over the vene- 
e could no longer love deeply, except rated dust. Enveloped by tradition in 
where he saw, or imap^nea, some re- mysterious attributes, the men of future 
flection or likeness of his own mind, generations would call him godlike ; 
In Cyrus he recognized what he had and remote posterity would sed him 
himself been in other days ; and at in- standing, dimly glorious, far up the val- 
tervals he seemed to partake of the ley of a hundred centuries f 
hoy^s spirit, and to be revived with a The tangled and gloomy forest, 
fresh and happy life. Reuben was through which the perflooages of my 
accompanied by his son in the expedi- tale were wandering, diifered widely 
tion, for the purpose of selecting a tract from the dreamer's Land of Fantasie ; 
of land, and felling and burning the yet there was something in their way 
timber, which necessarily preceded the of life that Nature asserted as her 
removal of the household gods. Two own ; and the gnawing cares, which 
months of autumn were thus occupied ; went with them from the world, were 
after which Reuben Bourne and his dl that now obstructed their happiness, 
young hunter returned, to spend their One stout and shaggy steed, the bearer 
last winter in the settlements. of all their wealth, did not shrink from 

the added weight of Dorcas ; although 

It was early in the month of May, her hardy breeding sustained her, 

that the Uttle fiunily snapped asunder during the larger part of each day's 

whatever tendrils of affections had journey, by her husband's side. Reo- 

dang to inanlDAte objects, and bade hen and his son, their muskets on their 

1843J Roger Mabnn's Burial. 103 

afaooldeiB, and their axes slung behind from all that hreathe beaide. Hie dark 
them, kept an unwearied pace, each and gloomy pines looked down upon 
tretching with a hunter's eye for the them, and, as the wind swept through 
june that sopplied their food. Wlien their tops, a pitying sound was heard 
himger bade, they halted and prepared in the forest ; or did those old trees 
their meal on the bank of some unpol- groan, in fear that men were come to 
luted forest-brook, which, as they knelt lay the axe to their roots at last ? Reu- 
<)ovn with thirsty lips to drink, mur- ben and his son, while Dorcas made 
mured a sweet unwillingness, like a ready their meal, proposed to wander 
ottiden, at love's first Idss. They slept out in search of game, of nHiich that 
beaeath a hut of branches, and awoke day's march had afforded no supply, 
atpeepof light, refreshed for the toils The boy, promising not to quit the 
^ aaother day. Dorcas and the boy Ticinity of the encampment, bounded 
vent on joyously, and even Reuben s off with a step as light and elastic aa 
•apiiit shone at mterrals with an out- that of the deer he hoped to day ; 
vard ghdnesa ; but inwardly there waa while his father, feeling a tnuMient 
a oold, cold sorrow, which he compared happiness as he gaaed idfier him, was 
to the sDow-drifU, Wing deep in the about to pursue an opposite dixeeticm. 
8^ and hollows of the riTuleta, while Dorcas, m the meanwhile, had seated 
the kares were brighUy green above, heraelf near their fire of fallen branohesy 

Cyras Bourne was sofficienUy skilled upon the moaa-grown and mouldering 
in the tiavel of the wooda, to observe trunk of a tree, uprooted years before, 
tiist his ftther did not adhere to the Her employment, diveraified hj an 
eoDise they had pursued, in their ex- occasional glance at the pot, now be- 
pfiditioa of the pzeceding autumn, ginning to aimmer over the blaie, was 
ihef were now keeping fmher to the the perusal of the current year'a Mas- 
aor&, striking ovit more directly from sachusetta Almanac, which, with the 
ihe settlements, and into a region, of exception of an old black-letter Biblst 
vhieh savage beasts and savage men comprised all the literary wealth of the 
vere as yet the sole possessors. The family. None pay a greats regard to 
hoj sometimes hinted his opinions upon arbitrary diviaiona of time, than those 
the subject, and Reuben listened atten- who are excluded from society ; and 
tirely, and once or twice altered the Dorcas mentioned, as if the information 
direction of their march in accordance were of importance, that it waa now 
^th his son's counsel. But having so the twelfUi of May. Her husbud 
dooe, he seemed ill at ease. His quick started. 

aad wandering glances were sent for- " The twelfUi of May ! I ahould re* 
ward, apparently in search of enemiea member it weU," muttered he, while 
lurking behind the tree-trunks; and muany thoughts occaaioned a momentary 
seeing nothing there, he would cast his confusion in his mind. " Where am 1 1 
eyes backward, as if in fear of some Whither am I wandering t Where did 
ponoer. Cyrus, perceiving that his I leave him 1" 

&ther gradually resumed the old direc- Dorcaa, too well accustomed to her 
tioB, finbore to interfere ; nor, though husband's wajward moods to note any 
Mmethiog began to weigh upon & peculiarity of demeanor, now hud aside 
httrt, did hie adventuroua nature per- the Almanac, and addressed him in that 
adt him to regret the increased length mournful tone, which the tender-hearted 
aad the mystery of their way. appropriate to griefe long cold and 

On the afternoon of the fiAh day, d^. 
they halted and made their aimple en- " It was near this time of the month, 
campment, nearly an hour before sun- eighteen years ago, that my poor fiuher 
Kt The foce of the country, for the left this world for a better. He had a 
last few miles, had been diversified by kind arm to hold his head, and a kind 
swells of land, resembling huge waves voice to cheer him, Reuben, in his last 
of a petrified sea ; and in one of the momenta ; and the thought of the fiuth- 
correspooding hollows, a wfld and ro- ful care you took of him, has comforted 
nansie spot, had the family reared their me, many a time aince. Oh! deatih 
hot, and kindled their fire. There is would have been awfiil to a solitary 
•ometfaing ohilling,and yet heart- warm- man, in a wild place like this !" 
iag, in iiSd thought of three, united 1^ ** Pray Heaven, Dorcas," said Reu- 
etro^g banda oi love, asd insulated ben, in a broken voice, " pray Heavea, 

TOL. XI KI. — MO. LSI. 13 

194 Roger Malv%fC$ BuriiU. (Augosir 

that neither of us three die solitary, were the recollectioiis now breaking 

and lie nnburied, in this howling wilder- npon him t 

ness !" And he hastened away, leav- The thicket, into which Reuben had- 
ing her to watch the fire, beneath the fired, was near the summit of a swell 
gloomy pines. of land, and was clustered around the 
Reuben Boume^s rapid pace gradn- base of a rock, which, in the shape and 
ally slackened, as the pang, uninten- smoothness of one of its surfaces, was 
tionally inflicted by the words of Dorcas, not unlike a gigantic grave-stone. As 
became less acute. Many strange re- if reflected in a mirror, its likeness was 
flections, however, thronged upon him ; in Reuben's memory. He even recog- 
and, straying onward, rather like a nized the veins which seemed to form 
sleep-walker than a hunter, it was an inscription in forgotten characters ; 
attributable to no care of his own, that everything remained the same, except 
his devious course kept him in the that a thick covert of bushes shrouded 
vicinity of the encampment. His steps the lower part of the rock, and would 
were imperceptibly led almost in a have hidden Roger Malvin, had he still 
circle, nor did he observe that he was been sitting there. Yet, in the next 
on the verge of a tract of land heavily moment, Reuben's eye was caught bv 
timbered, but not with pine trees. The another change, that time had eflectea, 
place of the latter was here supplied since he last stood, where he was now 
by oaks, and other of the harder woods ; standing again, behind the earthy roots 
and around their roots clustered a dense of the uptorn tree. The sapling, t» 
and bushy undergrowth, leaving, how- which he had bound the blood-stained 
ever, barren spaces between the trees, symbol of his tow, had increased and 
thick-strewn with withered leaves, strengthened into an oak, far indeed 
Whenever the rustling of the branches, from its maturity, but with no mean 
or the creaking of the trunks made a spread of shadowy branches. There 
sound, as if the forest were waking was one singularity observable in this 
from slumber, Reuben instinctively tree, which made Reuben tremble, 
raised Uie musket that rested on his The middle and lower branches were 
arm, and cast a quick, sharp glance on in luxuriant life, and an exceas of 
every side ; but, convinced by a partial vegetation had (ringed the trunk, al* 
observation that no animal was near, most to the ground ; but a blight had 
he would again give himself up to his apparently stricken the upper part of 
thonghts. He was musing on the the oak, and the very topmost bough 
strange influence that had led him was withered, sapless, and utterly dea^. 
away from his premeditated course, Reuben remembered how the little ban- 
and so far into the depths of the wilder- ner had fluttered on that topmost bough, 
ness. Unable to penetrate to the secret when it was green and lovely, eighteen 
place of his soul, where his motives lay years before. Whose guilt had blast- 
hidden, he believed that a supernatural ed it 1 
voice had called him onward, and that ... . . . 

a supernatural power had obstructed Dorcas, after the departure of the 
his retreat. He trusted that it vras two hunters, continued her preparations 
Heaven^s intent to aflTord him an oppor- for their evening repast. Her sylvan 
tunity of expiating his sin ; he hoped table was the moss-covered trunk of a 
that he might find the bones, so long large fadlen tree, on the broadest part 
nnburied ; and that, having laid the of which she had spread a snow-white 
earth over them, peace would throw its cloth, and arranged what were left of 
sunlight into the sepulchre of his heart, the bright pewter vessels, that had been 
From these thoughts he was aroused her pride in the settlements. It had a 
by a rustling in the forest, at some dis- strange aspect-^hat one little spot of 
tance from the spot to which he had homely comfort, in the desolate heart 
wandered. Perceiving the motion of of Nature. The sunshine yet lingered 
some object behind a thick veil of upon the higher branches of the tree» 
undergrowth, he fired, with the instinct that grew on rising ground ; but the 
of a hunter, and the aim of a practised shades of evening had deepened into 
ma rk sman. A low moan, which told the hollow, where the encampment waa 
his success, and by which even animals made ; and the fire-light began to red- 
can express their dying agony, was den as it gleamed up the taU trunks of 
nnheeded by Reuben Bourne. What the pines, or hovered on the dense and 

1^3.] Roger MabnrCs Burial. 195 

obscure mass of foliage that circled set forward, directing her steps by the 
round the spot. The heart of Dorcas long-past sound, and singing as she 
was not sad ; for she felt that it was went, in order that the boy might be 
better to joamey in the wilderness, aware of her approach, and run to meet 
with two whom she loved, than to be a her. From behind the trunk of every 
lonely woman in a crowd that cared tree, and from every hiding place in 
not for her. As she busied herself in the thick foliage of the undergrowth, 
arranging seats of mouldering wood, she hoped to discover the countenance 
covered with leaves, for Reuben and of her son, laughing with the sportive 
her son, her voice danced through the mischief that is bom of affection. The 
gloomy forest, in the measure of a song sun was now beneath the horizon, and 
that she had learned in youth. The the light that came down among the 
rude melody, the production of a bard trees was sufficiently dim to create 
who won no name, was descriptive of a many illusions in her expectinc^ fancy, 
winter evening in a frontier cottage, Several times she seemed indistinctly 
when, secured from savage inroad by to see his face gazing out from among 
Ae high-piled snow-drifts, the family the leaves ; and once she imagined that 
rejoiced by their own fire-side. The he stood beckoning to her, at the base 
whole song possessed that nameless of a craggy rock. Keeping her eyes 
charm, peculiar to unborrowed thought ; on this object, however, it proved to be 
but four continually-recurring Imes no more than the trunk of an oak, 
shone oat from the rest, like the blaze fringed to the very ground with little 
oftbe hearth whose joys they celebrat- branches, one of which, thrust out 
ed. Into them, working magic with a farther than the rest, was shaken by 
few simple words, the poet hiui instilled the breeze. Makinff her way round 
the very essence of domestic love and the foot of the rock, she suddenly found 
household happiness, and they were herself close to her husband, who had 
poetry and picture joined in one. As approached in another direction. Lean- 
Dorcas sang, the walls of her forsaken ing upon the butt of his gun, the muzzle 
home seemed to encircle her ; she no of which rested upon the withered 
longer saw the gloomy pines, nor heard leaves, he was apparently absorbed in 
the wind, which still, as she began each the contemplation of some object at his 
verse, sent a heavy breadi through the feet. 

faranches, and died away in a hollow " How is this, Reuben 1 Have yon 

moan, from the burthen of the song, slain the deer, and fallen asleep over 

She wasarousedhy thereportof agun, him?" exclaimed Dorcas, laughing 

in the vicinity of the encampment ; cheerfully, on her first slight observa- 

and either the sudden sound, or her tion of his posture and appearance, 

loneliness by the glowing fire, caused He stirred not, neither did he turn 

her to tremble violently. The next his eyes towards her; and a cold, 

moment, she laughed in the pride of a shuddering fear, indefinite in its source 

mother's heart. and object, began to creep into her 

^lAy beaatifiil ^ young hnnter! my blood. She now perceived that her 

hoy has slain a deer !" she exclaimed, husband's face was ghastly pale, and 

lecoUecting that, in the direction his features were rigid, as if mcapable 

whence the shot proceeded, Cyrus had of aasaming any other expression than 

gone to the chase. the strong despair which had hardened 

She waited a reasonable time, to hear upon them. He gave not the slightest 

her son's light step bounding over the evidence that he was aware of her ap- 

TQstling leaves, to tell of his success, proach. 

Bot he did not immediately appear, and ** For the* love of Heaven, Reuben, 

she sent her cheerful voice among the speak to me !'* cried Dorcas, and the 

trees in search of him. strange sound of her own voice af- 

** Cyras ! Cyrus !" frighted her even more than the dead 

His coming' was still delayed, and silence, 

she determined, as the report ef the Her husband started, stared into her 

gun had apparently been very near, to face ; drew her to the front of the 

seek for him in persoh. Her assistance, rock, and pointed with his finger, 

also, might be necessary in bringing Oh! there lay the boy, asleep, but 

home the venison, which she flattered dreamless, upon the fallen forest-leaves! 

herself he had obtained. She therefore his cheek, rested upon his ann, hii 

196 Mental Hygiene, [^giut, 

curled locks were thrown back from topmost bough of the oak loosened 

his brow, his limbs were slighdy re- itself in the stilly air, and fell in soft, 

laxed. Had a sudden weariness over- light fragments upon the rock, upon the 

come the youthful hunter t Would his leaves, upon Reuben, upon his wife and 

mother's voice arouse him 1 She knew child, and upon Roger Malvin's hones, 

that it was death. Then Reuben's heart was stricken, and 

" This broad rock is the grave-stone the tearsgushed out like water from a 

of your near kindred, Dorcas," said her rock. The vow that the wounded 

husband. **' Your tears will fall at once youth had made, the blighted man had 

over your father and your son." come to redeem. His sin was expiated. 

She heard him not. With one wild the curse was gone from him ; and in 

shriek, that seemed to force ito way the hour when he had shed blood 

from the sufferer's inmost soul, she dearer to him than his own, a prayer, 

sank insensiUe by the side of her dead the first for years, went up to IleaTen 

boy. At that moment the withered from the lips of Reuben Bourne. 


Tbb physician, in his treatment of dis- eroecislly, to investigate their mutaid 

ease, is too apt to confine his attention relations. He will find that in many 

to the mere physical machine. He cases his treatment will be in vain, and 

looks only for physical canses, implies his remedies prove useless, when 

only material remedies, — narootics, directed solely to the body ; for a itis- 

purges, sudorifics, diuretics, powders, ease, though corporeal in its effects, 

mixtures, and pillt, without end, — and Buiy be purely mental in its origin. 

is only anxious for physiccd results, a Dr. Sweetser, by the testimony of his 

clean tongue, regiuax pulse, a free excellent work, has given evidence 

digestion, and — his fee. This is taking that he is not of those who depreciate 

a very limited view of his duties, and the influence of mind upon body. He 

is unworthy the science he, professes, has brought to bear upon the subject 

Medicine is no mere mechanical art. much important nuiterial, the result of 

It has for its object the preservation of studious research and acute obserFa- 

the hesdth of man, not the mere being tion, of which we shall avail ourselves 

of physical parts and properties,—^ i& the course of this Article. We 

complex machine, involving in its ahail not anticipate our readers in their 

structure, valves, limbs, outlets, and duty, by attempting an analysis of fais 

passages,— but thinking, feeling, and book. 

mipassioned man : The mind and the body, though 

essentially distinct in. their nature, end, 
— <— " Noble in reason, infinite in and purpose — the former being an im- 
faculties; material, never-dying princij^e, the 
The beauty of the world, the paragon of latter presentmg all the properties of 
*'"™*^'*' the materul world, and therefore cor- 
... i* . 1 niptible, and temporarily existent mat- 
It IS the psrt of the physician to ac- telt— present in their union, which con- 
quamthmiself with the workings of the stitutes the living human being, a 
nund, as weU as of the body ; m ore mysterious sympathy,! exhibited by 

♦ Mental Hy^ene, or an Examination of the InteUect and Passions; designed to 
lUuaU^ate their Influence on Health and the Duration of Life. By WiDiam Sweetser. 

iSl' '^°^* ^^^- ^^•'^York: J. It H. 6. Langley. 1843. 

.* ^ 5* nervous system is unqaestionably the medium through which the miad exetts 
Its influence upon the body. There seems reason to believe that every act of mind 
IS ace^paoM or followed by a physical change in the nervous system; bat what 
tnat cbange may be, or by what means it produces the effects it docs, we know not. 
rue i^patheUe nerve would seem to be that part of the nervous system which brings 
tfce body nnder the control of the involuntary agency of the mmd, from the fact Ibal 

| -fc ii ' .i ■ T fci^lW^l^a— i-4 

1843.] Menial Hygiene. 107 

their co-operating functions and mutual earlier philosophy ; which, though 
relations. The mind and the body claiming an equally comprehensive 
exert a reciprocal control ; but the dominion for the mind, held that it ex- 
influence of the former upon the latter erted its sway without the guidance of 
is more distinct and marked than the consciousness. The doctrine of the 
reverse. It is, in fact, only in disease Animists has led one of its advocates 
that we observe clearly physical ope- into the following absurdly fanciful 
rations influencing mental phenomena, illustrations of his opinions. To the 
The consideration of this point, how* sagacity of the anima he attributes the 
ever, does not come within the scope gradual eruption of the small pox, aa 
of our present* purpose. 3ie force of the disease is thus weak- 
The aeknowledgnoent of the principle ened and the danger diminished ; to its 
that the mind exerts a control over the cowardice, the fact of its sinking under 
bodily functions, has been carried to disease perfectly harmless in itself; to 
the extent of asserting for its dominion its love of solitude, its periodical with- 
the whole government of physical life, drawal to the dark obscurity of sleep ; 
This doctrine was taught m the Plato- and to its tadium vita, its frequent 
nic* and Peripatetic schools of philo- retirement into the shades of eternity. 
sophy, and found a zealous advocate in At a later day, a modified view of the 
Galen, the facile princeps of ancient Animists found a powerful advocate in 
physiologists. This was the basis of Wh3rtt. He considered the mind a 
the system of the Annnists, which was sentient as well as a rational agent, 
broached subsequently to the purely and traced all the vital motions of the 
physical theories of medicine, — ^the body to its operation, acting in its for- 
Dumoral, chemical, and mathematical, mer character. 
Stahl was the originator of this new The phenomena of voluntary motion 
doctrine, and to its support he brought present us with the most familiar 
the acnteneas of an original mind and illustration of the influence of mind 
the untiring enthusiasm of a reformer, upon body. Muscular movement is 
He quickly observed the falsity of the the ordinary extent of the power of the 
prevailing systems of his day, and sue- act of volition upon the physical sys- 
eessfuUy combated their errors and ab- tern ; but that it may be extended to a 
surdities. The hypothesis he attempted further control over the body, is illus- 
to establish on their ruin, though in trated by the case of a Col. Townshendi 
many leagectB pnrely fanciful, had the of the British army, who had such 
high merit of msistmg upon a broad conmiand over his vital functions that 
distinction between living beings and he could suspend them at will, and thus 
inanimate matter. According to the to all appearance die : the blood would 
system of Stahl, the body, an object cease to circulate, the respiration stop, 
powerless in itself, with mechanical the surface of the body grow cold, and 
means admirably adapted to certain life seem to depart, when he thus, by 
ends, was under the control of the an effort of the will, feigned death. 
antmOj mind or soul, an immaterial, This faculty is said also to be possessed 
governing principle. All the pheno- by a certain class of Indian jugglers, 
mena of organic and animal life were The physical indications of the 
held to be indebted for their existence mental power, while acting involunta^ 
to this power. The anima^ while call- rily, afford us the richest materials in 
ing into action the physical agents illustration of the influence of mind 
mject to its control, was supposed to upon body. The various expressions 
be actuated by rational views, and a of face to which mental emotion gives 
consciousness that the welfare of the rise, afford the most obvious examples 
body demanded their exertion. This of this. It is thus the human counte- 
marks the essential point of difference nance presents every variety of ex- 
between the doctrine of Stahl and the pression, from the grave to the gay, 

those organs which are especially influenced by mental emotion, as the heart, the 
bowels, the capillary vessels, and the secreting organs, are principally indebted to 
the ganglionic system for their supply of nerves. 

* Lord Brongham, in his edition of Paley's Natural Theology, finds fault with his 
author for disregarding the influence of mind upon body, and seems disposed to cm^ 
huee folly the £ctrine of the Platonic school* 


198 MenUd Hygiene. [Augiut, 

the lively and severe, aeeording to the French Revolution), was instantly 
feelings and emotions experienced, seized with a violent palpitation, that 
The diflferent varieties of physiognomy terminated in a syncope so extreme 
are modelled by the plastic power of that she was supposed to be dead, 
the mind. The intellectual face, with This apprehension, however, was erro- 
thought beaming in every line ; " the neous ; she recovered ; but the palpita- 
poet^s eye,'^ so distinctive from the in- tion continued for many years, and she 
expressive orb and unmeaning gaze of at length died of water in the chest." 
witless idiocy ; the expectant eye, and Dr, Gregory says that, " dying of a 
mild, imploring look of Hope ; the re- broken heart, on some occasions, ex* 
treating face of Fear ; the lengthened presses with sufficient aocuracy a pa- 
visage of Despair, which, thological fact.^* Mirabeau died of a 

disease of the heart, induced by the 

*' like to a title-leaf, mental excitement to which he was 

Forebodesthe nature of a tragic volume;'' exposed in consequence of the active 

part he bore in the Revolution. The 

the closed mouth and contracted brow exciting emotion of anger, by its stinui- 

of Anger ; the downcast and half-shut lating effect on the circulation, has 

eyes of Modesty ; and the bold, open often become the cause of dangerous 

front of daring Courage, — are bodily or fatal disease. John Hunter, the 

manifestations of the mind within. great surgeon, died suddenly in a 

For a striking display of the influ- paroxysm of rage. The Emperor 
ence of mind upon body, we must Nervadiedof a violent excess of anger 
regard it in its more disturbed states, against a senator who had offended him. 
in the " tempest and whirlwind of pas- Valentinian, the first Roman emperor 
sion,'* when the mental equipoise is of that name, while reproaching with 
destroyed by excessive elevation or great passion the deputies from Ger- 
depression. It is but natural to con- many, burst a blood-vessel and fell 
elude, when we observe the blood lifeless to the ground, 
mantle in the face, the cheek grow Lord Byron mentions that the Doge 
pale, the limbs tremble, or the pulse Francis P oscari died of bleeding at the 
peat quick from the most ordinary lungs, in consequence of his violent 
emotion of the mind, that excessive rage at being deprived of his office, 
mental disturbance would be followed He also states the case of a yoang 
by a corresponding degree of physical lady, who had within his own expe- 
effect. Facts clearly prove that the rience become a sudden victim of on- 
bodily health is direcUy affected by controlled temper. Sophocles is stated 
mental influences ; that there exists an by some authors, to have died of joy 
intimate sympathy between the mind on being crowned for a successful 
and body, which renders their sanitaxr tragedy. Dionysius of the same emo- 
state mutually dependent. " A man^ tion for a similar reason, a fortunate 
body and his mind,'* says Sterne, literary effort. Pliny recoi^ds the death 
** (with the utmost reverence to both I of a Roman lady from excessive de- 
speak it), are exactly like a jerkin and light, at receiving her son safe from the 
a Jerkin^s lining — rumple the one, you battle of Canns. Pope Leo X. fell 
rumple the other." into a fever, from which he never re- 

The passions and emotions of the covered, upon hearing the joyful intel- 

mind, in reference to their action upon ligence of the taking of Milan. Colo- 

the body, may be conveniently divided cotroni, the Greek general, the account 

into the exciting and depressing. of whose death has iust reached us, is 

The exciting emotions act power- reported to have died of apoplexy, 

fully upon the heart and circulation, brought on by his intense delight upon 

They cause increased pulsation, heat, the happy marriage of his son. Jaun- 

flushing, and a state like temporary dice has frequently been observed to be 

fever. A fact quoted by Dr. Good is caused by the passions of jealousy and 

strikingly illustrative oi the influence anger. Shakspeare, in his epithet of 

of the emotions of the mind upon the " green-eyed '^ to Jealousy, avails him- 

heart : " A young lady who had sud- of a physiological fact, 
denly learned that her husband had The depressing emotions weaken the 

been cruelly murdered by a band of force ofthe circulation, diminish the mus* 

the popular ruffians, (in the days of the cular energy, lessen the nervous power. 

IB43.] MenUd Hygiene. \W 

^lediapoBe to disease, and even canse The oft <|pioted case of Lord Lyttel- 
sodden death. Fear exerts a strong ton illustrates the influence of the de- 
sedative influence on the heart, pro- pressing emotions, who, conscious- 
motes congestion in the larger vessels, stricken amid his career of vice and 
and thus renders the surface of the dissipation, alarmed by the intense 
body cold and pale. This emotion has consciousness of his own wickedness, 
not been srh infrequent cause of epi- pictured to his imagination, so vividly 
lepsy, and other severe diseases. £x- as to impose upon his senses, the ap- 
cefisive terror acts so powerfully upon proach of an angel from heaven who 
the system, that children have become condemned him to death at a certain 
convulsed from being applied to the fixed hour. The time approached; 
breast while their mothers were under anxious to drown his care and anxiety, 
its influence. The influence of grief (for he believed himself a doomed 
is equally striking. Its sudden efl*ect man), he gathered liis gay companions 
upon the color of the hair is a familiar about him, and strove to forget his 
hex, FalstaflTsays to Prince Hal : misery and remorse amid revelry and 

« ThT father's beard is turned white with di^ipation- «<>« *^^ h«" Pfwed, 

the news." mmute after minute ; Lord Lytteltouy 

. „ . , with the wine-cup in his trembling 

There is no fact which illustrates hand, and a forced smile upon his lip, 

more decidedly the morbid eflTects of cast his eye upon the clock, and as the 

the depressing emotions of the mind fatal hour struck, he fell and stifiened 

upon the body, than the occurrence of a corpse. The true nature of Lord 

noslalpa, the maladie de wiys, home- Lyttelton's death is illustrated by the 

grief in the expressive language of somewhat analogous case of the Ger- 

Germany, and home-sickness accord- man student, (quoted, we believe, by 

mg to our more homely and familiar Dr. Abercrombie), who, depressed by 

denomination. This disease, which is hard study, misfortune, and ill health, 

purely mental m its origin, assumes iniagined that he was doomed to die 

the various forms of the severest physi- ^ a certain hour. A friend being in- 

cal disorder.* formed ofthe circumstance, ingeniously 

According to the medical statistics resolved upon putting back the hand of 

of the French army, nostalgia ranks the clock which was to strike the 

among the most prevailing causes of deatli-knell. The student weakened 

mortality among the young conscripts, as the time approached, his pulse beat 

This affection is known to prevaU less firmly, his limbs trembled, and dis- 

to an enormous extent among the absent solution seemed rapidly coming on. 

Swiss soldiers, when the recollection The real time, that ofthe imagined end 

of home scenes is awakened by the of his destiny, passed, his friend then 

music of their native air, the ranz informed him of his device, and death 

ies loaches. ceased to stare him in the face. 

-^Whcnlongfamiliarjoys are all resigned, It has been observed that times of 

Why does their sad remembrance haunt public calamity or depression have been 

themiod? unusually fruitful in disease. We 

Lo! when through flat Batavia's willowy have the authority of CorvLsart, that 

groves, diseases of the heart prevailed to a 

Or by the lazy Seine the exile roves; n^uch greater extent than usual during 

O'er the curled waters Alpme measures the French Revolution. During the 

i«j*^ u *!. fl- ♦• « *i. • • *, prevalence of epidemics, the direct 

cT " iniiM^n^e of fear, in increasing the 

Sweet j^son steals along the listener's S?J^^^- f ^^^^',1* ^»^^\«^^f^- 

y^Q^ The weak and unhealthy, by the elas- 

Turniag ^st pleasures into mortal pains, ^^^ity of their minds, may bid defiance 

Poison which not a frame of steel can ^ ^ disease which finds in the fearful 

brave, ^nd desponding, though physically 

Bows bis young head with sorrow to the robust and vigorous, an easy prey. 

grave." f " For " (in the eloquent words of the 

* Avenbmger states that, on dissecting cases of death from nostalgia, organic disease 
of the innsrsy inflammation of the pleura^ and adhesions were fteqaenlly met with. 
/ VITonisworth. 

fOa Menid Hygiene. [Angiwtv. 

aathor of Anafltasiiw, speaking of the neas. '^ A tespectaUe bnaer in Seot- 

^agne), ^* sometimes this disease is a land, when a jouog man, had sat up 

maffnanimouB enemy, and while it fora whole night with some eompanionsv. 

seldom spares the pusillanimous yictim and drank ale and spirits till he liad 

whose blood, mnnmg cold ere it is become sick and had most unpleasant 

tainted, lacks the energy necessary to sensations. For more than twenty 

repel the infection when at hand, it years afterwards, he never came near 

wUl pass him by who dared its utmost nor passed the house without suffering 

fury and advances undaunted to meet sensations similar to those which he 

its raised dart." had experienced on the night of his 

Troops, when engaged in active ser- debauch.'* 
Tiee and cheered by the glow of victory, Dr. Sweetser has, in the following 
offer fewer victims to disease than those passage, clearly stated the morbid in- 
which are disheartened by defeat and fluence of an unrestrained and ill-regu- 
depressed by conquest. In Franklin lated imagination : 
and Parry^s northern voyages, the elas- 
ticity of a cheerful spirit was observed "The feelings unduly excited, as they 
to be the most powerful means of ward- necessarily must be, by the wQd dreams of 
ing off the benumbing effects of the the unagination, reaci with a morbid m- 

severe cold. Loid Awon, in his " Voy- ?!?"^ ? .^^l T^ ^^l^^^i??!. "It^ 

•iM <i«M^»j ♦k*^ w^.u " L »^o !..;»». 1p body, and if the habits aie at the same 

2^ aronnd the World, m ^akmg of ti^^'^^dentary and reUred, a train of m^ 

^ "^"^ remarks, "that whatever ^ ^^^ ^^^, infiimitiet generalised 

discouraged the seamen, or at any time ^^^^^ the name of nervous tempcnunent, 

damped their hopes, never failed to add ^jj ^ ^^^ probable result. The subjecu 

new vigor to the distemper ; for it ©f this unhappy temperament are com- 

usually IciUed those who were in the monly irresolute, capricious, and morbidly 

last stoges of it, and confined those to sensitive in their feelings. Their pas^ 

their hammocks who were before capa- sions, whether pleasurable or painful, are 

ble of some kind of duty." A case of awakened with the greatest facility, and 

disease is detailed in a late number of the most trifling causes will often elate 

the London Medical Gazette, which ^^«^ ^ith hope or sink them in despond- 

Ae writer of the account aptly terms «pcT. ^Thc poet, the painter, the muai- 

« Chancery Cachexia," brought on by c««a-fi>r theirfpurwiU have all a kindre^ 

the anxiety experienced in co^quenoe ?*^^ fJ^ »" ''''^ «* ^'^ r ^^Sf "^ 

mjt *k« »«^i«u«:.i 4-.i-« ^r*k^ i«« Tk* miagmatlon— 4tt'e more peenbarly the sob-^ 

!!i?I? r!^ f ^ .^ U^ jwu of this peculiar tel^enunenL Tlie 

•ubjoctof the complamtwasperfecdy iervous seosK of poetThM been pro^ 

ftee from any previous disease, but, Tcrbialevenfromthe remotest time, TJie 

becoming mvolved m a law-suit, in physical funcUons in this temperament 

which great interests were at stake, arc almost always weak, and pass very 

was attacked by a disorder of the readily into disordered stotes. lUsubjed* 

chest, v^ch was cured by the usual are peculiarly liable to indigestion and' to 

remedial means. The law case at issue sympathetic disturbances in the nerrous,. 

remained undecided ; at every postpone* circulatory, and respiratory system. The 

ment of the suit an attack of the com- body, moreover, is generally spore and 

plaint ensued, the patient's end ap- feeble, frequently with an inclination for- 

proaching as the lawyers were post- ^''^rds, the face is pale and sickly, thoogh^ 

poning, tUl at last, no final result to the "^^ excitement, readily assuming a 

Smseappearing, he was seized with a ^«^« «'?'^» "^ »*• expression is mmaUy 

severe attack of his disease, and died. «»P«n8ivc character. 

w!««I«^Xrk,ll k«^^^^ * The most melancholy nervous afitec- 

Women who h^ve had the misfortune ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ example, have been 

to become mothers before they were gomctimes brought on through the woA- 

wives, are more subject to puerperal ^^^ of ^ mdrbidiy exalted and nngovemed 

fever than the married. This circum- imagination.^' 
stance is owing to moral causes — ^the 

depression of mind produced in conse- Thus the irritability of Pope, the 

qnence of remorse, loss of character, morbid melancholy of Cowper, and the 

and desertion of friends. restless, discontented spirit of Bjrron, 

The following fact, stated by Dr. and their several physical maladies. 

Thomson, in his Materia Medica, affords But the influence of the imagination 

us an illustration of the influence of upon the body is often more direct, 

association of ideas in producing sick- Diseases are not seldom incurred bjr 

1843.] MgnUd Hygiene. 901 

imagiDnig tiisl we are alTectod with one eirenmetanee reepeeting this man ; 

them. The coneeqiieiiee of a fiincied be eame to me oae day complaining of 

disorder for a protracted period, ie eer- a Tioleat settled pain in his forehead, 

tain organic disease. The patient who which he saki ' almost distracted Mm,' 

fioeies he labors under an affection of and requested me ' to draw it oat.' 

the heart, distarhs the circulation, The pieces of mahogany (fiJse tractors) 

iriiieh is erer influenced by the moral were drawn gently over his forehead 

•motioas, until at last this disturbance for a minute and a half, when the throb- 

ereates the rery malady which he bing began to abate, and in two minutes 

dreaded. The miaffination, howerer, had nearly ceased. In about three 

bas not thus always been destructrve of minutes the -man arose from the chair 

health and life. To its influence may saying, ' God bless you, sir, now I am 

be attributed the occasional cures at quite easy.* He was attacked with 

the tombs of saints, amid the ashes of diis pain only once afterwards, w^hich 

a martyr, or by a canonized bone, affected his vision considerably, but it 

Many a person has thus cured himself was removed as easily as in the former 

when he has devoutly attributed his instance." 

le^tion to h^ilth to some saint in « g^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ imagination." 
the calendar. The charlatan reaps his ^^ ^ 
harreat from the operation ot this Man, says Aristotle, is an imitative 
principle. The patient's mind is filled animal, and this truth holds good in the 
with accounts of ^' surprising cures of production and extension of diseases as 
nodoobted authority," and m conse- well as in the habits, occupations and 
^enee takes his draught, mixture or amusements of life. Boerhave recorda 
pill, with a sure and certain faith that that **" A person fell down in a fit of 
he wiU be nukde whole. Pills of no epilepsy in the ward of a hospital 
more abstruse materials than bread and where there were many persons present 
water have thus been known to effect who witnessed the effects ; such vraa 
the most marrellous cures. The won- the impression the occurrence made 
derfid remedial powers of Perkins' me- upon the spectators, that many were 
tallie tractors, which created so much thrown into similar convulsions." We 
wonder for a while in the world, were find in Babington's translation of Heck- 
andoiditedly, in a large degree, owing er on the " Dancing Mania," the fol- 
to the influence of tl^ imagination, as lowing further illustration of the infiu- 
was prov^ by the equal success of the ence of sym^thy in producing disease. 
&]ae* tractors: rheumatism, stiffness "InLaAcaslure,agirlinacottonfiiotory 
of the joints, and paralysis, were cured put a mouse upon the bosom of one of 
by bits of wood, tenpenny nails, dis- her fellows, which frightened her mto 
guised in sealing wax, slate pencils convulsions, which continued for twen- 
dignified with a coat of paint, tobacco tv--four hours. Three more were seised 
p^es, pieces oi gingerbread, and other the next day, and six more on the fol- 
eqnally humless materials. lowing one, and in four days from the 
" John Peacock," says Dr. Hay- first, ue number of patients amounted 
garth, '^had been affected lor four to twenty-four." Lock-jaw is said 
months with weakness of the hip and sometimes to be taken by a witness of 
•evere rikeunatic pains, brought on by the disease, from mere sympathy with 
wofidag in a damp coal pit. The felse the pain and suffering of the patient.f 
tiaetora were applied ; at first they A medical writer ,f who was an eye- 
cansed considerable pain and very witness to the effects of a great reli- 
xestless nights ; but after a few trials gious agitation or revival, compares the 
he began to sleep nnusnally well, had convulsions of those " who were affect- 
fewer attacks of pain, and appeared ed with the spirit" to the movement of 
happy and confident in the idea that a a newly caught fish when thrown upon 
remedy had been discovered for his the land, and another authority,^ in de- 
eom]wnt0. With such a subject the scribing a similar affair in Lanarkshire, 
event may be easily anticipated. This says the agony under which they la- 
mondng he came to thank me for my bored was expressed not only by words, 
services. I camnot help mentioning but also by violent agitations of the 

* Hayi^rth on the Imagination. f Good. 

} Br. JEUbertson, of Tenneasee. $ Dr. Meik. 

903 Mental Hygiene. [Angotm 

body, by sbakiDg and trembling, by sastained depends nmeh npon the origi- 

faintin^s and convulsions, and some* nal constitution of the mind and the 

times by excessive bleedings at the force of physical energy which accom- 

nose. Our every-day experience of panics it. Dr. Sweetser is disposed to 

the effects of revivals, *' protracted,^' think that the injurious effect of study 

and camp meetings, freely confirms the upon the physical health is exaggerated, 

truth of these statements. The fana- and that the disease which is often the 

tic preacher, insensible to the sweet accompaniment of a studions life arises 

influences of the meek spirit and gentle from the transgression of the obvious 

charities of our Saviour^s gospel of laws of a judicious hygiene. That 

love, skilled in the dialectics of the disorders of the digestive functions are 

^ raw head and bloody bones^^ school of more frequent in our academic institu- 

eloquence, appeals to the fears and tions than in those abroad, is a well 

passions of an ignorant audience, thun- recognized fact — that there exists a 

ders ofit his anathemas and stern de- perfect disregard of physical education, 

nunciations, and pictures to them in is equally well established. It is not 

awfully vivid colors, ''the burning so in the universities abroad. The 

gulf," '' the fiery hell," *' the unquench- ablest wrangler in the halls of Trinity 

able flame," and '' the unceasing tor- or the first classic of Christ Church, 

ments," the terrors that await them in is not seldom the boldest swimmer 

another world. Thus are their bodies and the stoutest oarsman of the Cam 

and minds tortured into disease of the and Isis. 

direst kind. Thus are made unnum- It would appear from the statistics 

bered victims of convulsions, idiocy, collected by Dr. Madden, in his inter- 

^ madness, bedlam and the church-vard. esting book on the Infirmities of Genius, 

^-A-^ Of the influence of study and[ the that certain intellectual pursuits are 

^ exercise of the intellectual powers more conducive to long life than others ; 

upon the physical functions, our author that the average age of the Natoial 

remarks: Philosophers is seventy-five years, 

being the greatest, and that of the 

« It is an opinion not uncommonly en- pogu fifly-seven, being the smaUest. 

tertamed, that studious habits, or intellcc- ^j^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ largely 

lJ'*u''°ur^^ ^ M** °f<=f »f ""^y 10 injure ^ ^^^ imagination, seem less favoiSble 

the health and abbreviate the term of life j '^ j^ j^ ^^ ^^^ 

—that mental labors arc ever prosecuted , ^^, r*i-^j- ^ - 

at the expense of the body, and must con- ^f "^^^^ ^"^ ««^««« o^ ^^ dispassioa- 

•equently hasten its decay. Such a re- «e reason. ,.,.., 

stth, however, is by no means essential, Our author remarks judiciously and 

vttless the labors be urged to an iojudi- with force upon the blighting mfluence 

eious excess, when, of course, as in all of a too premature intellectual eduea- 

OTerstrained exertions, whether of body tion. It would be well for every pa- 

or mind, various prejudicial efibrts may rent to mark well and digest his per- 

be naturally anticipated." , tinent observations upon this subject. 

n,, . ,. r *!_• • u * The hot-bed system of edycation^ 
The justice of this view is substan- ^y^h is tod prevalint among us, is a 
tiated by the fact of the long life of crjpjw evil^ There is nothing so in- 
many devoted to literary occupations, jurious'to the physical health and 
Boerhave lived to seventy years of age, vigor, as the fo rcing pren atiLrely the 
Locke to seventy-three, Galileo to xnind, wWle the BSSFfislH itsySuA 
seventy-eight. Sir Edward Coke to weakened by the demand upon its 
eighty-four, Newton to eighty-five, strength for growth and development, 
and Fontenelle to a hundred. Leibnitz, jj ^^^g ,nuch towards filluig the 
Volney, Buffon and others, lived to churchyard with the youthful dead, 
very advanced ages. Many of the 

greatest men of our own country, as €€ pra^codbus mora ingeniU ui uutida 

Chief Justice Marshall, Jefferson, aemperJ*^ 
Franklin, Jay and others, lived the 

lives of patriarchs. There seems but Youthful prodigies of learning are 

little question that a certain extent of too often youthful prodigies of disease, 
mental activity is beneficial to the 

health, and that the degree of intel- ''Premature and forced exertions of the 

leetual exertion that can be healthfully mental faculties must always be at the 

1848.] Mentpl Hygigt^ 903 

rak of il&e physiaa eontlitiitioB. Pa- splendid objeots, m histories, &bles, 

leats, urged by an ambition for their in- and contemplations of nature." The 

tellectoal progress, are extremely apt to proTerb, " laugh and grow fat," implies 

OTcrtask the minds of their offspring, and a wise philosophical precept. Laughter 

thus, too often, not only defeat tblirown -^ ^ ^^od physical exercise, and exerts 

aims, bat prepare the foundation of bodily a beneficiS iendency upon the health, 

infirmity and early decay. Sncb a course, Ttr:^u -«j ^i, ^ r i "^^ r . Z^'""*' 

too, is repugnant to the plainest dictatei ?^^ and cheerfulness of imnd exert 

of natur^, to be read in the instinctive » tonic mfluence on the system. "A 

propensities of the yottn«, which urge so ^^^ ^^^V- ^°®^^ ?o<><l.lilj© » medicme, 

imperioosly to physical action." . . . but a broken spirit dneth the bones." 

^ We have frequently seen in early age,'' T^^ ^^Y of the restless and irriuble 

obserres a French writer* on health, ui mind wastes away, while that of the 

'' prodigies of memory, and even of eru'^ contented and undisturbed gives evi- 

dition, who were, at the age of fifteen or deuce, in its fair round ^iroportions, of 

twenty,imfaecile,and who have continued* its thriving and healthful existence, 

so through life. We have seen other We do not question but that the rales 

children, whose early studies have so en- of mortality in different professions and 

feeUedlhem, that their miserable career occupations of life, are influenced by 

has terminated with the most distr^ing the various degrees of mental activity 

i^?S:*L* ^" J *r^*''*t ^5?^ « °''^'^ ^^^^ they m^y require for their proper 
only have commenced their studies." exercise.^ The politician hurries 

While excessive mental activity and through an excited and turbulent life, 
the yielding to the more powerful while the philosopher, calm and con- 
passions are destructive of health and templative, enjoys a lengthened ex- 
tend to shorten life, the indulgence in istence. The speculating merchant, 
the gentler emotions and moderately while he credits himself with the 
exciting passions exerts a most bene- results of his successful ventures, must 
ficial ii^uence on the physical system, balance his profits with loss of health 
stimalating the languid energies of the and days ; his ease of mind leaves him 
body to renewed exertion, gently ex- with every freighted ship, and many 
citing the circulation, and giving vigor a *' pound of flesh" is bartered away 
sad tone to all the corporeal powers ^^ money lent ; while the agriculturist 
sod funetioQS. Thus hope, moderate continues on from year to year in one 
joy, the {Measurable sensations which unvaried routine of existence, sows 
siise from the exereise of the social ^^f ^^^ and reaps his harvest, his 
affections, fiiendship, gratitude, bene- mind only clouded by a rainy day, and 
volence, and generosity, the practice ^a feelings never excited l>eyond the 
of the thousand agreeable courtesies emotion caused by a trespass, and lives 
of life, Uie interohange of friendly ^ li^^ of threescore years and ten. 
sentiment, conversation, and all the 9^ ^^ influence of mind upon body, 
refined channs and plea^res of society, which obtains so extensively, it be- 
serve not <»ly to humanize the mind, hoves the physician to avail himself 
but to promote the headth and vigor of m the treatment of disease. He must 
the body : " To be fxee-minded," says at times throw aside the pestle and 
a great master of the human mind, mortar, and avail himself of remedies 
Lord Bacon, " and cheerfullv disposed not acknowledged by the colleges in 
St hours of meat, sleep, and exercise, their Pharmacopaeias. As mental causes 
is one of the best precepts of long are so rife in the production of disease, 
bsting. As for the passions and studies ao mental influences are frequently 
of the mind, avoid envy, anxious fears, powerful in its cure. Numerous cases 
tuigers, fretting inwards, subtle and ^f <^^B^ase have been effected by reme- 
knotty inquisitions, joys and exhilara- ^i^^ perfectly powerless in themselves, 
tions in excess, sadness not communi- as far as their direct action upon the 
caled. fiirtertain hopes, mirth rather ^y ^ concerned. When the body is 
than joy, variety of thoughts rather diseased, its operations are more de- 
than sorfeit of them, wonder and admi- pendent upon, and are placed more 
ntion, and therefore novelties, studies within the control of the mind, than in 
that fill the mind with illustrations and health. The epicure, with a stomach 

■ — — ■ I 

• TourteHe. 

5MM Mental Hygiene. [Angut, 

enfeebled hy oTerlabor and digeetioti, HaDer (jnotes a ease of gout cored 
impaired by indulgence, finds his appe- by a fit of anger. Tiie severest tootk- 
lite improve, and his capacity fi)r food ache not unfrequendy departs, upon the 
increase, by attention to style and ele- approach of a dentist armed with a 
gance in the serving of his dishes, formidable wrench. The most whim- 
while a plain and inelegant simplicity sical remedies have proved efficacious 
which appeals only to the groesness of in cramp ; and many other diseases 
a hungry appetite, fails to excite a have been unable to resist a necklace 
desire, if it aoes not produce a positive of toads, rings of coffin nails, and such 
disj^t. In sickness, the delicate fas- epicurean niceties as gladiator Vblood» 
tidioQsness of the patient often inter- raw liver, and vultuzer brains. Inter- 
feres with the operation of a nauseous mittent fevers have been cured by the 
medicine, and frequently great anxiety swallowing of live spiders, of the 
for the peculiar operation of a remedy snuff of the candle, and by charms of 
prevents its action. In fever, the symp- various contrivance. We doubt whether 
tOBiB increase in intensity by the most such remedies would prove equally 
ordinary excitement of the mind, efficacious at the present day ; bat 
Often, the confidence inspired by the assuredly, human nature is not so far 
gold-headed cane and wise Burleigh- changed, as to be insusceptible of the 
nod of the physician, exerts a more ex- same mental effects as those to which 
eellent influence than the moat effica- such cures are traceable, 
cioos of remedies. When the body is The extensive resources which the 
weakened by disease, and the powers fine arts disclose, might be made liberal 
of life almost stilled, a sudden arous- use of as a means of curing disease, 
ing of the mind will give renewed vifor Music, whose influence is so powerful 
to the wasted frame, cause the blood to on the mental emotions, would prove a 
course more freely through the veins, fruitful source of useful remedy. We 
and bestow the physical energy of have ancient authority in fiivor of its 
health upon a system suffering pre- employment. Pythagoras directs cer- 
viously from the debility of disease. tain mental disorders to be treated hy 

music. Thales cured a disastroos 

—»'' When the mind IS quidceaMy out pestilettce by its means. Martinius 

of doubt CapeUa affirms that fevers were thus 

The organs, though defunct and dead removed. Aulus Gellius tells us that a 

before^ case of sciatica was cured |by the in- 

Break up their drowsy grave, and newly flnence of sweet sounds, and Theo- 

move , ^ , .... phrastus maintains that the bites of 

With carted slough and fttth eeknty.'' 1;,,^^^ ^ ^^her renomow MptOe. 

fw V- J -11 -x_.- f .t^- can be leliered by ainular meaos.* 

• h" ""tv* ^ 'S?f**?'J& "'L*'^ We find it stated in a late in«lio.l 

in Henry IV. The Dnke of Northum- joomd, that the convuWTe morenieDi, 

betland haying heard of the death of ]„ ^ ^ of St. Vitna'i dance w«^ 

h» """^t-P". ''»^« on ^ «<»k bed, completely under the eontrol of mu«e, 

tnus speaks . that they were quickened and increased 

by rapid and stirring tunes, subdued 

** And M the wretch, whose fever-weak- and repressed by slow and gentle airs. 

rir^^!^^x w v 11 J It is a question of deep interest to 

Like strengthless hmges, buckle under ^ medical phUosopher, how &r the 

Io.patjit^ofhi.flt,breaksllkeafi^ S^TSU^fSj^^ 

Out of his keeper's arms: even so my !• *^ri:r iit* :ri!T*u j- 1^^^^ 

limbs ^^ ^^ ^^®* ^^ ^ ^^^ ^® direct snd 

WeakenM with grief, being now enrag'd j™^^ .^^ ^, ^" ^**^*J^''',~y» » 

with grief 1^^ writer m Blackwood, '* which act 

Are thrice themselves; hence, therefore, ^^ ^« "^ost fiital effects^ but the 

thou nice crutch ! semi-conscious condition, the atmo- 

Asealygauntletaow, with joints of steel, sphere of circumstances, with which 

Must glove this hand; and hence, thou artificial life surrounds us. The neat 

sickly grief !" cities of Europe, perhaps London uiave 

• Millingen's '^ Curiosities of Medical Experience.'' 

lB4i,] Mmtal HygUne. 905 

aO odien, under the modern modes of means seems to be sn extension of the 

tile and bosiness, create a vortex of taste for pleasures of an elevated cha- 

prateraatural tumnh, a rush and frenzy racter. 

of excitement which is fatal to £ir more There is a great want of capacity 

tlian are heard of as express victims to among us for the right enjoyment of 

ihit system." Existence in the active life. Surpassing all people in commer- 

WNrld of a large city necessarily in- cial enterprise and laborious energy, 

Tohes, as society is now constituted, skilled beyond example in the " means 

sseh a degree of mental wear and tear, and appliances" for the acquisition ^ 

dat the most robust physical organixa* wealth, we are far in the rearward of 

tion eaonot long sustain it without suf- most nations in the proper appreciation 

faiog. The excitement of politics, <Mf its uses. The end is lost in the 

Hide and eommeree, the intellectual straggle for the means. Living in a 

tints of the statesoian to meet the de- land where the laborer is deemed wor- 

■sods of his high station, the anxieiies thy of his hire, where industiy meets 

sf tie great merchant whose millions the highest reward and the necessaries 

m It slake, stimnlate the mmd to such and luxuries of life are of easy attain* 

aetivity, that disease is ineirttable. ment, we strive with a might unequaUed 

NeiToas affwtions, discNrders of the by the want-compelling efibits of the 

Ma sad inaanity, seem the almost un- forei^ worker to whom a pause from 

a.Tsidahls evib of our higher eivflisM toil is starvation. We journey along 

tioB.* Those laets, if true of older the mgpfed road of life, without repos- 

eoDBtnes, apply inth tenfold more lag by its waysides of pleasantness and 

fisee to soeiety as ergamied in Ame- peace. Our care-worn countenances 

nea. The rerj spirit of our instita- sad saddened looks strike the stranger 

lioSB uigiBg to constant progression, as a ounous illustration of our boasted 

the fretiQeooy of politieal dMmge, die happittess. The companionable £n|^» 

abaenes of Ibtednees cf social position, liamnan, missing among us that spint 

Ike rich mmi of to-day being the poor of good fellowship which at Irame 

ttaaofto-montiw,the continuous Strug- prompts the merry gathering and pro- 

gle ftr adTancement, the prize being longs the social hour, and the pleesure- 

aeeessiHe to all, the disenthralment loving Frenchman, feeing his holiday 

fran aatiqwited modes of thought and cheerfulness chilled by the dull mono- 

tbe nnrrersal spirit of free mqairy, be- tony of our working-day life, conclude 

get an unrest unknown to more ancient that *' all work and no play " has sue* 

fenas of society. It is not surprising, ceeded ia its legitimate effect of making 

then, that iusaiuty, nervous diseases Jonathans "dull boy." 

and the disorders of the digestive fiino- We look for a remedy to this unwise 

tioBs, the frMinent effiscts of excessive intensity of devotion to business, to^he 

nenul activity, should abound to such encouragement (coupled with Uie im- 

an extett among ns. provement) of the theatres, to pablic 

To eeunteraet the morbid influence concerts, the founding of galleries of 

spon health of the mental restlessness art, the establishment of national holi- 

af our eoramunity, men^s mmds must days, the promotion of social pleasures, 

be diverted from and otherwise extending the motives 

which may urge to refined enjoyment. 

* The passions and cares that wither life ;'* In the absence of these, the public mind 

will continue to seek, in the fiinaticism 

tbe aaxietiesf the toil and trouble of of religion and the excitements of trade 

jxttineas, aod relaxed by the healthful and politics, for that stimulus which 

nftience of the gentler emotions. To serves to administer to the prevalent 

promote this ead, the most efficacious passion for mental intoxication. 

* la absdate monarehies, ia Russia aad China, for example, iasaaity aad nervous 

Americtn Architecture. [Aiigii0l» 



We haye heard the learned in matters the maimnoth vase of the great reser- 

relating to art, express the opinion that voir, show how she works when she 

these United States are destined to feels at home, and is in earnest, 

form a new style of architecture. Re- The mind of this country has nerer 

membering that a vast population, rich been seriously applied to the subject of 

in material and guided by the expe- building. Intently engaged in matters 

rience, the precepts, and the models of of more pressing importance, we hare 

the old world, is about to erect durable been content to receive our notionS of 

structures for every function of civilized architecture as we have received the 

life, we also cherished the hope that fashion of our garments, and the form 

such a combination would speedily be of our entertainments, from Ehirope. 

formed. In our eagerness to appropriate we 

We forgot that though the country have neglected to adapt, to distin- 

was young* yet the people were old, gnish, — nay, to understand. We have 

that as Americans we have no child- built small Gothic temjdes of wood, and 

hood, no half fabulous, legendary have omitted all ornament for economy, 

wealth, no misty, cloud-enveloped back- unmindful that size, material, and onut- 

ground. We forgot that we had not ment are the elements of effect in that 

unity of religious belief, nor unity of style of building. Captivated by tlie 

origin; that our territory, extending classic symmetry of the Athenian 

from the white bear to the alligator, models, we have sought to bring the 

made our occupations dissimilar, our Parthenon into our streets, to make the 

character and tastes various. We temple of Theseus work in our towns, 

forgot that the Republic had leaped full We hav^ shorn them of their lateral 

grown and armed to the teeth froin the colonnades, let them down from their 

brain of her parent, and that a hammer dignified platform, pierced their walls 

had been the instrument of delivery, for light, and, instead of the storied 

We forgot that reason had been the dry relief and the eloquent statue which 

nurse of the giant offspring, and had enriched the frieze, and graced the 

fed her from the begmning with the pediment, we have made our chimney 

stoutbreadandmeatof fact; that' every tops to peer over the Inroken profile, 

' wry face th^ bantlinjg ever made had aud tell by their rising smoke of the 

been daffuerreotyped, and all her words traffic and desecration of the interior, 

and deeds printed and labelled away in Still the model may be recognized, 

the pigeon-holes of official bureaux. some of the architectural foatores axe 

Reason can dissect, but cannot origi- entire ; like the captive king striwed 

nate ; she' can adopt, but sannot create ; alike of arms and purple, and drndgin^' 

she can modify, but cannot find. Give amid the Helots of a capital, the Greek 

her but a cockboat, and she will elabo- temple as seen among as chums pity • 

rate a line of battle ship ; give her but for its degraded majesty, and attests 

a beam with its wooden tooth, and she the barbarian force which has ahoaed 

soon turns oat the patent plough. She its nature, and been blind to its qnali- 

is not young, and when her friends in- ties. 

sist upon the phenomena of youth, then If we trace Architecture from its 

is she least attractive. She can imi- perfection, in the days of Pericles, to 

tate the flush of the young cheek, but its manifest decay in the reign of Cob« 

where is the flash of the young eye ? stantine, we shall find that one of the 

She buys the teeth, — alas ! she cannot surest symptoms of decline was the 

buy the breath of childhood. The puny adoption of admired forms and models 

cathedral of Broadway, like an elephant for purposes not contemplated in their 

dwindled to the size of a dog, measures invention. The forum became a temple, 

her yearning for Gothic sublimity, the tribunal became a temple, the 

while the roar of the Astor-house, and theatre was turned into a church ; nay , 

'^i^'*«Mliw«<«"»><M^< " 

1843.] Ameriettn ArckiUcture. 207 

the cohnnn, that organised member, shoald feel for a fellow-citizen clothed 
that BQbordiiiate |Hut, set op for itself, in the garb of Greece. It is a make- 
usurped unity, and was a monument ! believe ! It is not the real thing ? We 
The great principles of Architecture see the marble capitals ; we trace the 
being once abandoned, correctness gave acanthus leaves of a celebrated model— 
my to novelty, economy and vain- incredulus odi ! It is not a temple, 
glory associated produced meanness The number and variety of our ex- 
and pretension. Sculpture, too, had periments in building show the dissa- 
wuie^. The degenerate workmen could tisfaction of the public taste with what 
DO longer match the fragments they has been hitherto achieved ; the ex- 
noghttomingle, nor copy the originals pense at which they have been made 
they only hoped to repeat. The mould- proves how strong is the yearning afler 
eiing remains of better days frowned excellence ; the talents and acquire- 
eontempt vpon such impotent efforts, ments of the artists whose services 
till, in the gradual coming of darkness, have been engaged in them are such as 
ignonoce became content, and insensi- to convince us that the fault lies in the 
h&ity ceased to compare. system, not in the men. Is it possible 
We say that the mind of this country that out of this chaos order can arise t 
has never been seriously applied to that of these conflicting dialects and 
arehiieetare. True it is, that the com- jargons a language can be born 1 When 
monweaith, with that desire of public shall we have done with experiments % 
magnifieeace which has ever been a What refuge is there from the absurdi- 
leading feature of democracy, has ties that have successively usurped the 
called from the vasty deep of the past name and functions of architecture t 
the qnrits of the Greek, the Roman, Is it not better to go on with consist- 
lod the Gothic styles ; but they would ency and uniformity in imitation of all 
not eome when she did call to them ! admired model than incur the disgrace 
The Tast cathedral with its ever open of other failures ? In answering these 
portals, towering high above the courts questions let us remember with humility 
of kinga,iovituH^all men to its cool and that all salutary changes are die work 
fiagiaattwilight, where the voice of the of many and of time; but let us en- 
organ stirs the blood, and the dim-seen courage experiment at the risk of 
bisons of saints and martyrs bleed and license, rather than submit to an iron 
die opoD the canvass amid, the echoes rule that begins by sacrificing reason, 
of hymning voices and the clouds of dignity and comfort. Let us consult 
frsAkineense, this architectural embody- nature, and in the assurance that she 
iBg of the divine and blessed words will disclose a mine, richer than was 
"eoiDetome,yewholaborand are heavy ever dreamed of by the Greeks, in art 
laden, and I will give you rest !" de- as Well as in philosophy. Let us re- 
mands a sacrifice of what we hold gard as inffratitude to the author of 
dearest. Its corner-stone must bo laid nature the despondent idleness that sits 
Qpon the right to judge the claims of down while one want is unprovided for, 
the church. The style of Greek archi- one worthy object unattained. 
texture as seen in the Greek temple. If, as the first step in our search 
<iemaads the aid of sculpture, insists after the great principles of construe- 
vpon every feature of its ori^nal or- tion, we but observe the skeletons and 
fixation, loses its harmony if a note skins of animals, through all the va- 
he ((ropped in the execution, and when rieties of beast and bi^, of fish and 
so modified as to serve for a custom- insect, are we not as forcibly struck by 
hoQse or a bank, departs from its origi- their variety as by their beauty 1 There 
oal beauty and propriety as widely as is no arbitrary law of proportion, no 
the orippled gelding of a hackney coach unbending model of form. There is 
differs from the bounding and neighing scarce a part of the animal organization 
wild horse of the desert. Even where, which we do not find elongated or 
in the fervor of our fiaith in shapes^ we shortened, increased, diminished or 
have sternly adhered to the dictum of suppressed, as the wants of the genus 
another age, and have actually sue- or species dictate, as their exposure or 
ceeded m securinff the entire exterior their work may require. The neck of 
which echoes the forms of Athens, the the swan and that of the eagle, how- 
pile stands a stranger among us ! and ever diflferent in character and propor- 
tecdre9 a respect akin to what we tion, equally charm the eye and satisQr 

4M8 Americtui Archiieetwre. [ Aogosl, 

the reason. We approTe the length of we cannot withhold onr admiiatkm eren 

the same member in grazing ammalB, irom the organs of destruction. There 

its shortness in beasts of prej. The is majesty in the royal paw of the lion, 

horse's shanks are thin, and we admire music in the moti<Hi of the brinded 

them; the grey hound's chest is deep, and tiger; we accord our praise to the 

we cry, beautiful ! It is neither the sword and the dagger, and shudder our 

presence nor the absence of this or that approval of the frightfol aptitode of the 

part or shape or color that wins our ghastly guillotine, 
eye in natural objects ; it is the consist- Conceiving destruction to be a nor- 

ency and harmony of the parts juxta- mal element of the system of nature 

posed, the subordination of detsuls to equally with production, we have used 

masses, and of masses to the whole. the word beauty in connection with it. 

The law of adaptation is the funda- We have no objection to exchange kL 

mental law of nature in all structure, for the word character, as indicating 

So unflinchingly does she modifj a type the mere adaptation of forms to fonc- 

in accordance with a new position, that tions, and would gladly substitute Uie 

some philosophers have declared a va- actual pretensions of o«r aichiteetore 

riety of appearance to be the object to the fonoer, could we hope to •eeore 

aimed at; so entirely does riie limit the latter. 

the modification to the demands of ne- Let us now timi to a straetare of 

cessity, that adherence to one original our own, one wfaieh from its nature and 

plan seems, to limited intelligence, to be uses commands us to reject aathotri^» 

carried to the very verge of caprice, and we shall find the result of the manly 

The domination of arbitrary rules of use of plain good sense so like that oi 

taste has produced the very counter- taste and genius too, as aeazee to 

part of the wisdom thus displayed in require a distinctive title. Obaerre a 

every object around us ; we tie up the ship at sea ! Mark the majestic fonn 

camel leopard to the rack ; we snave of her hull as she nisihes through the 

the lion, and call him a dog ; we strive water, obeerve the graoeful hcnd of her 

to bind the unicorn with his band in the body, the gentle transition £ram round 

furrow, and to make him harrow the to flat, the grasp of her keel, the leap 

valleys after us ! of her bows, the symmetrjr and riok 

When the savage of the South Sea tracery of her spars and ngging, and 
islands shapes his war club, his first those grand wind muscles, Wnils! 
thought is of its use. His first efforts Behold an organization second oidy to 
pare the long shaft, and mould the that of an animal, obedient as the hone, 
convenient huidle ; then the heavier swift as the stag, and bearing Uie bur- 
end takes gradually the edge that cuts, then of a thousimd camels firom pole to 
while it retains the weight that stuns, pole ! What Academy of Design, wluit 
His idler hour divides its surface by research of conmHsseurship, what km- 
lines and curves, or embosses it with tation of the Greeks pit>dttced this 
figures that have pleased his eye, or marvel of construction ? Here is the 
are linked with his superstition. We result of the studv of man npcn the 
admire its effective shape, its Etruscan- great deep, where Nature spake of the 
like quaintness, its graceful fonn and laws of building, not in the feather and 
subtle outline, yet we neglect the lesson in the flower, but in winds and waTee, 
it might teach. If we compare the and he bent all hus mind to hear aad t% 
form of a newly invented machine with obey. Gould we carry into our cItiI 
the perfected type of the same in- architecture the responsibilities ttmt 
strument, we obMrve, as we trace it weigh upon our ship-building, we ahould 
through the phases of improvement, ere long have edifices as superior to 
how weight is shaken off where the Paithenon for the purpoaes itmt wa 
atrength is less needed, how functions require, as the Constitution or the 
are made to approach without impeding Pennsylvania is to the galley of the 
each other, how the straight bocomes Argonauts. Could our blundeis on terra- 
curved, and the curve is straightened, firma be put to the same dread teel 
tin the straggling and cumbersome ma- that those of shq>-bnilder8 are, little 
chine becomes Qie contact, effective would be now left to say on thi» au]^ 
imd beautiful engine. ject. 

So instinctive is the perception of Instead of foreing the functione of 

organio beauty in the human eye, that eyery sort of hniUing into one general 

1841] American ArehUecture. 809 

fonDf adoptiiig' an outward shape for the that the Maison Carrit is but a frag- 
sake of the eye or of association, with- ment, and that too of a Roman'temple % 
out reference to the inner distribution, He was. It is beaati^i ! — ^is the^nswer. 
let us begin from the heart as a nucleus An English society erected in Hyde 
aod worlc outward. The most conve- Park a cast in bronze of the colossal 
oieot size and arrangement of the Achilles of the Qnirinal, and changing 
fooms that are to constitute the build- the head, transformed it into a monu- 
ing being i£Si%A^ the access of the light ment to Wellington. But where is the 
that may, of the air that must, be wanted, distinction between the personal prow- 
being provided for, we have the skele- ess, the invulnerable body, the heaven- 
ion of our building. Nay, we have all shielded safety of the hero of the Iliad, 
excepting the dress. Ihc connexion and the complex of qualities which 
and order of parts, juxtaposed for con- makes the modern general 1 The statue 
venienee, cannot tail to speak of their is beautiful ! — is the answer. If such 
relation and uses. As a group of idlers reasoning is to hold, why not translate 
on the (piay, if they grasp a rope to one of Pindar's odes in memory of 
haol a vessel to the pier, are united in Washington, or set up in Carolina a 
hannonious action by the cord they colossal Osiris in honor of Generial 
seize, as the slowly yielding mass forms Greene ? 

a thoroogfa-bass to their livelier move- The monuments of Egypt and of 
ment, so the unflinching adaptation of Greece are sublime as expressions <^ 
a Imilding to its position and use gives, their power and their feeling. The 
ss a sore product of that adaptation, modem nation that appropriates them 
character and expression. displays only wealth in so doing. The 
What a field of study would be possession of means, not accompanied 
opened by the adoption in civil archi- by the sense of propriety or feeling for 
tectore of those laws of apportionment, the true, can do no more for a nation 
distribution and connexion, which we than it can do for an individual. The 
have thos hinted at ? No longer could want of an illnstrioos ancestry may be 
the mere tyro huddle together a crowd compensated, fully compensated ; but 
of ill arranged, ill lighted and stifled the purloining of the coat of arms of a 
rooms, and masking the chaos with the defunct family is intolerable. That 
sne^ung copy of a Greek facade, usurp such a monument as we have described 
the name of architect. If this ana- should hare been erected in London 
tomic connexion and proportion teis while Chantry flourished, when Flax- 
been attained in ships, in machines, and, man^s fame was cherished by the few, 
in spite of ^Ise principles, in such and Bailey and Behnes were already 
imi}(hng8 as make a departure from it known, is an instructive fact. That 
fatal, as in bridges and in scaffolding, the illustrator of the Greek poets, and 
why should we fear its immediate use of the Lord's Prayer, should in the 
in all construction ? As its first result, meanwhile have been preparing designs 
the bank would have the physiognomy for George the Fourth's silversmiths, 
cf a bank, the church would be recog- is not less so. 

aized as anch, nor would the billiard The edifices, in whose construction 

room and the chapel wear the same the principles of architecture are de- 

nniforra of columns and pediment. The veloped, may be classed as organic, 

African king standing in mock majesty formed to meet the wants of their oc- 

^ith his legs and feet bare, and his cu|)ants, or monumental, addressed to 

body clothed in a cast coat of the the sympathies, the faith or the taste 

Prince Regent, is an object whose of a people. These two great classes 

ridiculous effect defies all power efface, of buildinj^s, embracing almost every 

Is not the Greek temple januned in be- variety of structure, though occasion- 

tween the brick shops of Wall street or ally joined and mixed in the same edi- 

Comhill, covered with lettered signs, fice, hare their separate rules, as they 

and finished by groups of money have a distinct abstract nature. In the 

changers and apple women, a parallel former class, the laws of structure and 

even for his African majesty 1 apportionment, depending on definite 

We have before us a letter in which wants, obey a demonstrable rule. They 

Mr. Jefferson recommends the model may be called machines, each individual 

of the Maison Carree for the State of which must be formed with reference 

House at Richmond. Was he avnire to the abstract type of its species. ThQ 

▼OL. Zin. — MO. LXIL 14 

ArehiUeiure. [Aufoat^ 

indiTidaals of the latter class, boand by philosophic mye8ligati<« of ancient 

no other laws than those of the aeati- art, will learn of the Greeks to be 

ment ilhich inspires them, and the American. 

sympathies to which they are address- The system of building we have 

ed, occupy the positions and assume hinted at cannot be formed in a day. 

the forms best calculated to render It requires all the science of any coua- 

their parent feeling. No limits can be try to ascertain and fix the proportions 

put to their variety ; their size and rich- and arrangement of the members of a 

ness have always been proportioned to great building, to plant it safely on the 

the means of the people who have soil, to defend it from the elen^nts, 

erected them. to add the crace and poetry of oma- 

If from what has been thus far said ment to its frame. Each of these re- 
it shall have appeared that we regard quisites to a good building requires a 
the Greek masters as aught less than special study and a life-time. Whether 
the true apostles of correct taste in we are destined soon to see so noble a 
building, we have been misunderstood, fruit, may be doubted ; but we can, at 
We believe firmly and fully that they least, break the ground and throw in 
can teach us ; but let us learn princi- the seed. 

pies, not copy shapes ; let us imitate We are fully aware that many regard 

them like men, and not ape them like all matters of taste as matters of pure 

monkeys. Remembering what a school caprice and fashion. We are aware 

of art it was that perfected their system that many think our architecture 

of ornament, let us rather adhere to already perfect ; but we have chosen, 

that system in enriching what we in- during this sultry weather, to exercise 

Tent than substitute novelty for pro- a truly American right — ^the right of 

prieiy. After observing the innovations talking. This privilege, thank God! 

of the ancient Romans, and of the mO- is unquestioned, — from Miller, who, 

dem Italian masters in this department, robbing Beranger, translates into fans- 

we cannot but recur to the Horatiaa tical prose, '^ Finissona en ! le monde 

precept — est assez vieux!" to Brisbane, who 

"exemplaria Grseca declares that the same world has yet 

Noetum&,ver8atemann> vers€Ltediurn&!" to begin, and waits a subscription of 

two hundred thousand dollars in order 

To conclude. The fundamental laws to start. Each man is free to present 

of building found at the basis of every his notions on any subject. We have 

s^le of architecture, must be the basis also talked, firm m the belief that the 

of ours. The adaptation of the forms development of a nation^s taste in ait 

and magnitude of structures to the depends on a thousand deep-seated in* 

climate they are exposed to, and the fluenees beyond the ken of the ignorant 

offices for which they are intended, present ; firm in the belief that freedom 

leaches us to study our own varied and knowledge will bear the fruit of 

wants in these respects. The harmony refinement and beauty, we have yet 

of their ornaments with the nature that dared to utter a few words of discon- 

they embellished and the institutions tent, a few crude thoughts of what 

from which they sprang, calls on us to might be, and we feel the better for it 

do the like justice to our country, our We promised ourselves nothing more 

government, and our faith. As a than that satbfaction which Major 

Christian preacher may give weight to Downing attributes to every man " who 

truth, and add persuasion to proof, by has had his say, and then cleared ouC 

atud3^ng Uie models of pagan writers, and we already perceive pleasingly 

BO the American builder, by a truly what he felt, and what he meant by it* 

1843.1 Another Lm Word aieui Tylerism. iUl 


Ik oar last Number, we gave a pretty but those whose conscience winged 
free vent to the feelings which had our words, were likely to misconstrue 
been gradually excited by an attentive a meaning so obvious. Qui cavil iUe 
observation of the course of things at facil. For them, our regret tor the 
Washington, — and it has done us good, harsh severity of censure of which 
We regret that some of the friends of some of them complain, confines itself 
the very sorry regime there prevailing, to the fact of their having deserved it. 
are less sensible than they ought to be Taking office under an adverse ad- 
of the gratitude they owe, for the very ministration — the case discussed by 
onequiTocal terms in which we ad- Sir Samuel Romilly — is a very diflfer- 
ministered to the administration some ent thing. That may oflea be done 
truths which were aswholesome as they without the slightest derogation of 
may have been unpalatable. They have honor, when all is manly and above 
quite disapproyed of the severity of the board, and especially when its duties 
kngoage extorted by a most righteous afford a scope for active public useful- 
indignationy from a pen to which neither ness congenial to the views and aims 
such themes, nor such modes of treat- of the individual. But this was an 
ing them, are very agreeable. Sidney administration recently hostile, and 
Smith on some occasion remarks, that still rotten at heart, straining every 
in the matter of cracking a certain very nerve to conciliate the party in whose 
animated class of the animated creation, ranks it has been so anxious to find 
whose monosyllabic name it is not recipients for its favors — to democratize 
necessary to introduce on our page, it itself, in the expression commonly im- 
is scarcely eustomary to allow the puted to one of its own leading mem- 
little wretches a veto on the means bers. One of the means plied for that 
thought proper for that process. The end was this form of political simony, 
application explains itself. There are, this most corrupt and corrupting pros- 
however, one or two points on which titution of its official patronage. The 
floch misapprehension of oui meaning cases are not likely to have been nu- 
has been expressed by some of our merous in which it has bestowed its 
own friends, as claims for us Another favors of this kind without an under- 
Last Word about Tylerism. standing of expected reciprocation, 
We never meant, for example, to which it at least has meant to be intel- 
apply to all Democrats accepting office ligible enough. Each individual must 
from these people, the strong expres- judge for himself how far his skirts are 
sions with which it was but just and clear from the contamination of which 
proper to stigmatize a certain portion — we have spoken ; but can have no riffht 
embracing, undoubtedly, the greater to complain of a severe distrust of his 
number of those whose political virtue purity of motive, when he is seen the 
is thus tempted and tampered with, recipient of office from an administra- 
There are, of course^ many who may tion acting so undisguised ly on such 
have received appointments unsought, principles; while there certainly has 
unexpected, and unpolluted by any been, on the part of a certain class of 
corrupt understanding for their support noisy Democratic politicians, a fiatter- 
for Mr. Tyler's pretensions as a Pre- ing court paid to Mr. Tyler and his 
sidential candidate. Such persons, friends for the sole object of his offices, 
honorably abstaining from all dissimu- fully meriting even stronger language 
lation as to their true sentiments, and than any of ours. 
from all deviation from the duties they It has seemed to us indeed a duty, 
impose, of course lie entirely beyond on the part of all the political honesty 
the range of our remarks ; which of the country, to bear the most em- 
pointed only to those whose seeking or phatic testimony of rebuke against this 
aeceptance of office has been accom- gross attempt, now for the first time 
panied by any of that meretricious sale witnessed, to build a Party on such a 
of their partisanship which it was right basis — ^to endeavor to buy a chance of 
Arostocharaeterizeasitmerited. None renomination from an adverse party, 

919 Stanzas for Music. [Aagosty 

by a seceder from his own, through plained of as an excessive harshness in 
the bribery of Patronage. In Mr. Ty- otir denunciations. 
ler's case, its contrast with so many On the whole, it is perhaps scarcely 
professions on that particular point, so to be regretted that this new experiment 
strong, 80 sanctimonious, and at the has been made in the working of our 
same time so recent, gave to the attempt system. It has demonstrated what 
a character of political profligacy to was always contended by the Demo- 
which the only difficulty was to do cratic press, during the disputes about 
proper justice in the force of language the alleged " Executive tyranny " in 
employed. For the individual, a De- the old Jackson day, — ^that in truth that 
mocrat has little or nothing to care, great power of our Presidency, of 
His political insignificance, as a candi- which our opponents then so bitterly 
date, in rivalry to any of the eminent complained, is purely a moral and re- 
leaders of our own party, is utter non- presentative power, as the embodiment 
entity. With him, too, probably, as in of the pubUc opinion and sympathy of 
so many other cases of snwller scale, the great popular mass. Its mere 
much of what passes for knavery is patronage is rather a source of weak- 
only folly. He has fallen into the ness than otherwise, and can never 
l^ds of a miserable set, who have yield any strength, formidable to liberty, 
never allowed him to breathe any other to a bad or weak man disposed to 
atmosphere than one poisoned with all attempt a corrupt use of it. There is 
the foulness of their own flatter}' and but one way in which a President in 
falsehood. Mr. Tyler is freely wel- oflice for a first term, can recommend 
come to such palliation as is to be de- himself to the people for a second — 
rived from this circumstance. It was namely, to aim at it in no other way 
the act, the thing, which received, as than by deserving it. 
it so justly called for, all that is com- 





Forth ! forth ! thou minister of potent spell ! 

Rest not inert within thy zephyr bower ; 
Awake the munnurs of yon tuneful shell. 

At invocation of thy kindred Power, 
That biddcth live the poetry of thought, 
And stamps the vivid ray from Nature's altar caught. 

Abroad ! abroad ! beneath the arch of Heaven, 
O'er ocean wave thatgirdeth around the earth, 

Wherever beam has played or winds have striven, 
Seek thou rich strains of pathos and of mirth ; 

The incense breath of mortal joy and woe, 

And give the touching impress in melodious flow. 

Above ! above ! in fields of upper air, 
A^liere shine the glories of uncounted spheres, 

And Day and Night, in alternation fair. 
Their reign assert, as Twilight disappears. 

Go, search for chords will stir the human heart, 

And gain its willing homage to thy matchless art. 

Abide ! abide ! thy empire is with men ; 

The noble deed and lofly thought inspire, 
Yield ready fervor to the Poet's pen, 

And touch the lip of Eloquence with fire ; 
Live on, unscathed, through Time's exalting day, 
And deathless, ageless, hold thy magio, sovereign sway, 

Jfat HomiMif, JMmm. 

1843.] MmUMy Fmancitd and Commercial Article, 213 


MoNKY continues excecdin^y plentiful tion is invested in stocks, at call. In 
in the Atlantic cities, and with difficulty making^ these loans, the utmost caution 
finds employment even at the low rate is exercised. To obtain a loan of the 
of 3| to 4 per cent. Notwithstanding banks, a sound, dividend-paying stock 
the conBequent desire of the banks to is selected, and deposited as collateral, 
invest, we do not perceive that an^ with a note payable on demand, bearing 
lelaxation has taken place in their on its face a clanse expressive of the 
views as to the character of paper dis- fact that certain stocks are pledged as 
counted. On the contrary, the effects security, (^^ with authority to sell the 
of the Bankrupt Law still upon the same on the non-performance of this 
market, with the taint of insolvency promise, in such manner as they in 
which has run through all classes, seem their discretion may deem proper, 
to have enhanced the caution of the either at public or private sale, and 
banks. Theire is, indeed, very little apply the proceeds hereon.'*) In this 
strictly business paper created to com- manner, an amount of money ten per 
mand the facilities of the corporate cent, less than the market value of the 
institutions, and all other is viewed security pledged, is obtained at 4 to 6 
with suspicion. There seems, how- per cent, per annum. If the price of 
ever, a growing movement in the the security falls, the borrower is 
market, which may be attended with promptly notified, and the neglect of a 
great results ; it is that, in making day in making good the margm carries 
krge sales of staple goods, some dis- his securities under the hammer. This 
positicm is evinced to receive the notes indicates the present method in which 
of known dealers drawn to their own bank funds for the most part are em- 
order, on which discounts are procured ployed, and the rigid manner in which 
without endorsement. Should such a such laws are enforced. Banks being 
movement become general, and enforced the artificial reservoirs for capital, are 
by the combined influence of the leading subject, as now, to repletion, when the 
merchants, a radical change must take regular channels through which their 
place boUi in banking and the manner money is intended to be employed are 
of doing business. It will confine every choked up by the revulsions they 
man's business within his own means themselves engender, or by the nn- 
and responsibility, and separate those healthy action of legislative interfer- 
knots of mutual endorsers, which have ence with commercial pursuits. This 
been as harmful to themselves as to state of repletion may take place at a 
the institutions in which their business time even when many industrial em* 
centres. The banks would be deprived ployments, on which the real prosperity 
of the security of two names upon one of the whole country depends, are lan- 
Mll ; but it frequently happens in such guishing for want of the proper appli- 
cases, that the banlmiptcy of one in- cation of that capital. Herein is one 
Tolves that of both, while, had the two of the inherent evils of the system. 
names stood separately, on their own At the late session of the New York 
responsibility, one would have remained Legislature, a law was passed, which 
^ood. The moral effect would be to went into operation July 1st, in relation 
induce that unremitting watchfulness to the chartered banks of New York, 
in ascertaining the financial standing, abolishing the office of Bank Commis- 
industry, and habits of their customers, sioners, and substituting quarterly pub> 
which characterizes the Parisian bank- lications of the affairs of the banks, and 
ers, and which has greatly contributed also requiring the chartered banks to 
to the success of moneyed operations redeem all their old circulation, and 
in France. At present, however, the hereafter to deposit their plates with 
banks have a large amount of their the State Comptroller, from whom they 
fluids unemployed, and a good proper- are thenceforth to derive their circulat- 


MimUdy Financial and Commercial Article, 


•ing bills, registered and countersigned 
in the same manner as are the notes or 
bills under the Free Banking Law. 
This important difference exists, how- 
ever, that the free banks are required 
to deposit adequate security with the 
Comptroller before receiving their cir- 
culating bills, while the chartered banks 
obtain them without lodging any secur- 
ity. This difference producing two 
circulating mediums, which it will be 
difficult to keep in circulsttion together, 
18 likely to create a conflict, and prove 
a check upon the movements of both ; 
in the same manner that in 1839, when 
the Free Banking act first went into 
operation, the circulation of the new 
banks rapidly drove in that of the 
Safety Fund institutions, reducing it 
from $19,000,000, January, 1839, to 
$10,000,000, January, 1840, causing 
great embarrassment to the latter, and 
breaking up the system of city redemp- 
tions of country bills as then conducted 
by the State Bank of New York. The 
publication of quarterly returns of all 
the banks will exert a restraint upon 
their movements, inasmuch as they 
'ittUBt always keep their affairs in a 
condition to meet the public gaze, not 
allowing them, as heretofore, to relax 
afler having made up their annual re- 
turns. The necessity of self-defence 
will lead the institutions to scrutinize 
each other^s returns, and promptly to 
detect any weak movements. This is 

calculated to exert a wholesome influ- 
ence upon banking throughout the 
Union, inasmuch as it is from New 
York, as the great commercial centre, 
that the tone is given to the whole 

This being the state of money mat- 
ters on the Atlantic border, it becomes 
evident that capital ought soon to exert 
its influence upon the vast agricuHural 
wealth of the nation. There is a great 
comparative scarcity of money in the 
Western States, whfle they have aH 
the means of commanding it. Low 
prices and abundant crops in the interior 
should be acted upon by plenteousness 
of money and cheap rates of interest 
upon the Atlantic border, filling the 
channels of circulation with actual 
money, and drawing forth in payment 
the proceeds of industry, lliat this 
process is now going on in some de- 
gree, is evident from the great increase 
in tolls on all the great public works. 
The business of the New York State 
canals will serve as an index to that of 
all the public works of the Umon. 
There has been this year ten days of 
navigation less than last year ; that is, 
in 1842 there were seventy days of 
navigation to 1st July, and this year 
but sixty days ; notwithstanding which 
the receipts of tolls and of flour and 
wheat, at tide water, have been as 
follows : 


Foarth Week 
In Jane. 

Total Tolli. 
to Jnly 1. 

Foarth Week In Jane. 

























During the month, the Treasury 
Department has succeeded in obtaining 
a loan of $7,000,000, at 5 per cent., 
stock redeemaible in ten years, mostly 
at a premium of $101.01 per cent. 
The highest oifer was for a small 
amount at $102,375, another for 
$ 1 01 . 55 . These oflers embraced less 
than $500,000. The balance was taken 
by a combination of individuals, at the 
first^mentioned rate, which is about 
.50 more than the true value of the 

stock to produce 5 per cent, interest. 
The market price of the stock is now 
2i per cent, premium, with one month^s 
interest accrued. The proceeds of this 
loan are applicable to the redemption 
of Treasury notes fUling due, and noti- 
fied to be paid off on the SOth June, 
1843. These notes bore 6 per cent. 
interest, and have been held nnoBtly 
by banking institutions. The amoant 
outstanding was aa follows : 


M'OfUMiy Financial and Commercial ArticU. 



April 1. 


Jano 1. 

J«l]r 1. 

Iimied prior to Aut;. 1842 
Act of August, 1842 
JKedeemed ... 













Gnod total outstanding 

$11,686,387 $11,632,075 |$11,607,085 


The payment of these notes throws 
ioto the hands of the banks a large 
amoant of money, which must be re- 
ioTested, and may or may not be ap- 
plied to the new loan, which has risen 
to 3 a 3 premium in the market. 
The finances of the Federal Govern- 
inent seem to be constantly getting into 
a worse eondition, as must naturslly be 
the case when, in regulating the tariff, 
the object of revenue is lost sight of, in 
the desire to legisbte rather for par- 

ticular interests than for the welfare of 
the whole country. A letter of the 
Secretary of the Treasury, received at 
the office of the House of Representa- 
tives, in answer to certain resolutions 
of the House, passed February 23d, 
1843, gives the following statement of 
the extraordinsury means used to defray 
the expenses of the Government, for 
the last six years, ending dd March, 

HABCB THinj). 

Bevenae, Ace. 

Interest OB 
Public Depottits. 

Pftld from U. 8. 
and odier Banloi. 













• 129,552 








Thus, during the last three years, un- 
^erthe new administration, $42,5^,019 
of extraordinary means were used ; 
wh3e in the previous three years 
^86,358,446 only were used. The 
■new administration have therefore ex- 
•ceeded their tevenne $16,208,673 more 

than the last, in order to fulfil their 
pledge of economy ! 

The natural resuH of this reckless- 
ness of expense is a constant increase 
of liabilities, the comparative amount 
of which is contained in the same 
letter, as follows : 


Appropriations cratBtanding. Nacloaal IMM. 

March 4th, 1841 - . 26,977,611.83 8,383,656.70 

March 4lh, 1843 - - 31,589,337.62 27,394,261.17 



This resuH evinces anything but a 
strict observance of that economy 
whieh the general stagnation of trade 
makes necessary, and the low prices 
of aS articles of consumption, as well 
as the suspension of Indian hostilities, 
render easy to be enforced. It is not 
to be disguised, that since the accession 
of ihe present administration, every 

means has been exerted to roJl up a 
large public debt. Under pretence of 
paying it, it has been increased 400 
per cent. This is one cause of the 
great derangement in trade and finan- 
cial matters which the country has 
experienced during the past few years. 
It iB always the case, when, by the 
movement of the Government or that 


Monthly Financial and Commercial ArticU, 


of luge institutions, a certain direction 
is given for a length of time to the 
capital of the country, that all old in- 
terests conform to that direction, and 
new interests are formed by it and de- 
pendent upon it. Thus, after the close 
of the old war, the debt of the Federal 
Government x^-as, in 1796, $83,762,172 
— and that comprised all the public 
stocks in the country, as there were 
but very small State debts. The old 
United States Bank was in existence 
until 1811, and very few other stocks 
were outstanding. In all that time, 
the Federal Government paid off into 
the hands of private capitalists, in 
discharge of its debt, principal and 
interest, $142,907,991, of which 
$12,812,831 was foreign debt. There 
were no other stocks to absorb this 
money as it flowed from the Govern- 
ment, and it constantly sought and 
found legitimate employment in for- 
warding the real interests of the coun- 
try in the hands of the industrious. 
The breaking out of the war changed 

From 1791 to 1816 
From 1816 to 1836 

this state of things; all commercial 
interests were paralyzed, and the funds 
which had been employed in those 
pursuits found emplojrment in the re- 
newed loans of the Government, whose 
debt rose from $45,209,737 in 1812, to 
$127,334,933, in 1816. The Govern- 
ment had thus withdrawn $82,100,000 
from other employments, and devoted 
it to military uses. The war did not 
last long enough to create any large 
interests dependent upon its continu* 
ance. In 1817, the old course of things • 
was renewed; that is. Government 
began to throw off annually large 
amounts of money in discharge of its 
debts, to seek other employments. A 
new United States Bank was created,, 
and absorbed $35,000,000 for its capi- 
tal ; but the country was in a deplorable 
condition until 1820, when the pay- 
ments on account of the public debt 
became regular, and continued until its 
extinguishment in 1835. The pay- 
ments of the Government on account 
of the public debt were as follows : 




As we have stated, up to 1812 no 
new stocks were created. In all that 
time the business of the country was 
constantly receiving accessions of cap- 
ital. After 1820 this was not the case, 
because, as fast as the United States 
debt was paid off, other stocks were 
created, and no new capital was applied 
directly to industrial employments. 
The movement of banks does not assist 
in enhancing the wealth of the country. 

It merely facilitates the interchange of 
that wealth after it is produced. la 
order to observe the actual progress of 
the creation of stocks, we will take the 
following table, showing the outstand- 
ing amount of three descriptions of 
stocks, at different periods. An enor- 
mous amount of capital was invested 
in the capitals of companies of various 
descriptions, which is not taken into 
the account. 


Bink Stnclra. 

■'-■ ■ 

Bute and City Stocks 

Total BlorJa. 





























































1843.] MmUklff Fmancid and Cctmnereial Ariitk. 817 

The amallest aoMmnt of public Btocki, credits to indindmls, they are sending 
it will be observed, existed in 1836, back the wreck of that before borrowed, 
when $66,483,186 of State stocks The interest on the public debt is to 
comprised all. In the subsequent three be paid by the farmers, the remains of 
years, $108,000,000 of State stocks the bank capital in liquidation is retun^ 
were created, of which oyer $40,000,- ing to its owners, and the dividends on 
000 was for bank capital, and is there- bwikrupt estates are going to the At- 
fore also embraced under the head of lantic creditors. The money drawn 
Bank Stocks. It then appears, that from the Atlantic States by stocks and 
a^r the final discharge of the Govern- traders is flowing back out of the pock- 
ment debt in 1835, $330,000,000 of ets of the farmers. Capital, therefore, 
stocks were created, forming a constant accumulates on the seaboard, and will 
drain upon the capital employed in all find employment in a new direction, 
other pursuits. A large amount, in-< The money which thus accumulates in 
deed, came from abroad. Most of these the banks, being the realization of for- 
banks and State debts were created by mer loans, and lefl inactive by the ma> 
the Southern and Western States, with turity of paper, without a corresponding 
foreign and Atlantic capital. Hence, creation of new, is the reflux of capita 
in the lapse of eight years, near $400,- from employment in a false direction, 
000,000 set in a constant stream fiom as is evident from the fact, that while 
the Atlantic border to the interior ; not this apparent abundance exists on the 
to be applied to the stimulation of in- seaboard, the industrious and agricul- 
dustry, and in the hands of the mechanic tural sections of the country evince a 
and farmer, to enhance the real wealth comparative scarcity. The accumula- 
of the country, but to build, in many tion of capital in the hands of private 
cases, useless public works, and to be individuals, the result of successful 
used in banking operations to facilitate enterprises, has, during the past few 
trade, not productive industry. The years, been exceedingly small. We 
immense amount of money which could believe there are very few industrial 
be had for this purpose, tempted the or mercantile employments that have 
farmer to leave his plough, and become more than maintained the capitals em- 
speculator and trader. As long as the ployed in their prosecution, without 
money continued to flow in that direc- throwing off an3rthing to seek permanent 
tion, every one was apparently pros- investment in other channels. Certain 
perous. The country, however, became it is, that in very many branches of 
rapidly impoverished. There were business, old reserved capitals have 
more dealers than producers. There been severely trenched upon to meet 
stood ready two merchants to do the the wants of regular business, under 
business created by the industry of one the falling prices and depreciating 
producer. The end was bankruptcy, values of late years. The continued 
the delmqnency of $1 15,000,000 of fall of prices has uniformly, until the 
State stodcB, the failure and liquidation present year, swept away anticipated 
of $80,000,000 to $90,000,000 of bank profits. The extent to which capital 
capital, and the passage of the Bank- has been annihilated can be judged of 
mpt Act to expunge $350,000,000 of by the operations of the Bankrupt Act. 
mdividual debts. A new direction is The state of Illinois, with a population 
DOW given to capital. Instead of the of 476,000 inhabitants, and one of the 
Western States drawing money from most fertile states of the Union, exhibits 
the Atlantic border for loons contracted, the following results : 
or sabscriptions to bank capitad, or 

Bank Capital failed and in liquidation ... $5,423,185 
Fifteen hundred Bankrupts, liabilities average $5000 7,500,000 

State Bebt delinqoent in Interest .... 18,836,739 

Total Ddioquencies $31,759,924 

The average of liabQities under the stoppage of the banks and of the state 

Bankrupt Act, in a State so far west, is dividends deprives the capitalists of an 

^ge ; bat it is official, and is probably income of $2,230,000 per annum. All 

les9 tb3.n that for the Union. The the states have not been delinquent in 

91fi Mcnihly FmanoUd and Commer eu d Arti^, [Aogustt 

their debts ; but the amount of capital and that trade promises to become very 
which has peririied will ayerage larger important. Ais the prices rise, mort- 
in other states than in Illinois. Events gages become more easily paid, taxes 
such as these have greatly reduced not are cheerfnlly discharged, trade reviyes, 
only the general means of holding and capital accnmnlates. This process 
stocks for permanent inyestment, but has now commenced; and with its 
have diminished the capital really ne- progress, should the public debts be 
cessary for the prosecution of industry ; confined within their present limits, 
and it is by no means certain that, ontstanding stocks will eventually re- 
when the capital now seeking invest- cover their values, and be sustained at 
ment at low rates of interest, and par. During the coming year, how- 
raising the prices of the best stocks, ever, a great change is to be expected 
shall have become fairly active and in financial and commercial affairs as 
healthfully employed, anything like influenced by the movement of the 
the present average rates of stocks Government. When the now dominant 
can be maintained, until capital has party came into power, the expendi- 
recovered itself. It is true, that ^e lures of Government were brought 
lowest points of depression have been vnthin a narrow compass, and the 
apparently reached. The real wealth revenues under the supposed settled 
of the country is extremely abundant, policy ofthe Government fully adequate 
and an upward movement is already to meet them and discharge the small 
commenced. We believe that, as a debt then due. In gracing the reins 
general thing, all investments made in of government, the rallying cry of 
western produce during the past spring " change*' was efiectually carried oat. 
have yielded profitaUe returns, and Without inquiring into the expediency 
that business in that direction is rapidly of any existing regulations, a ^* change" 
improving. This forms the ground- was speedily effected. For economy, 
work ofthe national prosperity. With was substituted increased expenses, 
a rise in agricultural products, all the For the orderly Sub-Treasuiy, chance 
springs of national industry are put in and confusion. For frugal revenue, 
-motion, and the accumulation of capital laws, and susiple means, according to 
recommences, and rapidly progresses, the great national coD^nnnise, a pro- 
Unfortunately, the untoward legislation hibitory tariff, and its appendage, a 
of the last Congress has wonderfully bankrupt treasury. For high national 
retarded the progress of improvement, credit, the rejected sojiplications of a 
by hampering the outlet for produce, travelling loan-agent m the ftoetgn 
One of the worst efiects of the paper market. For a progressive liquidation 
mania, which yet overshadows die of debt, a rapid increase of it. Dis- 
country, is the innumerable mortgages order followed disorder, until the party, 
VLpon their lands, which the cultivators falling to pieces, leaves an inefficient 
of the soil were induced to execute, executive; without permanent commer- 
Those mortgages doubled in value cial policy ; with no financial system ; 
when prices &11. In 1837, . twenty with a deficient revenue and an increa»> 
barrels of flour would pay a mortgage ing debt, of which $6,668,000 falls doe 
of < $S00 ; in 1840, the same mortgage in January, 1844 ; and without the con* 
Tvqttired forty barrels ; and thirty-two fidence of the people, or the support, 
barrels will now discharge it. Had scarcely, of the executive patronage, 
not foreign sales of produce been in- it is to encounter the stem inquisition 
terdicted by the tariff of the 37di of a Democratic Congress. This is a 
Congress, twenty-five barrels would position of afllairs which makes fiarther 
probably now have sufficed for the same " change'' inevitable ; and its inihience 
payments As it is, the reduced tariffs upon national prosperity will be pro- 
of England have much enlarged the portionate to the speed aod promptitude 
markets there for western produce, with which it is effected. 

1843.] Afw Bookt of the MfyiUh. 919 


J2Mra(toiu of Hu CroUm Jqueduct. By ments'' there displayed in such imposing 

F. B. Tow£ft, of the Engineer Depurt- typography had biecn omitted. Howerer, 

ment. New York and London ; Wiley we suppose it was all officially proper and 

& Putnam. 1843. 4to. pp. 152. necessary. 

J Memsir of th€ Coiulmciiomj Cosi^ and Mr. Tower's volume possesses the ad- 

Capoeiiy of the Croton jiqueduety com- vantage, which must of coarse recommend 

jfiUd from Official J>ocumenU } together it more to the general pnblic patronage, 

wUh am aecoutti of the Civic CelAraiion that it is embellished with a large nnmber 

q^ ike 14/A of October ^ 1842, on occasion of beaotifal views of the most remarkable 

^ the Completion of the Great Work : portions of the work, drawn by the author, 

jrreeeded by a Preliminary Eseay on (himselfoneof the engineers employed in 

Andefat and Modem Jqniduete, By the construction of the work), and findy 

ChaUiBB Kikg. New York : Printed engraved by Gimbrede and Bennett. He 

by Charles King. 1843, 4to. pp. has in ihis respect, as well as in tlie 

308. general typography of the whole volame, 

exhibited a liberal disregard of those eeo- 

We have here two elegant volumes, nomical restrictions of which Mr. King 

appearing simultaneously, on the noble hints a just coropiaint against the pnUic 

work Co which both in their title-pages authorities ; and we hope he will not fail 

refer — the one, (that by Mr. Tower), as to receive that remuneration to which he 

the private enterprise of its author ; the has so well entitled himself. The plates 

other, under the auspices and at the cost are numerous and excellent, and serve to 

of the city whose recent noble achieve- fix on the eye that image of the views they 

sent H is designed to illustrate. No in- represent, which no mere verbal deseri|i^ 

diridual could have been selected, better tion can make visible to it. The account 

eoBpeteat for a duty of that character, given of the history and eonstruetion of 

than the accomplished and intelligent the work is suecinet and clear, and is alto 

gentlemeii to whom, by a unanimous vote, preceded by a notice of other aqueducts, 

it was «tttrasted by the committee of the ancient and modem, similar to that of 

CoouiMm CouBcil charged with the busi- Mr. King, and drawn fVom the same 

ness of the grand civic celebration of last sources, though somewhat less extensive. 

October, in honor of the completion of the We purpose recurring, on another occa* 

Aqueduct. We willingly score off from sion, to this interesting subject. 
Mr. Kin^s account several items of his 

poliiieal sins, in his editorial capacity, in — -^ 

consider^ of the very creditable man- p^ ,^,,^ Vindicaied, in a CriHqne 

Tk' IfJi'*?'' 1"^f ."^Ik^^/ pressure of iTmig'e JLniwA Chemietry. By 
the labors incident to that capacity he Chabi^mCaldwkll, M.D. 8vo. pp. 
has performed the public service whose j.q w— , 
Ihiits are here before us. His Pre- 
liminary Essay on ancient and modem The dazsling impressions produced by 
aqueducts, and other hydrauUc contri* the first appearance of Liebig's Animal 
vances, with a notice of the various Chemistry are now gradually giving way 
water- woiics that have been constructed to << sober second thoaghts." In England, 
in other cities of the Union— miniature France, and our own country, the writings 
as they all are in contrast with the mag- of the German professor have recently un- 
nificent work of New York — is an inter- dergone the most strict and severe ordeal ; 
esting and well-compiled epitome of and among these critiques, that of PnK 
knowledge on the subject, to which all fessor Caldwell holds a prominent {dace, 
accessible sources have been made to Professor C, by the way, is a powerful 
contribute. Thehistoryof the enterprise writer, his productions being always 
is given in minute detail — more minute, characterized by beauty of diction and 
indeed, than is likely to interest the profnndity of thooght, 
general reader, thous^h doubtless appro- Believing that the celebrated Profbs- 
priate to the design of the work committed sor of Giessen, with his hosts of pro- 
to his hands. In the account of the cele- pagandists both in Europe and Amer- 
bration, we most remark, that the litera- ica, metamorphoses man, with all his 
tore of the age would not have suffered attributes, corporeal ond mental, into a 
ioeottsoiahle loss, if some of the ** docn- nere chemical product. Prof. C. deems 

New Books of the MojUh. [Angiut, 

Muifelf called apon, as a teacher of med- tions by the infallible touchstone of time, 

icine, to stand forth as the champion of zeflectiony and experience. 

the pkUofophy of life, against this new and 

formidable foe. Professor Liebig, it is 

true, declares his belief in the soperin- cUmtatf; or ilu Fieid of Uu Gfu^ Ban^ 

tendence of vital laws ; bat at the same ^ , ^„ Hutorieal JUmaneey and olhtr 

time, his whole theory indicates a deter- p^„,, gy j Augottus Shea. New 

mination, on the part of Chemistry, to y^^^ i^ . j)^ Appleton & Co., 200 Broad- 

usnrp dominion over the whole philoso- ^^y^ 1543^ ISUoo^ pp. 156. 
phy of living orjranized matter. That 

JUebig's hypothesis of vital temperature m^. ghea's poem has already eUcited 
IS exclusively chemical, regardmg it as fro^ j^^ p^^ss generaUy a favorable vcr- 
the ruuU of combustiony and thus denying ^jg^ ^ ^f^^^ ^^ ^^^ pleasure in adding 
to viialUy all the shadow of agency in its ^^^ concurrence. Without claiming for 
production, would appear from the follow, jt ^jj^j sustained uniformity of merit 
ing extracu :~" In the animal body,; he ^^j^jj , jo^j^er period of eiaboration 
says, « the /oaf is the fuel; and with a jg^y^^ ^^^^ secured, it contains not a few 
proper supply of oxygen, we obtain the passages of fervor, force and beauty-^ha- 
heat given out during arute/ion or com- racleristic of the naUonaUty of iu snbject 
*iijft<m." Agam:— « The animal body ^^^ author. The warmth of patriotism 
acto, in this /«»pec^ *s * >'^*^«» ^'^jch which glows over iu pages wUlnlonewfficc 
we supply with/«e/."— « Chemical action ^^ commend it to the henrt of every Irish 
is amply sufficient to explain aUihephe- reader, independenUy of its just daimso* 
aomato."--" There exists not, m the am- j^ j^^^^ ^Ve should have been the bet- 
mal body, any other known source of heat, ^^^ pleased if its modest and worthy aa- 
besides the mutual chemical action be- ^hor had been less chary in the number of 
tween the elcmente of the food and the ^jn^^ fugitive pieces which he has added 
oxygen of the air. These extracts most ^^ ^j^^ i ^^^ ^^' ^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^^ 
assuredly fix upon the German Professor, ^^^^ t,,^ „^,^ig y^^^ ^ ^^^ Qcean, be- 
a cA«inicaZ hypothesis to the exclusion of ginning « Likeness of Heaven!" &c, 
all iJi/ai laws, as regards the production ^^^^^^ ^^^^ j ^^^ f^^^^^ ^^^^^ 
of animal temperature ; and it is to an ^^^giy ^^.^ ^^ g^^f^ce of the newspaper 
examination of Liebig's peculiar theory, p^^^ ^^^ ^^^ identified in their author- 
in this respect, that the greater portion of ^^^ ^^ ^^j ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ prewsnt 
the « critique" IS devoted. As it would y^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ quotation of them entire, 
be foreign to the character of our journal, ^hc following are the concluding stanzas -. 
to enter into a detail of this question, it 

▼ill suffice to express our decided convic- " EtemiS^hltoS^^"' 

tion, that, so far as regards the production Unweakeoed— uawaited-- 

of vital temperature, the multiplicity of TwiD-brotherofTime! 

facts and arguments adduced by Professor FleeJ^ teinpMU, nor natSom 

Caldwell are wholly irreconcilable with a. SS2™ flSb^^e/d» 

every chemical hypothesis. That Prof. sauchaioieManthoa! 

Liebig looks quite too much upon the ani- ^ ... . 

mal orgaaism as a mere machine, subject NoS^^rtJiillSir''**" 

to the same laws that govern inorganic And the BnuBment'a length 

matter, has been successfully demonstrate !• drawn out like a acroii, 

ed by Prof. CaldweU. '^rJiirSS.I^A^-Sl'*" 

_ ' .... ., • 'J' Tnet BigM ny mee noW| 

We are aware that in thus coinciding Be moie mighty, moie laadnc, 

with the views of our author, many of our More chaialeee ihaa ihou?* 
readers will be taken by surprise ; but it 

has now, we think, been satisfactorily de- 

terminedthat Professor Liebig, high as^ ,.„ .^».^. 

are his order of intellect and his just ^Twefe m Egypt, Jrabui Pdrea, and the 

nnk in science, yet, as regards physiolo- ^«y «'^-.. ^^ ?^T* ^IP?*^ ^i}^J 
gy and pathology, often makes the most ^^ ^** President of the Weslcyan Uni- 
hasty and unnccomiUble generaUiations, versity. New York : Harper & Bro- 
jumping at new and startling conclusions, thcrs. 1843. 
long before he has determined the univer- ^ ,. . . . , 
sality of his facts. As a chemist, how- These volumes of a disUnguished min- 
ever, the Professor of Giessen has no su- "t» of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
perior; but high as his name must ever supply an important deficiency in the 
rank in Organic Chemistry, he will one records of our modern knowledge of the 
day regret that before giving this work to East. Mr. Stephens, by his charming 
the worW, he did not test his generalLea- " Incidents," threw the interest of romance 

1843.] New Books of the Monih. 991 

iroiud ibe relmtioB of what woold other* Marmaduhe WyvU ; orlheJiMdU Unrngi^ 
vise hAYe been a mere narratiTe of ordi- an HiMiorical Somanee, £y Hjembt 
naiy adventures aad common-place travel William Ue&B£rt, author of « The 
His ready sagacity in selecting whatever Brothers," *< Cromwell/' &c S^. New 
vss original and strikioff, and bis graphic York : J. Winchester, New World 
aad boiBerous poweri of description, kin- Press. 1843. 8to , pp. 218. 
died a vivid curiosity in the public mind 

as to everything connected with the pres- Mr. Herbert, in his own proper field, 
eot omdilion of the Oriental nations, that of the romance of by-gone days, — ^is 
Mr. Stephens's books, however, were only one of the most vigorous and beautiful 
designed, to be superficial and popular, writers we now have; and were it not 
It was left for the eminent biblical scho- that the public taste is now pretty well 
lar, aod profound linguist and theologian, satiated with this class of noveJs, we have 
Tk, Bobinson, to throw the light of a vast no doubt that he could readily command a 
erudition over the obscure monuments of popularity little inferior to that of James, 
tn ancient ciwlisation that lie half-buried Indeed, ^ Marmaduke Wyvil" will con^ 
in the desert. His researches omitted no- pare advantageously with any that the 
thing that the student could desire, and latter has ever written, it is a Cavalier 
contributed no less to the literary fame of and Puritan story, the scene being partly 
America than to the reputation for learn- laid in France, and in addition to the pri* 
ingdTtkeaoeomplished author. Yet there vate <ir<Z7na/i« i^ertoiiiK of the plot, many 
was a sphere of observation in the East, historical characters are introduced and 
whieb neither the works of Mr. Stephens treated with fine spirit and graphic skill, 
nor of Br. Robinson have reached, and .,^_ 

which seema to have been very seasonably 

hit upon, by the writer of the enteitaiaiug The Poetry of Life. By Mrs. Ellis, au- 
and instructive pages before us. He has thor of « Wives of England," 4tc. 
less liveliness and fancy than Mr. Ste- ^uthoHs edition, complete in one vol- 
^ens, but is seemingly more minute and ^'^^' ^ew York ; J. & H. G. Langley, 
exact in his details; he presents fewer 57 Chatham-street. 1843. 8vo, pp.184, 
phflological and antiquarian pretensions 

than Dr. Robinson, but is more familiar. Popular as have been all her subse- 
aad better adapted to the every-day quent writings, Mrs. Ellis has written 
ider. nothing better than this the first produc- 

Dr. Olin quitted this country in 1839, tion which, as Miss Stickney, laid the 
in the pursuit of health. It was not at foundation of her literary reputation. It 
fifst his intention to prepare a book of ^^^ the first cream of her mind, before 
travels, but the materials soon uncon- ^^^ ^^^ reoularly taken to book-making 
scioQsly collected in the form of a diary, w a branch of manufacturing industry, 
finally suggested the idea of publication. ^^^ ^ truly a charming production. It 
What he has given us, therefore, is pretty ^as originally published, we believe, in 
mnch as it was written down on the spot 1^25, and has long been out of print, so 
to which it relates. There is consequently that it comes before the public, if not with 
& freshness and life about the narrative ^^^ the freshness of novelty, yet quite 
which are highly pleasing. We cannot " ** good as new." Issued in the 
say that he has fhrnished us much new ^^^^t and cheap form in which the Lang- 
mformatkm, but he has certainly given ^«ys are publishing the whole series of 
vividness and strength to many old im- ^^^ works, it will doubtless have a circu- 
presskms. The great value of his book, lotion unsurpassed by any of the enormous 
as a book of travels, is that he writes like editions of her other wriUngs which we 
a man of truth. It Is impossible for the understand they have recently sold. 
reader to get any other impression than ....... 

that of the perfect truthfulness of the £, • r j* 

nanator. We feel— what is so important ^^"**^ *" Iruitan Life : a series of original 
with travellers, but what they are pro- d^jg^ portraying events in the life of an 
verbial for neglecting— that every state- ^"**^" v i^ * Drawn and etched on 
meat may be relied upon with the utmost ^^??^» *?y ^*\"^ ^- C- DAnLEv. To 
confidence. which is added, in illustration, the 

We eould wish that we had room for a ^^}^ ^^'Jj® War Eagle ; a Tale, with 
few extracts, and can do no better in the J?P*^"«^ ^ °i^s. Philadelphia : pub- 
absence of these, than to refer our readers Jif^ "^y •'• ^' Colman, No. 2031 
to the work itself. It is well worth a Chestnut-street. 
penisal. This is a publication of a novel but 

— — very interest! ng character. It is in quarto 

form, and is founded on the model of 

New JB^oit of tht Month. [August, 

BeUtdl's w«II-kBowii IlhisCimtioiis. The Ftuit and Jrgmnmii^ on lit TnmtnritHtm. 
pUiefl are in the same style of outline of InieUe d ual and Moral QnaliHa front 
eleliittg, and are in general both designed Parewi$ to Offtpring, New Yotit : Wi- 
and executed with admirable spirit. The ley 4t Patnam. 1848. 12mo. pp. 191. 
banting the Bison, and the scene of the 

finding the dead body of the Chief, are not The antiior of this little volume — a 

indeed unworthy of Retzsch's own penci] ; lady, by the way — ^has for many years de- 

and, had they been issued to the world voted a particular attention to the subject 

under his name, would have been received indicated by its title ; under the convictum 

as well sustaining its great reputation, that there is no mode in which a le could 

The accompanying tale is of cour»e only better perform her part of the universal 

intended as the string for the pearls. Pre- duty of doing some good to our kiiul and 

ferring to read the story in the more vivid age, than by awakening the attention of 

version contained on the face of the plates parents to the important truths which she 

themselves, we have not dune more than here discusses, with certainly a most 

bestow a cursory glance on its Notes, scientific plainness. Insisting very jvstJy 

which appear to embody much instructive that the formation of the character and 

information about Indian life and manners, probable destiny of the child begins long 

Altogether the work richly deserves a before its own appearance to the light, 

general patronage. It is to be completed she urges with much force the reepoasi- 

in five parts, with three plates in each, for biiities thus peculiarly inddent to the 

^e vei7 low price of a dollar^ the price sacred and beantiful relation of the 

of the single number being twenty-five mother. Though she advances nothing 

cents. It can be procured from most of novel on the subject, she has collected a 

the bookseliers and periodical agents. great number of the cases known to his- 
tory, of the evident infloenoe of naiarka- 

•^— ble mothers in impressing on their ofif^ 

spring the stamp of inteilectoal greatness 
or moral esceilence. 


The story by Hawthorne in our present Number originally appeared in an 
annual some thirteen or fourteen years ago. Being published anonymoudy, and in- 
deed before the name of the author had risen to distinction, it of course shared the 
fate of the <* annual" literature, perishing like the snows of the same year and season. 
As it was not included in his subsequent collection, in those exquisite volumes of 
" Twice-Told Tales," though fully worthy of a pace there, it has been thus ressosci. 
tated, with the author^s permission, as being in truth not less new and original, as one 
of his acknowledged writings, than if now for the first time stamped in print Dis- 
appointed in receiving our usual contribution from the same diamond-tipped 
pen, we were unwilling to deprive our readers of their wonted pleasure of teeing his 
name in our table of contents. 






The literary cm dita of the month are, as 
usual at this period, few and aniinport- 
ant; the several publishing houses have 
indeed some works now ready, but 
their publication is deferred. Charles 
Wells has in press a beautiful Annual 
for 1844, with sixteen fine steel engrav- 
ings, it is called *' The Winter Green, a 
Perennial Gift for 1844," edited by 
John Keese. It will be a beautiful 
melange of Prose and Poetry, and will 
enbrace the names of our most distin* 
gaisbed writers, 
<'Frois8art's Chronicles,'^ to be completed 
ia eight nambers, have just been com- 
menced in an elegant style, with en- 
gravings, at the New World office. No 
recoffiffiendation is needed for a work of 
soeh standard merit. 
The cheap publication mania has reached 
^down east," and the Boston publish- 
ers going into the business at once. 
The Admirable translation of << La Fon- 
taine-'s Fables," translated from the 
French by Eliznr Wright, jr., has just 
been issoed by Messrs. Tappan Sl Den- 
aet, ia beautiful style, for 50 cents, in 
2 vols iSmo., with 50 cuts by Hartwell, 
from the original designs by Grandville. 
Sixth edition. '^Rockwell's Foreign 
Travel sLiid Life at Sea." A new edi- 
tion of ^* Fowlers Dialogues and Dis- 
cnsstons for Schools and Academies," 
which hAS become one of the most 
popular school books of the day. Also, 
^ Universal ism Examined, Renounced 
and Exposed," by Matthew Hale Smith, 
is having an unprecedented sale. The 
fifth edit icm is just out. 
Dr. Sweetser's very ingenious and inter- 
esting work, on the reciprocal influence 
of the intellect and passions, entitled 
•* Mental Hygiene," is attracting very 
general attention in the scientific world; 
aad we hope the reading public at large 
will not be iodifTerent to the value of so 
admirable an elucidation of a subtle and 
important subject. (Langleys, publish- 
ers). The same firm have recently 
published a 6°^ edition of Dr. Thom- 
son's ** Conspectus of the Pharmaco- 
poatm-'* This celebrated and valuable 
Maaiial fi>r the Physician and Student, 
incorpormtes an immense amount of 
new and imporUnt matter, eompri;ing 
the New Kemedies of Pereira and aU 
other recent siceredited writers in Ma- 

teria Medica. The American edition 
has been endorsed by the most flattering 
opinions of the leading members of the 
Faculty in this city as w^ as else- 
where. Our worthy publishers have 
also issued the first Number of their 
« New York Journal ofMediein$ and tke 
CollaUral Sc/«acc«." The judicious 
and skilful Editor (Dr. Forry) has pre- 
sented his professional brethren with an 
able and most acceptable work; and 
were we to venture an opinion from the 
specimen before us, we should bespeak 
for this Journal a h^h rank aoiong 
works of its class. 

Lea J& Blanchard will issue* in the ooarse 
of the present month, a new romance 
by Cooper, to be styled *< Wyandotte, 
or the Hutted Knoll," also the poems 
of Samuel Rogers, with the splendid 
Bnglish embellishments. The <<Atta> 
che," by Sam Slick. The works of Sir 
Astley Cooper, with plates, and several 
new medical works,of which we have not 
space to speak in our present number. 

Tower's beautiful « Memoir of the Croton 
Aqueduct" is selling well. We do »ot 
see how it can fail of success, it is to 
beautifully embellished. The indefati- 
gable author has expended a large 
amount of money and labor on this 
production, and it will remain a monu- 
ment of his skill and enterprise for 
many a distant day. 

The Appletons are preparing a second 
series of their *« Miniature Library ;" 
also, a new volume of ^ The Rote,^* for 
1844. Dr. Pnsey's celebrated Sermon, 
which caused his suspension from the 
priestly ofiSce, is published by this firm. 
It occupied twenty-one dense columns 
of the London Times. 

The Harpers will shortly publish the first 
number of their " Illnstrated Bible ;" a 
new volume of Albert Barnes's ** Notes 
on Hebrews;" Dr. Bangs's "Life of 
Arminius ;" Prescott's *< Conqnest of 
Mexico," 3 vols., Svo. , and Choules's 
edition of Neale's " History of the Pu- 
ritans," &c. 

Carey lb Hart announce the following : — 
** Chemical Science, with its numerous 
and important applications to Medical 
Science, Agriculture, the Arts, and 
Manufactures." By James C. Booth. 
To be completed in twenty numbers, at 
twenty-fife cents each.— <' The Gift, 
for 1844," with superb engravings from 
original paintingsi by Sully, Inmauj 


SJUerary BuUetm, 

(Angusty 1843. 

Hantingdcm, Cbenej, Mount, and Page. 
<*The Literary Sonrenir/' beaatifoUy 
iUoftratcd with plates, from pictures 
by Salify Cbaion, &e.,RpleDdidly bound 
in Tnrltey morocco. — ^ The Complete 
Poetical Works of Thomas Moore, 
Esq.," in one pocket volnme, with 
beantifolly engraved portrait and title. 
« The French and English, and English 
and French Dictionary, on the basis of 
Flemming and Tibbin," in one ▼olome, 
royal 8to., of upwards of twelve ban- 
dred paees. 
Onr publisners (the Langleys) announce 
for early publication the following 
medical works; ^* Clark on Diseases 
of Females,'' with additions and notes 
by Dr. Delafield. "Yalpeau's New 
Elements of Operative Surgery,^' ac- 
companied with an Atlas, in 4to, of 22 
plates. This new translation will in- 
dnde copious notes by Dr. Mott, and 
will be accompanied with nearly 200 
wood cuts intercalated with the text. A 
new work by F. C. Stewart, M.D., on 
the ^ Hospitals and Surgeons of Paris." 
Also ** Observations on Obstetric Aus- 
cultation," by Dr. £. Kennedy, M.D. 
Dr. Copbind's « Dictionary of Practical 
Medicine," in monthly parts, and Dr. 
Pereira's new work on " Food and 
Diet," edited by Dr. Lee, which last, 
however, is now ready. 


The first item of news that reaches us 
from the literary emporium of the old 
world is, the unwelcome announcement 
of the demise of that prince of publish- 
ers, John Murray. His distinguished 
career would supply materials for a 
biography that could not fail to prove 
interesting. He was possessed of great 
critical acumen, combined with an al- 
most prodigal liberality to authors, which 
secured him the friendship of the great- 
est men of the as:e. His establishment 
will be continued under the auspices of 

his son, who has already entered the 
lists of authorship with surprising sac- 
cess — ^his popular ** Huwi-hooki for 
TonuiMt^^ to all parts of Europe, ^or 
ixemplt. Among the new books jnst 
ready, we notice the following: — 
^'Change for American Notes" — qmere, 
is not the writer Geo. P. Putnam, the 
bookseller? Mrs. Ellis has still another 
new book in preparation — ** The Mo- 
thers of England" — by the way, we ob- 
serve the London publishers are issuing 
an illustrated edition of her popular 
works in numbers. A new work by 
the author of Sam Slick is announced 
by Bentley, entitled "The Attache" 
The Sidney Correspondence is to be 
completed by the two new volumes. 
Also Memoirs of George Selwyn and his 
Contemporaries, in 2 vols., are nearly 
ready. " Circassian Chief," a romance 
of Russia, and «* The Busy Body," a 
novel. ** Hampton Court," by Lloyd, 
and "Windsor Castle," with plates, by 
Ainsworth, which is now completed, 
are the principal new works ot fiction. 
Lord Brougham's 2d vol. of" Political 
Philosophy," is out; also "A Steam 
Voyaae on the Moselle," and ** Rhine,** 
by Quia ; and, moreover, we notion a 
favorable reception given to Herbert's 
novel, "Marmaduke Wyvil," which 
presents a singular set-oflf to the rumors 
this side the water, that it is a work 
abundantly plagiaristic f Lady Bles- 
sington's new novel is to be caUed 
"Meredith," and is said lo be just ready ; 
also" Personal Observations on Sindh," 
the Marquis de Custine's new work on 
Russia, and a translation from the Ice- 
landic of Snorro Sturleson, by lAing, 
entitled " The Chronicles of the Kings 
of Norway," &,c. 
Copyright.— A deputation of booksel- 
lers and literary men waited on M. 
Guizot recently, respecting the adoption 
of some plan for the suppression of 
piracy ; they recommend the recogniz- 
ing of a copyright in France of all 
works published by foreigners in their 
respective countries. 

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Vol. Xm. SEPTEMBER, 1843. No. LXIII*. 


Duuvo the contest which followed Uie engaged in the contest for Sheffield, 

diMoiiitionof the late Whig parliament, should make known his sentiments, 

there was no section of the country in He was walking one evening with one 

which party feeling ran higher, in of his supporters in the neighborhood 

whieh the elements of family influence of that town, when he was met by a 

and local capital were more equally di- farmer on horseback, a strong, ' urly- 

▼ided and more Tehementty aroused, looking man, and one who from his 

than in the West Riding of Yorkshire, bearing seemed as little likelj to sub- 

agitation had not reached, i he late to go this time T" was the question 

Bake of Leeds had stood aloof from dressed to him by his new master ; and 

the contest through the exhaostion the answer followed : " Your Grace^s 

which accompanied old age and sick- orders have come ; we are all true yel- 

ness ; and it was not till the period of low." In a few days the showing of 

his death, which occurred when the hands took place, and the tenantry of 

battle had waxed warm around, that his the Duke of Leeds, though in their own 

tenantry were let into the knowledge hearts they were true blue, and through 

that they were to be required to emerge the kind indifference of their late land- 

from the moderate whiggery into which lord their outward liveries had corres* 

their landlord'sapathyhsM allowed them ponded to their inward hues, became 

to uke rankt and to throw the weight yellow to the back-bone. We do not 

of their numbers upon the one or the know whether, had thev been thrown 

other side of the nicely-balanced scale, into the market as independent, self- 

A short parenthesis of*^ time, of course, regulating voters, they would not have 

was allowed to run by in quiet, as a been bought up and disposed of by the 

mark of decent respect to the memory of agents of the Carlton Club ; but it was 

the late proprietor, but good care was pretty well understood that by the criti- 

laken that before the critical moment cal death of the Duke of Leeds, by the 

should arrive, the young duke, who rapid and complete change thereby 

before hia father^s death was himself woiked in the coloring of his tenantry, 

*Haasari's Parliamentary Debater, VtL. LXIil. LXIV. London: Thomas 
Cnnon Hansard, Paternoster-row, 1842. 

S88 English Parltamentary Bribery, [Sept. 

Lord MiltOD and Lord Morpeth were ground of his necessary employment 

defeated. The late report of Mr. Roe- on another field, he said : 
buck*8*conunittee, under which the pro- 
ceedings to which we are about to advert *' It was my intention, bat for this nn- 

were developed, classified the tenantry lucky coincidence, to have proposed Cap- 

of Great Britian into those who were tain Dalrymple. I should hare done so, 

packed up into manors and bought in because I consider him eminently fitted 

the gross, and those who were let loose ^y ^^^ station and character to represent 

and were bought individually. With- ^^^ <^«>"°^y ? ^^V^^j!^ ™°»'«> because I know 

out an exception, said Mr. Ward, in a ^^ ^^^,™« ^'^^ disgust and abhorrence 

late speech in the House of Commons,* l^""^ odious system of intimidation and 

the t^ants are regarded as a portion ^^^ ^'^ ^^^""^ «* J^^^ t ^**^ YT 

r^u TIT 1 r.L * * *^ 1 tonshire proprietors have attempted to 

of the chattels of the estate ; a country ^^-^^ i^e honest voice of the electors. I 

f«nU^an would as soon thmk of rob- consider these attempts to coerce the vo- 

ing the deer-parks, or of poaching the lers, and to force them to do violence to 

fish of his neighbor, as of canvassing their conscience, as quite as bad^ if not 

Mb tenants. Election districts in the worse, than the proceedings of the slave- 

•agricultural sections are estimated, not dealers on the coast of jffHca," — Hanr 

According to the sentiments of the to- sard's Parliamentary DebaietyLXIV, 1388. 
ters, but according to the decrees of the _ u t mj^ m t»- 

land-owners on whose estates they re- *"^^ ^P^S^*? ^y T" /. Duncombc, a 

side. Maps might be drawn, analogous schedule of the method of operaUonis 

in appearance to those used for geolo- g^^®" ^^ a" instance where, since no 

gical investigations, in which the politi- ^,^^ P^^y was m danger, no great 

cal complexion of the different pre- Political energies were called mto 

cints of the country might be drawn, *^^®^ • 

covered with the same uniform hue « j ^j^nt £4^000 in Pontefract I have 
that was adopted as the color of the no hesitation in saying that that money 
families to which they respectively be- was spent in gross bribery treating and 
longed. If an estate changed hands, corruption ; I was defeated. My Lord 
:aiid fell into the possession of an owner PoUington and an honorable gentleman's 
nrhose politics differed from those of father assisted in defeating me ; and I 
liis predecessor, the whole mass of the shall not believe, until the honorable gen- 
tenantry were picked up and dropped tleman opposite rises and says so, that 
down on one side of the account with ^^Y one is ever returned for Poniefracl 
aa great unanimity as they formerly ex- ^»t*»°^t Y'^^- , Unfortunately I hav-e 
hiblted when foniing part of the other, f^^. ^^^ .contested elections for Hart- 
T *ul "wr; ♦^^ u:Jl «i««*;^« ,„u««« ford, and m five contested elections I 
In the Wigtonshire election, where jhreWimes succeeded and was twice de- 
parties were equally balanced, an es- ^^^^ . ^^^ j ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ 
tate vns offered for sale, a short tune j ^ ^^^ impeachinc the conduct of its 
before the late election, m which there members generally, both in their Individ, 
was a pack of thirty voters. Upon the „al and collective capacity, that I left bc- 
ownership of the estate, the result of hind me at Hartford considerably above 
the election depended; and when £30,000. I had to contend with very 
Captain Dalrymple, the whig candidate, great aristocratic influence in that neigh- 
was chosen bv a majority of six, it was borhood, and I beUeve it cost them more 
very clear that it was owing to the money. I had to contend with seven 
pack of thirty voters having been days* leases. Those poor tenants wiio 
bonght by a whig nobleman, Lord Stair, ^eld under seven days' Iwises were tamed 
Prom the complaints of Mr. Murray, 2?* ^^e*^ ^^ j^'^^^1^ ^^"^ landlor^ 
who is stated to be one of the greatest I^?^^««^ ^i.^^*'^^^ there was my Lord 
il j«j ^w.»*;^»^^ ;- *\.^ ^^r>^ ;♦ Salisbury. These tenants were dischare- 
landed proprietors m the county, it ed nnlesi they fulfilled the wishes of tJh^ 
spears, however, that the packing of j^^^i^Hj when thev were turned oum 
voters mto estates, and seUing Uiem by ^ad to furnish them with houses. I boilt 
the acre, was not confined to the whig ^r bought sLxty-threc houses for tbem; a 
laokB. In a vehement philippic against great portion of the money went in that 
his tory antagonists, read at the bust- way, and a considerable portion w»s spent 
ingB during the Wigtonahhre election. In treating and bribery.^^iraii«ir«rsl>ar- 
after aiwlogiziiig for hia absence on the UasneiUary Debatesy LXIIL 495-6« 
• - ~ , ■ _ , ■ . - . - -_ - 

• Hansard's Pailiamentary Debates, LXIY. 1386. 

1843.J English Parliamentary Bribery. 229 

If Mr. Duncombe was really as bad caused, on learning that in influencing 
18 he said he was, his expulsion from the comparatively small constituency of 
Parliament would have made his ex- the British House of Commons, a mil- 
tmple more beneficial to his country lion of pounds, according to the reluc- 
dian his continuance in his seat. We tant estimate of a gentleman whose 
hare heard of a pickpocket who had advocacy of the system we shall 
feUeninto the same room with a Qua- presently notice, is spent at each gen- 
ier at a tavern, and who endeavored to eral election. At the Nottingham elec- 
luU his companion's suspicions, as to tion, one hundred pounds a vote was 
his character, by a long penitential often paid ; and when the excessive 
confession, cloaked in that form which poverty among the* lower classes, and 
of all others should be held most the desperateness of morals which the 
sacred, of sins the actual flagrancy of poor-house atmosj^ere creates, are 
whose guilt was only equalled by the taken into consideration, it will be 
^parent earnestness of their abandon- concluded that the extent of the cor- 
ment. The Quaker doubted, but came ruption is conmiensurate with the cor- 
at last to the more prudent conclusion, rupting power. It is to be feared that 
—"If thou art really as wicked as the decomposing element, instead of 
thou sayrt thou hast been, I must call being most jealously watched against 
the master of the house to put thee and guarded, has been taken into con- 
out ; " and we think if an analogous sideration among the more unthinking 
determination had been brought to bear of the English politicians, as a neces- 
upon Mr. Duncombe, the pockets of sary and just ingredient in the public 
the members would have been more economy. In a late pamphlet by a 
likely to have been spared the contri- gentleman whose position alone, as a 
bntions to which the demands of future member of the House of Commons, 
contested elections will subject them, gives him a claim to attention, the 
We said that the buying and selling malleability of the vote-selling elector 
was carried on in two great divisions, is thus justified ; 
ctHnprising, in the first place, the trans- 
fer of a whole tenantry in the mass, « xhat in the limitation of his vtewg, 
and, m the second place, the purchasmg and in the weakness of his reason, the 
of individual voters. Which of the candidate who discharges his arrears, who 
two is most degrading to the voter, places him in a happy and easy state of 
there can be but little doubt. The tenant mind, seems his best friend, and obtains 
who goes with his estate, who is caught the support of his vote." — Hansard^ 
and cooped up into a erg?, and carried LXIY. 1384. 
to the market, and who there votes as 

the representative of the soil on which There is a little fable, called the 

he lives, may resolve himself back spider and the fly, not unknown to the 

into the days of feudal vassalage, and children of our common schools, which 

may invest the relations of lord and exhibits in some degree the moral of 

vassal with the romance of chivalric the conversation between the canvasser 

drapery. He has not been bought and the canvassed. "Walk into my 

hisnself, he has received no bribe, and parlor,'* is the language of the wealthy 

has suflfered no corruption, and he candidate to the poor voter ; '^ it is the 

may reason himself into the belief, prettiest little parlor that you ever did 

that not only do his private interests re* spy ;" and it is not until the v(oter is 

quire that he should support the pro- caught and made use of, that he dis- 

prietor of the soil on which he lives, covers that the bribe he has received, 

but ti&at the loyalty which as a vassal is overbalanced by the price he is made 

he should feel, should reconcile him to to pay for it. It is not until he finds 

a sacrifice of personal partialities. But that by corn-laws and poor-laws his 

the Toter who comes to the hustings substance is eaten up, that he discovers 

as independent, and when there seUs that the promise to " discharge him 

liM vote for as much as he can get for from his arrears,'* and " to place him 

it, is in a condition below slavery. To in a happy and easy state of mind^** 

how ^leat an extent the bribery of in- was not wholly disinterested. 

dividual voters has been carried, is Since the passage of the Reform 

generally known ; and yet, there are Bill, the retro-active eflect of corrup- 

kw to 'whom surprise ¥dll not be tion upon legisUttion has been clearly 

980 English Parliamentary Bribery, [Sept, 

exhibited. Under the old sjetem, the ftcter of the Houee will be let down 

great majority of members came in before the country ; and if the minis- 

from close boroughs, in which they ter^s prudence had allowed him to have 

were obliged to secure the title-deeds gone farther, he could have added, that 

of the estate, instead of the votes of by the allowance of such practices the 

the freeholders. Since, however, the character of the House had been 

comparative enlargement of the elec- already let down before itself. We are 

tive franchise has thrown into the struck with see the increased recur- 

market freeholders whose limited rence, during the last two Parliaments, 

number makes their votes easily of scenes which, even when told in the 

bought, and who under the viva voce courtly language of the governmental 

system can be held true to their reporter, prove that the brute force 

promises, a new element has sprung which buys seats, too often continues in 

up, which has produced a marked operation when the seats have been 

change in the sphere of parliamentary bought. Every one knows the story 

management. The legislator, from the of the cat, who, though exalted to the 

habit of employing largely the brute human form, could not be checked by 

force of riches, has learned to place the most solemn restraints from betray- 

an undue and dangerous value upon a ing her original propensities at the 

lever which he may have persuaded slightest temptation ; and those who 

himself is conversative and salutary in pay attention to the extraordinary 

its bearing. The trouble of being vir- scenes which take place at the English 

tttous, intelligent, and active, to quote hustings, — ^who observe the means 

a high authority, has been dispensed taken to buy votes, and the exertion 

with just in proportion as intelligence, used to cajole voters, — will not be sur- 

virtue, and activity, when unsupported prised that the spirit which animated 

by wealth, have lost their power. The the candidate, should animate the 

most matchless abilities would fail to member. 

weigh a feather in the scale against a Of the more inarticulate noises 
few thousand pounds to be spent in made during the course of debate, it 
bribery, or a few more thousand to be is not necessary to speak, notwith- 
invested in an estate. For a man who standing that they are indicative of the 
can obtain the seat he seeks for by the temper as well as of the demeanor of 
mere transfer of &e exuberance of his a good portion of the House ; because 
income from his banker to his election it would be difficult, except on the 
agent, to take the trouble of thought, Pythagorean basis, to trace back the 
to endeavor to cultivate that popularity cat-calls, the crowings, the barkings, 
which is obtained by the benevolent the shouts of tally-ho, the imitations of 
employment of great wealth or of su- most of the inferior sounds of nature, 
perior intellect, would be an unprofita- to any established principles of inter- 
olewasteof time and of energy. It is a pretation. From the extracts, how- 
melancholy truth, which every year eyer, which we make very much at 
coniiims, that nothing tends so far to random from the volume before us, it 
make men honest, as that it should be will be observed that the self-respect 
their interest to be so ; and we believe which is lost at the hustings, is not re- 
that nothing has gone so far to pre- gained in the house : ' 

^^A Zl T "f """^ ^^^' -Ik'II'k •^';?'?J " Violent diseases require violent reme- 

the dangerous influences with which it ^j^^ The parties mking the attack 

18 beset, as the constant regulaUng were beyond reach. They could not either 

pressure of a constituency, the great- be got out by law or opinion. He, (Mr. 

ness of whose numbers and the secresy Roebuck) wanted to know whether ihey 

of whose votes guard it from general could not be srot out otherwise ; and if 

corruption. any bon. members were attacked by the 

The few last volumes of the reports Times, and did not wish for a repetition 

whose title we have placed at the head of the attack, he would suggest to ihem 

of this article, display the effect which at once to horsewhip the proprietor, Mr. 

the increased corruption of the con- 'loiter, (then member for Nottingham,) 

stitoency has produced. If such pro- ^^^ they might depend upon it, the attack 

ceedings continue, said Sir Robert would not be repeated.''-ifaiMarrf', Dt- 

Peel, when addressing the House on ^*'*' ^^^^' ^3^' 

the Bel£i8t election question, the char- On motion to censure Mr. O'Connell 

1843.] English Parliamentary Brihery. j^l 

for imputing fraud and perjury to the which the honorable and learned member 

najority of the House of Commons, has sworn not to sabvert, and which he 

after a preliminary vote had been ta- ^^^ attempts to subvert.' 
ken by which the house had declared "^f- O'ConncU : 'I call the honorable 

the libel gross and scandalous, the fol- Recorder to order. He has made a false 

lowing scene took place : assertion.' Here Mr. O'ConncIPs voice 

was drowned amidst the deafening cnes of 

"Mr. Calln^n : I really feel strongly. ^" ^"^'P^ proceeded from all parts of 

On a matter of order, no man is less dis- ^^ opposition It is unpossiMe ^describe 

posed than myself to show disrespect to the confusion ofthe scene. Mr. O'ConneU 

the decision of the chair; but on a sub- «o«tinucd : 'The honorable member has 

ject which involves the rights of individ- ""^^"f^ °« °[ ^""l""? »^°™ one thing 

nals, as this does, I do declare, and I ?nd done another. It is quite out of order 

claim to avow it, that I adopt to the ut. in the member to utter falsehoods.' 

• most the lan«aai?e of the honorable and .. ^'' ^J?"" '' ^ Projo«nce the words of 

learned members from Doblin. iGrtat ^T ^?*™^, member for Dubhn to be an 

duers ami laughier.) *^?^i;?"*o?^°'"%u v u, v 

" Mr. Edmund Burke JRodu : Repre- . ^'' ^i!?^ * The honorable member 

seating as I do one of the largest wn- ^"J .f "r^?* ""^J'^t ^*"^ J^*^..*"" '''* • 

stttuencies in Ireland, and reflecting that T.k°?\. ^"""^'^ ' ^"u"? ferocity is not 

this subject is one in which the Irish ^^ ^^V *^?".*ff "*? which takes for its 

members of this house are deeply involv- "^^^^ ^1?^*' " i^TL/""* .*'~? ^V: 
ed, I cannot refrain from saying, that I ** Mr. O^Connell, («ldressing himself to 

concur in the fullest degree in the senti. Mr. Shaw pwBonally, and not to the 

menu of the honorable member lor p'**™^"-) 'Yours is a <»lPs head and 

Diil^ljg^ jaw bones.' (Deafening cheers and cries 

" Mr GUJan : Sir, I be« leave to rcite- ^^ Order.)" 
rate all Mr. CPConnell has said. _^ 

"Mr. H. QnUttm : This is a mere par- The reporter from whom we have 

ty vote against the honorable member for quoted, although possessing a semi-of- 

Dublin, a vote come to because he was ^^ authority to which no others oan 

hated by honorable gentlemen oppo- pretend, gives in most cases nothing 

she. This was a most contemptible and more than the speeches made, as revis- 

wretehed proeeeding on tbe part of the ed by the members Uiemselves. The 

noble lord opposite, and yet the noble lord choms, which in a Commons' debate is 

did not reflect how far it woald carry him the most effective part of the proceed- 

if he had courage to pursue it to the end. ^ ingg, is left out, and the naked soloe 

Ao, the noble lord had not the courage to ^lone are given of such of the perform- 

!ISli^''„KiTJ^» ^^ >*7?^*!; 2* ers as are able to obtain uninlirnipted 

asked the noble lord to do it, if he dared. ,^^.«.„;„„ -.r *k« a^* uir> ii.mU.«a 

-[CiUmiig-OA&r.]"-Ka»#ani, XLL Po«»cMion of the floor. Mr. Babbage 

170 171. > -«— jjj^g assumed, that since the perception 

* ' of sound is caused by vibrations com- 

T - , , • . /. . municated to the air by the motion of 

In the debate arising from the pro- ^he organs of speech, machinery, built 

posed gjrant of an appropriation to the on the model of the drum of the ear, 

Roman Cathohc College at Maynooth, ^lay be constructed, of sufiicient deUca. 

Mr. O ConneU, m reply to Mr. Shaw, ^y ^^ e^^le the observer to measure 

remarked : tjj^ foy^^ n^^ volume of noises lately 

put in motion ; and we have heard that 

" The honorable member has expressed calculations have been taken by which 

his opmions in a manner which will do no jt is shown that by means of tests suf- 

service to this cause. There was a de- fidently sensitive, the sounds floating 

termination about him amounting a most j^ the atmosphere at any one given 

to spiritual ferocity. He seems to think ..^^ _.„ i^ «,,«»*«j »^J *^^^fS^^A 

that the Protestant religion consists of i'""®' ^^^ ^ ^"?**®? *w r^u^' 

pounds, shillings, and pence." ^y * process similar to that of the Da- 

" Mr. Shaw, with great vehemence : ' I g«eTreotvpe,to the plates of the philoso- 
deny that I said the Protestant religion P^®^- J 1 1 such a process be perfect- 
consists of pounds, shillings, and pence, ed,— which we do not despair of, when 
But the church establishment of any we reflect on the exquisite delicacy 
country must be supported by money, and with which the plastic material of the 
that church which tbe state endows with ear receives and models every sound 
moaey beeomes tbe established church, presented to it, — ^we must despair of an 
la snieh a ^tnation stands the church accurate aecount of scenes which, from 

S3d English Parliamentary Briery, [Sept. 

the infinitude of their rariety, conftise constituents who on this occasion expect 

and confound the reporter. At one and that I (cries of * should sit down/ 

and shoats of laughter). They expect^ 

, , . ^. who choose to conduct themselves in such 

made to portray them together, the same ^ ^^y ^^^^ j ^j^ ^^^ ^e put down by 

oonfosion would result which follows (Groans, coughs, sneezings, hems, and 
from the simultaneous sliding of seve- various animal sounds, some of which 
nil of the painted glasses of a magic closely imitated the yelping of a dog, and 
lantern within the vision o£ the lens, the squeaking of a pig, interspersed with 
We shall supply the deficiency, as far peals of langhter). I appeal ('Cock- 
as is in our power, by taking from con- e leuri-o-co I ) The imiution, in this case,, 
tiemporaneous reporters sketches of ofthecrowingof tbecockwassoreraark- 
acenes similar to those to which we ably good, that not even the most staid and 
hare already adverted. Lord Brougham orderly members of the house couM pre- 
has several times called the House a «f7« their gravity. The Unghter which 
menagerie, and we have been told by a f^i^*^^^?^?,^ ^J* ^peakert cries cf 

cauU^us observer, that a blind man, ta- l^^;^!?;^!!:!]- ,^„*?^^^^ 

1 • . -A j_ • J c :* ^^ '^j: ^1 unbecoming conaoct on toe part ol an aa* 

kBD mto It during one of its periodical ^y ^,? .^^^^^ (^ 

ecmvuiBiona, would suppose himself m ^ow,' aiid bdrsts of laughter ) Sir, may 

s soolo^cal establishment. Of a de- j ^^ honorable gentlemen who can 

bate which occurred m the late pariia- (« mew-mew,' and renewed laughter). Sir, 

ment, the Mommg Post, the organ of a i claim the protection of the chair. (The 

large and then a dominant party, thus Speaker here again rose, and called ont 

speaks the day following : < Order t Order f ' in a loud and angry tone, 

on which the uproar in some measure anb- 

** The most confused sounds, mysteri- sided.) If honorable gentlemen will only 
cusly blended, issued from all corners of allow me to make one observation, I wiU 
the House. One honorable member near not trespass further on their attention, 
the bar repeatedly called out < jead,' (to but sit down at once. (This was foUow- 
tbe member endeavoring to address the ed by the most tremendous cheering in 
House,) in an exceedingly bass and hoarse earnest.) I only beg to say, sir, that I 
sound of voice. At repeated intervals a think this is a most dangerous and uncon- 
sortof drone-like humming, having almost stitutional measure, and will therefore 
the sound of a distant hand-organ or bag- vote against it.' The honorable gentle- 
pipes, issued from the back benches; — man then resumed his seat amid deafea- 
coughing, sneezing, and ingeniously ex- ing applause." — Grant's House of Com^ 
tended yawning, blended with the other numSj 45. 
sounds, and produced a /ott^ erijemMe which 

we have never heard excelled in the ^^^^ t"® House of Lords has the 

House. A single voice from the ministe- spirit of disorder penetrated less deeply. 

rial benches imitated very accurately the Its members, by the operation of the 

yelp of a kenneled hound." chief feature in their tenure, are re- 
lieved from the ordeal of corruption 

Another authority, equally respecta- through which the members of the 

Uo, thus reports a speech whose recep- lower house must pass. The lords 

tion, we trust, presents features not spiritual and temporal obtain their seats 

often eqnalled : either by the appointment of the crown 

. . or by descent, and though there is s. 

« I nse, sir, (ironical cheers, mingled great field laid open, under the first 

with all sorts <tf zoological sound^) I nse, head, for intrigue, we question whether 

SV.k'fnM????*^*'!'**^"/*^''* 'k^^ they would become qualified for the 

L^tlla^^f'asr^^^^^^^ ardL. office to whicl they succeed, 

laughter). Honorable gentlemen may en- ^ snpenntendants of a majority of the 

deavorto put me down by their unman- «'®se boroughs of the realm, were it 

nerly interruptions, but I have a duty to »ot «>r the apprenticeship which most 

perform to my con (ironical cheers, of them undergo, duri^ the period of 

loud coughing, sneezing, and yawning, their pupilage in the House of Corn- 
extending to an incredible length, followed mens. There is no doubt that the 
1^ bursts of laoghter). I say, sir, I have young Duke of Leeds, to whom we 

1841] English ParliameTUary Bribery. S39 

]p^d « brief tribute at the opening of '' The noble lord welt knew that the 

this paper, woald haTC been bewildered effect of a calm and artful statement wat 

at the great mass of parliamentary in- ^^} al\erwards very easily done away 

fluence thrown upon him by his father's ^^^-^ _j r jr j » v 

death, had he not already taken part in " ^^ iyiMft«r»/.--I hope the state- 

theSheffield contested elections. \Vith P^;?^' "w*^^ """^ calm, but I assure your 

most of the members of the upper i^^^^P '' 7^« "^^ "^^^^V ^^?\i^^ "^ 

uii»» V. .t*^ »«^.H ^Ao . X "rr^ ble viscount, and the members of the gov- 

house, however, the taste for debate is ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^.^ ^^^ ^-^^ ^bould be 

so small, as to make the temptation to ignorant of the facts contained in the 

personal collision very moderate, it statement I have made, shows that they 

is a feet which requires some explana- are as ignorant of their domestic duties as 

tioa, that the chief interruptions ex- they are incapable of managing the colo- 

teoded to the discipline of the House nial ^vernment and foreign relations of 

of Lords, arise from the bearings of the country." 
the lords who owe their elevation to 

their eminence in the legal profession. Before Lord Melbourne eonid catch 

We insert a few extracts, taken some- the floor in reply, Lord Brougham, in 

what carelessly from the volumes before accordance to one of his most promi- 

08, which will go some way to illustrate nent though least fortunate instincts, 

the demeanor of noblemen whose great stepped in as a mediator. That his 

ability and wliose consummate learning interposition only made matters worse, 

have placed them in the highest rank, appears from what follows : 
both at the bar and in the senate. On 

a late occasion, according to the Spec- "Lord JlfeftoBm*.— I wish the noble 

later, when a decision of the Chief duke (Wellington) had been here. The 

Justice of the Queen's Bench was noble duke would rather have cut off his 

under discussion : right hand than have taken such a course 

as that taken by the noble and learned 

« A. Lord Campbell -was speriimg, i^J]?; I!'' f"'h*!fj'S^* ** ' genaeman 

tkere was a loud talking between the and a maa of honor." 
Lord Chancellor, Lord Denman, and Lord 

Brougham. The Marquis of Lansdownc's We had marked for insjertion nearly 

voice, in a loud tone, cried, 'order,' <order !* a page of the personal controversy that 

Lord Broagham suddenly started up from follows — a controversy which is as re- 

tbc woolsack, and with great warmth, luctantly read by the just admirers of 

addressing Lord Lansdowne, cried out. Lord Lyndhurst^s judicial and profes- 

*I shouki like to know where the disorder gional merits as it is reluctantly rfecord- 

». I am not aware of any disorder.' ^ y^y ^^ reporter— but we believe 

He WW answered by renewed cries of that it amounts to but little more than 

V^'lf/ "f^"' ^i^^l.*'^!/ ?*1['^ that Lord Melbourne refused for a time 
Lord Lansdowne said, * he bad not caUed .^ ««i,„«,„i«j«« t^wI t „«^i..i*.4^ ♦/* k« 
order till the four noble lords on the wool- *^ acknowledge Lord Lyndhurst to be 
sack talked so loud that he could not hear ? gentleman or man of honor, and that 
what was passing.' Lord Brougham said, ^^^ Lyndhurst rose to leave the house 
* Ay, hot the noble marquis did not call —a premonitory to a challenge— but 
Older till the talking was all over.' Lord was held back by Lord Brougham. A 
Caoapbell proceeded to assert that all the page more follows, in which the com- 
kwy ci fc in the House of Commons, some batants, by a series of alternate con- 
of them now members of government, ditional retractions, managed to descend 
were against the judgment. Lord in safety from the unlucky eminence on 
Broo^ham remarked that each time Lord which on a sudden they had jumped ; 
Camphell had addressed himself to the but we confess that neither the quarrel 
House, be had not improved his argument, no^ the reconciliation have gone a great 
Lord Campbdl—* How often have you way to remove the impression— an im- 
spoken ?' Lord Brougham-' How often pr/ssion strengthened by the subsequent 
Jiave jfon spoken? ^^1 ^^^^^ disreputable altercation be- 
tween Lord Brougham and Lord Mel- 
In a debate on the penitentiary sys- bourne — ^that the tone of the upper 
tern. Lord Melbourne, (Hansard, xli. house is by no means improved by t^e 
87,) in the coarse of a long and ani- presence of the law-lords. 
mated reply to a previous argument of We have heard of an English gen- 
Lord LyiuUiarat, retnarks : tleman, more remarkable fbr his humoi^ 

934 English Parliamentary Bribery, [Sejit. 

than for hia humanity, who inrited to Wedderhurne, then Attorney General, 
dinner, on an election celebration, all the riot would have become a rebellion, 
the parish beadles in the neighborhood. Lord Mansfield, in the solitude of his 
The disturbance which ensued might judicial majesty, presents a spectacle 
have been anticipated, when it was re- far more lofty than Lord Mansfield, an 
membered that the personages thus inoperative ingredient in the House of 
brought together had each been supreme Lords ; and we believe that with those 
in his little previously allotted sphere who followed him, there is scarcely 
of authority, had each established a one whose legislative exertions hav« 
peculiar scheme of discipline which been creditable. Great legal reforms 
had been as rigidly enforced as it had were made necessary, — reforms which 
been authoritatively enunciated, and were dictated by humanity and pressed 
that each had been accustomed to make by convenience, — ^sinecures were to be 
unrestrained use of such instruments cut down, penalties civilized, and 
of physical defence or annoyance as feudalisms abolished ; but we believe 
had been bestowed by nature. The that, until the lay-lords took the matter 
objection that existed against such a in hand, the only ameliorative measure 
gathering exists against the grouping that surmounted Lord Thurlow^s storms 
together in one legislative assembly of and Lord Eldon^s scruples, was a bill 
men who have been accustomed to be for the prevention of cruelty to dogs, 
supreme in their own specific spheres. A few words in conclusion on the 
Every judge who has presided for any bearings on the people at large of the 
period of time on the bench, has ac- system of corruption, whose legislative 
quired habits of authority which are as results we have already noticed. Poised 
obnoxious when introduced into a senate as the electoral body in Great Britain is, 
of equals as they are necessary when between the higher and lower classes, 
adapted to a position in which no equal it will be found that, when in a state of 
exists. Very few men can pass a day corruption, it casts a sediment upon 
in the undisturbed supremacy of a chief the strata below as noxious as the Ta^ 
justiceship, without becoming unfit by pors it shoots to the surface. From 
evening for the courtesies of parlia* the evidence advanced in the House of 
mentary discussion. Splendid, indeed. Commons, in the Sudbury disfranchise- 
have been the services of the English ment question, we extract a few pas- 
law-lords, and yet, even putting aside sages, which are so amply sustained by 
the objection we have made as belong- the surrounding testimony, that we 
ing only to later days, there is not one adopt them, not only from their parlia- 
among the tenants of the woolsack and mentary sanction, but from their indis- 
of the chief justiceships, who has putable truth : 

augmented his professional reputation „ », , u /^ • ^^ _j ^ 

bv his narliamentarv nerformances " Mr. John Crisp Gorday, governor of 
T^^ A It P*J^^?^®"^5y 'i ^^!!f; court of iniardiang, said : * My opinion is. 
Lord Mansfidd, fearless as he was on ^^^^ thc^ contested elecUons hive done 
^e Kmff's Bench, was timid m the ^^ ^^ j„j„^g ^^^ ^^^,g ^f ^^^ ^^,^. 
House of Lords and irresolu^ in coun- p^^^j^ j^ Sudbury, than all the preaching 
cil. When attacked by Lord Camden, ^^ precepts of all the ministers of the 
much his inferior in lepfal abilities, aud Gospel have done good.'—' How was that 
by Lord Chatham, his only rival in effect produced 7' < One thing only is suf- 
orat^rical power, on points on which he ficient — ^the bribery oath. Men openly 
knew he was right, and which he had receive money, and yet go up and deli- 
supported o.i the bench with that ad- berately take the oath and vote. Some 
mirable logic and consummate grace seek subterfuges, as, omitting the word 
which belonged to him, he was accus- ' not,' kissing *the thumb;' while others 
tomed to shiver in his seat, and either 6«ek no such solace, but deliberately per- 
to withdraw from the discussion or i^^ themselves.' ' 
enter into his own defence with such Airain • 
great reluctance as to prejudice his ° 

cause.' When Lord George Gordon's ^ c a i^eneral system of demoralization is 
mob had sacked the prisons, and barn- produced by the vices and crimes conse- 
cadoed the lords, he hesitated, from qnenl upon the drunkenness, debauchery, 
timidity alone, to advise the king to and bribery at the elections in this bo- 
order the troops to fire ; and had it not rons^h.' — 'Large sums I ( the commis^kwer) 
been for the superior intrepidity of Mr. presume are given at elections 7' ' At the 

1843.] NcpoUon. S86 

geaenl election in 1835, the bribery was pates in perjury or rabmits to intozicn- 

moch more extenwve than at any preced- tion in order more fully to earn the 

log or subtequent elections. I had the purchase-money— euch a man is aalftTO 

m«ui8 of making an accurate calculation f^ ^^i ^3 ^J, ^ ^ 3,^^^ ^ ^ 

oftheexpensesattendins^that election by \\7x0, .k^ ,^«..i4 «.„^ v^ ^c ^ -J^Til 

an partiw, and the resilt of my know- ^1 .t\Alfo Ik^ • 1^"^. 

ledgVte, tbit the snms of money expended, «>.f fended as that of bribe^ in Great 

if equally divided amon^ all the voters on ^"tain, it requires but slight observa. 

the register, would have come lo from **<>" *® determine. Nothing but sturdy 

301. to 351. a man. Of course many re- *"°. consistent honesty can secure a 

spectable men were above taking money, nation under debts so great and opprea- 

and twenty-five persons did not vote; but, sions so severe, from those expedients 

if these voters had no money, the others which were suggested by Sir Robert 

had so mnch the more, so that the whole Walpole, when be lessened the interest 

wouM have come to nearly, if not quite, on the debt then existing, and by Mr. 

35i. a-head, as already sUted. Is it not Pitt, when he misappropriated the sink- 

a most awful crime in the candidates and ing fund. We fear that if the bribery 

their committees, first, to offer miserable already established is persevered in 

mey oo, ioai ine voiers on coin siaes ,. , - ." ,. v — ' 
must take it, and that their perjury is ^\^^^ ^"^""^^ «^. immediate interest 
eeruin ? I have known nearly 400 voters, *"^ "^* ^^ general justice, that we re- 
out of about 600 on the register, delibe- commend to the rulers of that great 
imlcJy perjure themselves.' '*— ifaatani, nation, the only measure by which the 
IXUI. 347-8. progress of corruption may be cheeked. 

Increase the elective body, not because 

Slaveiy, such as the passages we one man has as mueh right to TOte as 

have presented depict, is of a com- another^— not because in the people as 

j^zion the most noxious and degrad- a mass, and not in a fraction of the 

mg. The man who, by the stress of people, can the will of the people be 

aocident, is compelled to be bound to found— not because all men are created 

the 9oil as a serf, can preserve within free and equal — for such maxims yoa 

hk breast a heart upright and uncon- reject as visionary and destructive, 

taminated ; but the man who voluntarily Increase the elective body, however, 

prostitutes himself— who, for a bribe, because, by doing so, you will adopt 

submits to be chained in a gang and so the only method of securing order to 

to be marched to the hustinffs ; who your legislature and honesty to your 

delflberately sells himself, and partici- people. 


Thcre be who call thee Tyrant, and would fain 

The hateful word upon thy tomb engrave ; 

And others yet there be, who name thee slave 
Ofpower and mad ambition, and would stain 

Thy memory with avarice, lust and crime, 

And to the keeping of all coming time 
Hand down the lie. But thou wast none of such ; 

But Freedom^s chosen minister. The world 
Had need that one like thee should touch 

Its withered heart ; and when old thrones were hurled 
Beneath thy feet, and kings did prostrate fall, 

And crowns were harvested to grace thy brow, 
Man veas the winner ; Let who doubts, recall 

What Europe was, and mark what it is now. 

New Bedffyrdy Mass. R. S. S. Ardros. 

836 A Glance Behind the Curtain. [SepU 



We see but half the causes of our deeds, 
Seeking them wholly in the outer life, 
And heedless of the encircling spirit-world 
Which, though unseen, is felt, and sows in us 
All germs of pure and world-wide purposes. 
From one stage of our being to the next 
We pass unconscious o^er a slender bridge, 
The momentary work of unseen hands, 
Which crumbles down behind us ; looking back, 
We see the other shore, the gulf between. 
And, marirelling how we won to where we stand, 
Content ourselves to call the builder Chance. 
We trace the wisdom to the apple's fall, 
Not to the soul of Newton, ripe with all 
The hoarded thoughtfiilness of earnest years, 
And waiting but one ray. of sunlight more 
To blossom fully. 

But whence came that ray ? 
We call our sorrows destiny, but ought 
Rather to name our high successes so. 
Only the instincts of great souls are Fate, 
And have predestined sway : all other things. 
Except by leave of us, could never be. 
For Destmy is but the breath of God 
Still moving in us, t